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J Clin Lab Anal ; : e24196, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997978


BACKGROUND: Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is a neuron-specific protein associated with seizures, dyskinesia, and intelligence deficit. Previous studies indicate that PRRT2 regulates neurotransmitter release from presynaptic membranes. However, PRRT2 can also bind AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), but its postsynaptic functions remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole-exome sequencing used to diagnose a patient with mental retardation identified a nonsense mutation in the PRRT2 gene (c.649C>T; p.R217X). To understand the pathology of the mutant, we cloned mouse Prrt2 cDNA and inserted a premature stop mutation at Arg223, the corresponding site of Arg217 in human PRRT2. In mouse hippocampal tissues, Prrt2 interacted with GluA1/A2 AMPAR heteromers but not GluA2/A3s, via binding to GluA1. Additionally, Prrt2 suppressed GluA1 expression and localization on cell membranes of HEK 293T cells. However, when Prrt2 was overexpressed in individual hippocampal neurons using in utero electroporation, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission was unaffected. Deletion of Prrt2 with the CRIPR/Cas9 technique did not affect AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Furthermore, deletion or overexpression of Prrt2 did not affect GluA1 expression and distribution in primary neuronal culture. CONCLUSIONS: The postsynaptic functions of Prrt2 demonstrate that Prrt2 specifically interacts with the AMPAR subunit GluA1 but does not regulate AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Therefore, our study experimentally excluded a postsynaptic regulatory mechanism of Prrt2. The pathology of PRRT2 variants in humans likely originates from defects in neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic membrane as suggested by recent studies.

CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767694


AIMS: This study aimed to explore the pathomechanism of a mutation on the leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 gene (LGI1) identified in a family having autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE), using a precise knock-in mouse model. METHODS AND RESULTS: A novel LGI1 mutation, c.152A>G; p. Asp51Gly, was identified by whole exome sequencing in a Chinese family with ADLTE. The pathomechanism of the mutation was explored by generating Lgi1D51G knock-in mice that precisely phenocopied the epileptic symptoms of human patients. The Lgi1D51G / D51G mice showed spontaneous recurrent generalized seizures and premature death. The Lgi1D51G /+ mice had partial epilepsy, with half of them displaying epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography. They also showed enhanced sensitivity to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole. Mechanistically, the secretion of Lgi1 was impaired in the brain of the D51G knock-in mice and the protein level was drastically reduced. Moreover, the antiepileptic drugs, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and sodium valproate, could prolong the survival time of Lgi1D51G / D51G mice, and oxcarbazepine appeared to be the most effective. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel epilepsy-causing mutation of LGI1 in humans. The Lgi1D51G /+ mouse model, precisely phenocopying epileptic symptoms of human patients, could be a useful tool in future studies on the pathogenesis and potential therapies for epilepsy.