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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045234

RESUMO

Highly luminescent inks are desirable for various applications such as decorative coating, art painting, and anticounterfeiting, to name a few. However, present inks display low photoluminescent efficiency requiring a strong excitation light to make them glow. Here, we report a highly luminescent ink based on the copper-iodide/1-Propyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium (Cu4I6(pr-ted)2) hybrid cluster with a quantum efficiency exceeding 98%. Under the interaction between the Cu4I6(pr-ted)2 hybrid cluster and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), the highly luminescent Cu4I6(pr-ted)2/PVP ink can be facilely prepared via the one-pot solution synthesis. The obtained ink exhibits strong green light emission that originates from the efficient phosphorescence of Cu4I6(pr-ted)2 nanocrystals. Attractively, the ink displays high conversion efficiency for the ultraviolet light to bright green light emission due to its wide Stokes shift, implying great potential for anticounterfeiting and luminescent solar concentrator coating.

2.
J Clin Neurosci ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067828

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common mental retardation syndrome. Anxiety and abnormal social behaviors are prominent features of FXS in humans. To better understand the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on these behaviors, we analyzed anxiety-related and social behaviors in Fmr1 knockout mice treated by HBOT. In the open field test, HBOT group mice preferred the periphery to central areas and tended to run or walk along the wall. The results suggested that thigmotaxis was significantly increased in the HBOT group compared with the control group. In the elevated plus maze test, the percentage of distance traveled was significantly increased in the open arm and significantly decreased in the closed arm for HBOT group mice compared with control group mice. These results suggested that HBOT group mice displayed enhanced motor activity in the open arm and exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors. In the three-chambered social approach test, the HBOT group mice made more approaches to the wire cup containing an acquaintance mouse than control group mice in the sociability test and made more approaches to the wire cup containing a stranger mouse than control group mice in the social novelty preference test. The results suggested that HBOT group mice showed increased levels of social interaction and decreased "social anxiety" than the control group to partner mice in this test. Our findings indicated that HBOT resulted in altered anxiety and social behavior in Fmr1 knockout mice and could possibly be used as a treatment for FXS.

3.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008159

RESUMO

T-cell malignancies often result in poor prognosis and outcome for patients. Immunotherapy has recently emerged as a revolutionary treatment against cancer, and the success seen in CD19 CAR clinical trials may extend to T cell diseases. However, a shared antigen pool coupled with the impact of T-cell depletion incurred by targeting T cell disease remain concepts to be clinically explored with caution. Here we report on the ability of T cells transduced with a CD5CAR to specifically and potently lyse malignant T-cell lines and primary tumors in vitro in addition to significantly improving in vivo control and survival of xenograft models of T-ALL. To extensively explore and investigate the biological properties of a CD5 CAR, we evaluated multiple CD5 CAR constructs and constructed 3 murine models to characterize the properties of CD5 down-regulation, the efficacy and specificity produced by different CD5 CAR construct designs, and the impact of incorporating a CD52 safety switch using CAMPATH to modulate the persistency and function of CAR cells. These data support the potential use of CD5CAR T cells in the treatment of T cell malignancies or refractory disease in clinical settings.

4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide program initiated by Taiwan CDC was conducted by the Taiwan Society of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease to improve the appropriateness of anti-TB prescriptions in Taiwan. METHODS: All anti-TB prescriptions from 12 hospitals across Taiwan were reviewed by experienced pulmonologists, according to the 2011 Taiwan TB treatment guidelines, between May and October 2013. The investigation period was divided into three stages: May to June, July to August, and September to October. The concordance rates between anti-TB prescriptions and the guidelines were compared among the three stages and between medical centers and regional hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 2574 new anti-TB prescriptions were reviewed. The appropriateness of anti-TB prescriptions was 82.0%. The most dominant error was inappropriate dosage of anti-TB medications. The appropriateness improved significantly with prescription review, and the concordance rates were 78.7%, 80.6%, and 87.6% in stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P < 0.001). The inappropriateness of medication dosage also improved significantly, with the rates of inappropriate dosage dropping from 10.2% in stage 1-5.4% in stage 3 (Odds ratio 0.491, P < 0.001). The appropriateness rates showed no significant difference between regional hospitals and medical centers (82.5% vs. 81.3%, Odds ratio 0.915, P = 0.393), but the improvement of prescription appropriateness was significant in regional hospitals but not in medical centers. CONCLUSION: Prescription review by TB experts is an effective approach to improve the appropriateness of anti-TB prescriptions.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(6): 2956-2967, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902206

RESUMO

All-inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are potential candidates for fabricating high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to their precisely tunable bandgaps, high photoluminescence (PL) efficiency, and excellent color purities. However, the performance of pure red (630-640 nm) all-inorganic perovskite LEDs is still limited by the halide segregation-induced instability of the electroluminescence (EL) of mixed halide CsPbI3-xBrx NCs. Herein, we report an effective approach to improving the EL stability of pure red all-inorganic CsPbI3-xBrx NC-based LEDs via the passivation of potassium bromide on NCs. By adding potassium oleate to the reaction system, we obtained potassium bromide surface-passivated (KBr-passivated) CsPbI3-xBrx NCs with pure red PL emission and a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) exceeding 90%. We determine that most potassium ions present on the surface of NCs bind with bromide ions and thus demonstrate that potassium bromide surface passivation of NCs can both improve the PL stability and inhibit the halide segregation of NCs. Using KBr-passivated CsPbI3-xBrx NCs as an emitting layer, we fabricated stable and pure red perovskite LEDs with emission at 637 nm, showing a maximum brightness of 2671 cd m-2, maximum external quantum efficiency of 3.55%, and good EL stability. The proposed KBr-passivated NC strategy will open a new avenue for fabricating efficient, stable, and tunable pure color perovskite NC LEDs.

6.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926074

RESUMO

Introduction Recently, an expert consensus on optimal use of procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship was published focusing mainly on Europe and the United States. However, for Asia-Pacific countries, recommendations may need adaptation due to differences in types of infections, available resources and standard of clinical care. Methods Practical experience with PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship was discussed among experts from different countries, reflecting on the applicability of the proposed Berlin consensus algorithms for Asia-Pacific. Using a Delphi process, the group reached consensus on two PCT algorithms for the critically ill and the non-critically ill patient populations. Results The group agreed that the existing evidence for PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship in patients with acute respiratory infections and sepsis is generally valid also for Asia-Pacific countries, in regard to proposed PCT cut-offs, emphasis on diagnosis, prognosis and antibiotic stewardship, overruling criteria and inevitable adaptations to clinical settings. However, the group noted an insufficient database on patients with tropical diseases currently limiting the clinical utility in these patients. Also, due to lower resource availabilities, biomarker levels may be measured less frequently and only when changes in treatment are highly likely. Conclusions Use of PCT to guide antibiotic stewardship in conjunction with continuous education and regular feedback to all stakeholders has high potential to improve the utilization of antibiotic treatment also in Asia-Pacific countries. However, there is need for adaptations of existing algorithms due to differences in types of infections and routine clinical care. Further research is needed to understand the optimal use of PCT in patients with tropical diseases.

7.
Mol Biol Cell ; : mbcE19060316, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940254

RESUMO

Cells depend on robust DNA damage recognition and repair systems to maintain genomic integrity for survival in a mutagenic environment. In the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, a subset of genes involved in the response to DNA damage-induced genome instability and morphological changes have been found to regulate virulence. To better understand the virulence-linked DNA repair network, we screened for MMS sensitivity within the GRACE conditional expression collection and identified 56 hits. One of these potential DNA damage repair-associated genes, a HOF1 conditional mutant, unexpectedly had a previously characterized function in cytokinesis. Deletion of HOF1 resulted in MMS sensitivity and genome instability, suggesting Hof1 acts in the DNA damage response. By probing genetic interactions with distinct DNA repair pathways, we found that Hof1 is genetically linked to the Rad53 pathway. Furthermore, Hof1 is downregulated in a Rad53-dependent manner and its importance in the MMS response is reduced when Rad53 is overexpressed or when RAD4 or RAD23 are deleted. Together, this work expands our understanding of the C. albicans DNA repair network and uncovers interplay between the cytokinesis regulator Hof1 and the Rad53-mediated checkpoint.

8.
Int Wound J ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975537

RESUMO

Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus is one of common diseases in general department. However, it is characterised, for surgeons, by high post-surgical recurrence and high incidence of post-surgical wound complications. Due to that fact, this retrospective randomised clinical study was designed to evaluate the surgical procedure effect of Z-plasty (ZP), compared with convention simple excision (SE). A total of 67 patients from May 2015 to May 2019 in our department were studied into two groups randomly, the group of ZP and the group of SE. The patients' characteristics, surgical data, hospital length of stay (LOS), and post-surgery complications were recorded. Statistical approaches were proceed with P-value analysis. The results are as follows. No significant differences were found between these two groups of the ages, gender distribution, Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking history, diabetes mellitus, and blood hypertension. The estimated blood loss, specimen volume, distance to anus, and drain output on the first day of post-surgery between the two groups were not statistically significant, either. However, surgical time in the ZP group was longer than that in the SE group (P < .0001). LOS in the ZP group was obviously shorter than that in the SE group (P = .0051). Furthermore, the patients of the ZP group were tending to suffer from fewer post-surgical complications than the ones of the SE group. In a conclusion, we hold the point view that the surgical procedure of ZP can lead a better outcome than SE because it demonstrated shortened LOS and fewer post-surgical complications.

9.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e1901705, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977157

RESUMO

Synthetic carriers of nucleic acids remain inefficient for practical applications due to their insufficient functions as compared with viral vectors developed by evolution. Here, a synthetic carrier is designed to structurally mimic lentivirus, a widely-used viral vector in therapeutic developments, for its neutral phospholipid membrane tightly anchored on the surface of a packed nucleic acid core. Unlike the reported lipopolyplexes of which the surface membrane around the nucleic acid core is formed from charged lipids, the stable attachment of the neutral lipids to each polyplex core in the present system is achieved through preadsorbed micelles of multicarboxyl amphiphilic molecules as lipid bilayer anchors. The adsorbed micelles are under a tension of deformation due to the electrostatic attraction of the head groups to the cationic surface and their "thermodynamic responsibility" to cover the hydrophobic tails in water. When liposomes of neutral phospholipids approach, the hydrophobic tail groups of the adsorbed micelles may insert into the lipid bilayer matrix to induce them to fuse around polyplex and relieve the thermodynamic tension. The formed neutral phospholipid membrane may encapsulate the polyplex core stably, prevent siRNA from prephagocytic leaking and degrading, and immobilize functional agents with increased capacity.

10.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970687

RESUMO

The recent FDA approval of the first CAR immunotherapy marks a watershed moment in the advancement toward a cure for cancer. CD19 CAR treatment for B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia has achieved unprecedented remission rates. However, despite success in treating previously relapsed and refractory patients, CD19 CAR faces similar challenges as traditional chemotherapy, in that malignancy can adapt and overcome treatment. The emergence of both antigen positive and negative blasts after CAR treatment represents a need to bolster current CAR approaches. Here, we report on the anti-tumor activity of a CAR T cell possessing 2 discrete scFv domains against the leukemic antigens CD19 and CD123. We determined that the resulting compound CAR (cCAR) T cell possesses consistent, potent, and directed cytotoxicity against each target antigen population both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that targeting CD19 and CD123 on B-ALL cells may be an effective strategy for augmenting the response against leukemic blasts and reducing rates of relapse.

11.
J Endovasc Ther ; 27(1): 132-142, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789078

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the midterm outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) using chimney grafts (ch-TEVAR) or thoracic stent-grafts with fenestrations made on the back table (f-TEVAR) to treat thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) and thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 474 consecutive patients (mean age 62.3±10.7 years; 346 men) treated with either f-TEVAR (n=110) or ch-TEVAR (n=364) for 352 TADs (81 f-TEVAR and 271 ch-TEVAR) or 122 TAAs (29 f-TEVAR and 93 ch-TEVAR) from 2008 to 2016. The primary endpoints at 30 days and during follow-up were overall mortality, aorta-related mortality, and major complications. The secondary endpoints were endoleak and reintervention. The patency of the target branches, cost of hospitalization, and the use of antiplatelet drugs were also analyzed. Results: Intraoperative type I endoleaks were treated in 69 (14.6%) cases (4 f-TEVAR and 65 ch-TEVAR, p<0.01) to achieve 100% technical success. Four (0.8%) patients died within 30 days [1 (0.9%) f-TEVAR and 3 (0.8%) ch-TEVAR]. Perioperative cerebral ischemia (1 fatal stroke) occurred in 9 (1.9%) patients: (1 f-TEVAR and 8 ch-TEVAR, p=0.39). During the mean follow-up of 50.6±20.0 months (49.5±18.3 months in f-TEVAR and 50.9±20.6 months in ch-TEVAR), 11 (2.3%) patients died of an aorta-related event. Type I endoleak was present in 40 (8.4%) patients (1 f-TEVAR and 39 ch-TEVAR, p<0.01). Eleven (2.3%) patients experienced stent-graft migration and 13 (2.7%) had a retrograde dissection. One hundred (16.9%) of the 593 branch stents occluded (4/75 in the f-TEVAR group and 96/518 in the ch-TEVAR group, p<0.01). The branch reintervention rate was 7.2% (34/474). The f-TEVAR group had a significantly higher probability of freedom from branch occlusion (92%) than the ch-TEVAR group (83%, p=0.007). Conclusion: Off-the-shelf techniques employing chimney grafts and homemade fenestrations are both suitable options for TAD and TAA involving the supra-aortic branches, with a low incidence of reintervention. Fenestrated TEVAR seems to have more favorable short- and midterm outcomes. Further study of these off-the-shelf techniques for aortic arch repair is warranted.

12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 146: 374-383, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794898

RESUMO

The plant-specific transcription factor TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING4 CELL FACTORS (TCP) plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. However, there have been no studies reporting on the function of strawberry TCP in regulating fruit development. In this study, FvTCP9, a woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) TCP gene, was isolated to explore its function in fruit ripening. The transcript accumulation levels of FvTCP9 were high in fruits, specifically in red fruits compared with other tissues or organs. Transient expression of the FvTCP9 gene in cultivated strawberry fruits revealed that over-expression of FvTCP9 promoted fruit ripening. Meanwhile, silencing FvTCP9, using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), inhibited fruit ripening. The changes in ripening-related physiological conditions in transient fruits, such as the accumulation of anthocyanins and abscisic acid (ABA), and fruit firmness confirmed above results. Results suggested that FvTCP9 was involved in the biosynthesis of ABA and anthocyanins to regulate fruit ripening. Transcription analysis showed that the expression levels of ABA signaling-related genes (FaNCED1, FaPYR1, FaSnRK2, and FaABI5) were affected by FvTCP9. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that FvTCP9 interacted physically with FaMYC1 to modulate the biosynthesis process of anthocyanins. Taken together, this study demonstrated that FvTCP9 promoted fruit ripening by regulating the biosynthesis of ABA and anthocyanins.

13.
J Plant Physiol ; 244: 153089, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812904

RESUMO

Inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation severely affects the normal growth and development of plants. Here, a Pi-responsive gene, named MdMYB2 (MDP0000823458), was cloned and functionally identified in apple. Overexpression of MdMYB2 regulated the expression of Pi starvation-induced (PSI) genes and then promoted phosphate assimilation and utilization. The ectopic expression of MdMYB2 in Arabidopsis influenced plant growth and flowering, which was partially rescued by application of exogenous gibberellin (GA). These results indicated that MdMYB2 may be an essential regulator in phosphate utilization and GA-regulated plant growth and development.

14.
Asian J Androl ; 22(1): 94-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134919

RESUMO

Multiple measurements of nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR) are widely accepted as a method to differentiate psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) from organic ED. However, direct evidence remains limited regarding the first-night effect on NPTR measurement using the RigiScan. Here, we evaluated the first-night effect on the results of NPTR measurement to validate the necessity of NPTR measurement for two consecutive nights, particularly when abnormal first-night measurements are recorded in a laboratory setting. We retrospectively reviewed 105 patients with a complaint of ED, who underwent NPTR measurement using the RigiScan in the Department of Infertility and Sexual Medicine, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, China), for two consecutive nights, during the period from November 2015 to May 2016. NPTR parameters were collected and analyzed. We found that more effective nocturnal erections were detected during the second night than during the first night (P <0.001). Twenty percent of all patients had no effective erection during the first night, but exhibited at least one effective erection during the second night. The negative predictive value of NPTR measurement during the first night was 43.2%; this was significantly lower than that on the second night (84.2%; P = 0.003). Most NPTR parameters were better on the second night than on the first night. The first-night effect might be greater among patients younger than 40 years of age. In conclusion, two consecutive nightly measurements of NPTR can avoid a false-abnormal result caused by the first-night effect; moreover, these measurements more accurately reflect erectile capacity, especially when the first-night record is abnormal in a laboratory setting.

15.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(22): 3838-3843, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) is extremely rare, and most cases reported in the literature were related to tuberculous infection. We present a case of RPA with acute airway obstruction as the main manifestation in a 66-year-old woman that was considered to be non-tubercular suppurative inflammation in the retropharyngeal space. CASE SUMMARY: A 66-year-old woman complaining of chills and fever was admitted to our hospital. She was initially diagnosed with an acute upper respiratory tract infection. She lost consciousness twice during hospitalization. She regained consciousness immediately upon emergency tracheal intubation. Acute upper airway obstruction was suspected as arterial blood gas analysis showed obvious acute retention of carbon dioxide before the second tracheal intubation. The diagnosis of RPA was confirmed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Kocuria kristinae was isolated from blood samples taken from both hands. The patient recovered and was subsequently discharged after receiving antibiotic therapy together with surgical incision and drainage of the abscess. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of RPA in patients with acute airway obstruction. Surgical incision and drainage is an effective treatment for RPA.

16.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 267, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The information concerning non-invasive, easily obtainable, and accurate biomarkers for diagnosis of lupus nephritis (LN) is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of cystatin C (CysC) and complement component 1q (C1q) for LN. METHODS: A case-control study that included 905 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without LN (group SLE), 334 patients with active lupus nephritis (group LNA), 255 patients with inactive lupus nephritis (group LNI), and 497 healthy individuals (group HC) was performed in Mianyang Central Hospital from March 2017 to December 2018. The serum levels of CysC, C1q, urea (Urea), and creatinine (Creat) were measured, and 2 estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRCysC and eGFRCreat) were calculated by equations which were based on serum CysC established by our group and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), respectively. ANOVA analysis or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparing the differences among the groups, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to identify the diagnostic efficiencies of individual or combined multiple indicators. RESULTS: Significantly elevated CysC and decreased C1q were observed in the LNA and LNI groups, which was in contrast to their levels in the SLE and HC groups. CysC (AUC = 0.906) or eGFRCysC (AUC = 0.907) assessed the highest diagnostic performance on LNA when detected individually, followed by C1q (AUC = 0.753). Joint utilization of C1q and CysC achieved very good performance (AUC = 0.933) which approximated to the best one observed in the combinations of C1q, Urea, CysC, eGFRCreat, and Creat (AUC = 0.975). CONCLUSION: The separately detected CysC (eGFRCysC) and C1q were superior to the conventional biomarkers Urea, Creat, and eGFRCreat in the diagnosis of LNA. Moreover, although the combined detection of Urea, Creat, C1q, CysC, and eGFRCreat had the greatest diagnostic performance, the joint utilization of CysC and C1q could be prioritized for rapid discrimination of LNA if the economic burden is taken into consideration.

17.
Endocr Pathol ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828583

RESUMO

In papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients, cervical lymph node metastases are common, which disseminate sequentially from the central neck to the lateral neck. However, there is also a chaotic pattern of lymph node metastasis occasionally. In this study, we summarized 653 PTC patients who underwent thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection with or without lateral lymph node dissection from two hospitals to investigate the pattern and risk factors of lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM) and skip metastasis. LLNM was significantly associated tumor size > 1 cm, presence of extrathyroidal extension, tumors in the upper-lateral pole, and the number of metastatic lymph nodes in the central compartment. The frequency of skip metastasis was 22.5% (20 of 89 patients). Multivariate analyses showed tumor size ≤ 1 cm, and tumors in the upper-lateral pole were separately and independently associated with the risk of skip metastasis. Presence of LLNM affected the recurrence-free survival (RFS). RFS did not show the significantly difference between patients with LLNM and skip metastasis. Despite the low incidence of skip metastasis, attention should be paid to the possibility of LLNM even in the absence of central lymph node metastases. Besides, for patients with risk factors of LLNM or skip metastasis, detailed preoperative examination for the lateral compartment, especially the level III, is essential.

18.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2663-2671, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819399

RESUMO

Background: Biotherapy for asthma may be useful in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with asthma characteristics. Therefore, the evaluation and close monitoring of asthma characteristics in severe and extremely severe COPD can guide treatment decisions to improve prognosis. Methods: Stable patients suffering from COPD and having a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%) of ≤50% (GOLD 3-4) in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from December 2014 to June 2018 were retrospectively enrolled in this study and evaluated in terms of their asthma characteristics (blood eosinophil counts, fractional exhaled NO [FeNO] values, and reversibility). Results: A total of 178 patients with an average age of 65.62±9.28 years were enrolled in this study. A total of 85 patients had an improvement of ≥12% in FEV1%, and 61 of these patients had an absolute increase of >200 mL. Of 122 patients, 68 had blood eosinophil counts of ≥150 cells/µl, whereas 27 showed blood eosinophil counts ≥300 cells/µl. The blood eosinophil of ≥2% was found in 66/122 (54.10%) patients, whereas ≥3% was found in 51/122 (41.80%) patients. A total of 46 of 58 patients had an increased serum IgE level of ≥30 IU/mL, and 32 patients had an IgE of ≥100 IU/mL. The FeNO value of ≥25 ACO (ppb) was found in 51/155 (32.90%) patients. Furthermore, 43 patients had asthma-COPD overlap (ACO), and the FeNO values in the ACO group was 26.13±14.91 ppb, which was significantly higher than that in the COPD alone group (20.99±9.16 ppb; P=0.016). A total of 12 patients with ACO had a negative response after bronchodilation. In the COPD alone group, 34 patients had an absolute increase of >200 mL, whereas 55 of the 95 patients had blood eosinophil counts of ≥150 cells/µl. The blood eosinophilia of ≥2% was found in 54/95 (56.84%) patients. A total of 36 of 45 patients had an increased serum IgE level of ≥30 IU/mL. The FeNO value of 34/123 (27.64%) patients was ≥25 ppb. Conclusion: The characteristics of asthma are common findings in patients with severe and extremely severe COPD. Biomarkers should be actively used to evaluate the characteristics of asthma in these patients. If the characteristics of asthma exist, then anti-IgE or anti-IL-5 therapy should be considered to reduce exacerbation.

19.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848792

RESUMO

To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the association between dispensing evidence-based medications (EBMs) at discharge and outcomes, we extracted published studies in English from PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE from 2007 to early 2019. The EBMs included renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs), ß-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs). The main outcomes of interest were all-cause death and heart failure (HF) readmission. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using random effect model from the adjusted HRs or relative risks (RRs) extracted from individual studies, stratified by HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Forty-three studies including a total number of 295,060 patients with an average follow-up time of 2.3 years were identified for systematic review. Dispensing RASI at discharge was independently associated with 30% and 25% lower risks of all-cause death and HF readmission respectively in HFrEF but has a moderate effect on reducing all-cause deaths (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.95) in HFpEF. By contrast, dispensing ß-blockers at discharge was associated with 35% lower risk of all-cause deaths in HFrEF and has a weak association with borderline statistical significance on improving overall survival in HFpEF. Dispensing MRA at discharge was associated with 5% lower risk of all-cause death in HFrEF. This meta-analysis provides evidence to support RASIs and ß-blockers as primary pharmacotherapies for HF patients. Our findings suggest that the health professionals maintain use of RASIs and ß-blockers at discharge for potential survival improvement.

20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2510-2518, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854640

RESUMO

Secondary species are one of the most important components of PM1 particles. To investigate the contributions as well as the factors that affect the formation of the secondary aerosols, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS, AMS) was employed to characterize sub-micron particles (PM1) during spring and summer in urban Shanghai. Organics were dominant in PM1 particles and comprised around 55% of the total PM1 mass concentration, followed by sulfate (24%) and nitrate (10%). Positive matrix factorization was further applied to explore the sources of the organics. It was found that primary and secondary organic aerosols accounted for around 34% and 66% of the total organics, respectively. Three episodes were observed during the measurements, where secondary species increased substantially. Increases of secondary species were represented by increases of sulfate and LV-OOA1 in spring, especially during the noontime, thus indicating that their formation is promoted by photochemical oxidation; yet in summer, photochemical and aqueous chemistry together accelerate the formation of secondary species, as indicated by the good correlations between nitrate and aerosol liquid water as well as between SOA and Ox. Overall, we found that contributions from secondary organic and inorganic aerosols to total PM1 particles were 35.5% and 43%, respectively. This study highlights that the influence of photochemical and aqueous chemistry is significant in the promotion of secondary species formation in Shanghai.

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