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1.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 193, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We develop a new risk score to predict patients with stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) who have an acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHOD: We applied logistic regression to develop a new risk score called ICH-LR2S2. It was derived from examining a dataset of 70,540 ICH patients between 2015 and 2018 from the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance (CSCA). During the training of ICH-LR2S2, patients were randomly divided into two groups - 80% for the training set and 20% for model validation. A prospective test set was developed using 12,523 patients recruited in 2019. To further verify its effectiveness, we tested ICH-LR2S2 on an external dataset of 24,860 patients from the China National Stroke Registration Management System II (CNSR II). The performance of ICH-LR2S2 was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). RESULTS: The incidence of SAP in the dataset was 25.52%. A 24-point ICH-LR2S2 was developed from independent predictors, including age, modified Rankin Scale, fasting blood glucose, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale admission score, Glasgow Coma Scale score, C-reactive protein, dysphagia, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and current smoking. The results showed that ICH-LR2S2 achieved an AUC = 0.749 [95% CI 0.739-0.759], which outperforms the best baseline ICH-APS (AUC = 0.704) [95% CI 0.694-0.714]. Compared with the previous ICH risk scores, ICH-LR2S2 incorporates fasting blood glucose and C-reactive protein, improving its discriminative ability. Machine learning methods such as XGboost (AUC = 0.772) [95% CI 0.762-0.782] can further improve our prediction performance. It also performed well when further validated by the external independent cohort of patients (n = 24,860), ICH-LR2S2 AUC = 0.784 [95% CI 0.774-0.794]. CONCLUSION: ICH-LR2S2 accurately distinguishes SAP patients based on easily available clinical features. It can help identify high-risk patients in the early stages of diseases.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Glicemia , Proteína C-Reativa , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Pneumonia/complicações , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538193

RESUMO

Cohort studies report inconsistent associations between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause incident dementia. Furthermore, evidence on fat distribution and body composition measures are scarce and few studies estimated the association between early life adiposity and dementia risk. Here, we included 322,336 participants from UK biobank to investigate the longitudinal association between life course adiposity and risk of all-cause incident dementia and to explore the underlying mechanisms driven by metabolites, inflammatory cells and brain structures. Among the 322,336 individuals (mean (SD) age, 62.24 (5.41) years; 53.9% women) in the study, during a median 8.74 years of follow-up, 5083 all-cause incident dementia events occurred. The risk of dementia was 22% higher with plumper childhood body size (p < 0.001). A strong U-shaped association was observed between adult BMI and dementia. More fat and less fat-free mass distribution on arms were associated with a higher risk of dementia. Interestingly, similar U-shaped associations were found between BMI and four metabolites (i.e., 3-hydroxybutrate, acetone, citrate and polyunsaturated fatty acids), four inflammatory cells (i.e., neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and leukocyte) and abnormalities in brain structure that were also related to dementia. The findings that adiposity is associated with metabolites, inflammatory cells and abnormalities in brain structure that were related to dementia risk might provide clues to underlying biological mechanisms. Interventions to prevent dementia should begin early in life and include not only BMI control but fat distribution and body composition.

3.
Neurosci Bull ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575936

RESUMO

Chinese, as a logographic language, fundamentally differs from alphabetic languages like English. Previous neuroimaging studies have mainly focused on alphabetic languages, while the exploration of Chinese reading is still an emerging and fast-growing research field. Recently, a growing number of neuroimaging studies have explored the neural circuit of Chinese reading. Here, we summarize previous research on Chinese reading from a connectomic perspective. Converging evidence indicates that the left middle frontal gyrus is a specialized hub region that connects the ventral with dorsal pathways for Chinese reading. Notably, the orthography-to-phonology and orthography-to-semantics mapping, mainly processed in the ventral pathway, are more specific during Chinese reading. Besides, in addition to the left-lateralized language-related regions, reading pathways in the right hemisphere also play an important role in Chinese reading. Throughout, we comprehensively review prior findings and emphasize several challenging issues to be explored in future work.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104039, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported to be associated with longer screen time utilization (STU) at the behavioral level. However, whether there are shared neural links between ADHD symptoms and prolonged STU is not clear and has not been explored in a single large-scale dataset. METHODS: Leveraging the genetics, neuroimaging and behavioral data of 11,000+ children aged 9-11 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development cohort, this study investigates the associations between the polygenic risk and trait for ADHD, STU, and white matter microstructure through cross-sectionally and longitudinal analyses. FINDINGS: Children with higher polygenic risk scores for ADHD tend to have longer STU and more severe ADHD symptoms. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values in several white matter tracts are negatively correlated with both the ADHD polygenic risk score and STU, including the inferior frontal-striatal tract, inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus and corpus callosum. Most of these tracts are linked to visual-related functions. Longitudinal analyses indicate a directional effect of white matter microstructure on the ADHD scale, and a bi-directional effect between the ADHD scale and STU. Furthermore, reduction of FA in several white matter tracts mediates the association between the ADHD polygenic risk score and STU. INTERPRETATION: These findings shed new light on the shared neural overlaps between ADHD symptoms and prolonged STU, and provide evidence that the polygenic risk for ADHD is related, via white matter microstructure and the ADHD trait, to STU. FUNDING: This study was mainly supported by NSFC and National Key R&D Program of China.

5.
Hypertension ; : 101161HYPERTENSIONAHA12219269, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested blood pressure variability (BPV) might help reveal interactions between blood pressure fluctuation and white matter lesions, and the impact of elevated BPV on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) or cerebral arterial dilation is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective observational study involved 2634 stroke-free individuals (68.6±11.1 years, 50.3% female), who underwent magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography scans, from a single center in Shanghai, China. Measurements for variability of blood pressure were made based on 7 days blood pressure recordings. WMHs were quantified from T2-FLAIR images and further classified as periventricular WMH or deep WMH. M1 segment of middle cerebral artery dilation was assessed from magnetic resonance angiography images. General linear model was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: Both increased systolic and diastolic BPV were associated with increased WMH volume (systolic: ß=0.02 [95% CI, 0.004-0.03], P=0.01; diastolic: ß=0.05 [95% CI, 0.03-0.08], P<0.001). Only periventricular WMH was associated with BPV (systolic: ß=0.02 [95% CI, 0.005-0.04], P=0.01; diastolic: ß=0.06 [95% CI, 0.04-0.09], P<0.001). MCA dilation was found in 125 individuals (4.75%). Systolic BPV was associated with MCA dilation only in the hypertensive individuals (ß=0.11 [95% CI, 0.06-0.17], P<0.001). Increased WMH volume was found associated with dilated MCA (ß=0.17 [95% CI, 0.11-0.23], P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased BPV might be one of the pathophysiological phenomena involving in the small vessel disease independent of hypertension. Increased BPV might independently contribute to intracranial arterial dilation. Management of BPV might be a target to preserve cerebrovascular wellness.

7.
eNeuro ; 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545424

RESUMO

Visual word recognition has been proposed to have a functional and spatial organization corresponding to hierarchical language-like word forms in the left fusiform gyrus (FG) during visual word recognition in alphabetic languages. However, it is still unclear whether the similar functional gradients of word-like representation exist during Chinese character recognition. In this study, we adopted univariate activation analysis and representational similarity analysis (RSA) methods to investigate the functional organization in the FG for Chinese character recognition using task fMRI data. Native Chinese readers were visually presented with four types of character-like stimuli (i.e., real characters, pseudo-characters, false characters, and stroke combinations). After analysis, we observed a posterior-to-anterior functional gradient in the left FG corresponding to the degree of likeness of stimuli to character. Additionally, distinct sub-regions of the left FG harbor different orthographic codes. The middle part of the left FG was involved in abstract orthographic processing, while the anterior part of the left FG was involved in lexical orthographic processing (i.e., mapping orthography onto phonology or semantics). Notably, for the right FG, we did not find similar coding pattern for selectivity to character likeness, indicating the asymmetry of the functional hierarchical organization in favor of the left hemisphere. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the left FG presents a posterior-to-anterior gradient functional processing for Chinese character recognition, which expands our understanding of the psychological, neural, and computational theories of word reading.SignificanceThe left fusiform gyrus (FG) is essential to reading, yet its functional organization during Chinese reading remains unclear. Here, we revealed a posterior-to-anterior functional gradient corresponding to the lower-to-higher character-like stimuli within the left FG during Chinese character recognition but not in its right homolog. Employing representational similarity analysis, we identified two functionally segregated sub-regions of the left FG: the middle part for word-form orthographic processing and the anterior part for lexical orthographic processing. For conclusion, we found the posterior, middle and anterior regions of the left FG are responsive to distinct orthographic hierarchy thereby perform different but complementary computations. Based on this gradient pattern, the left FG interacts with other regions of language network to achieve Chinese reading.

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388181

RESUMO

The genetic etiology and underlying mechanism of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain elusive. SHANK family genes (SHANK1/2/3) are well known ASD-related genes. However, little is known about how SHANK missense mutations contribute to ASD. Here, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanism of and the multilevel neuropathological features induced by Shank1 mutations in knock-in (KI) mice. In this study, by sequencing the SHANK1 gene in a cohort of 615 ASD patients and 503 controls, we identified an ASD-specific recurrent missense mutation, c.2621 G > A (p.R874H). This mutation demonstrated strong pathogenic potential in in vitro experiments, and we generated the corresponding Shank1 R882H-KI mice. Shank1 R882H-KI mice displayed core symptoms of ASD, namely, social disability and repetitive behaviors, without confounding comorbidities of abnormal motor function and heightened anxiety. Brain structural changes in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex were observed in Shank1 R882H-KI mice via structural magnetic resonance imaging. These key brain regions also showed severe and consistent downregulation of mGluR1-IP3R1-calcium signaling, which subsequently affected the release of intracellular calcium. Corresponding cellular structural and functional changes were present in Shank1 R882H-KI mice, including decreased spine size, reduced spine density, abnormal morphology of postsynaptic densities, and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation and basal excitatory transmission. These findings demonstrate the causative role of SHANK1 in ASD and elucidate the underlying biological mechanism of core symptoms of ASD. We also provide a reliable model of ASD with core symptoms for future studies, such as biomarker identification and therapeutic intervention studies.

9.
EBioMedicine ; 79: 104002, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood traumatic events are risk factors for psychopathology, but large-scale studies of how childhood traumatic events relate to mental health and cognition in adulthood, and how the brain is involved, are needed. METHODS: The associations between childhood traumatic events (such as abuse and neglect, and defined by the 'Childhood Trauma' questions in the UK Biobank database) and brain functional connectivity, mental health problems, and cognitive performance were investigated by a univariate correlation analysis with 19,535 participants aged 45-79 from the UK Biobank dataset. The results were replicated with 17,747 independent participants in the second release from the same dataset. FINDINGS: Childhood traumatic events were significantly associated with mental health problems in adulthood including anxiety (r=0.19, p<1.0 × 10-323), depression (r=0.21, p<1.0 × 10-323), and self-harm (r=0.24, p<1.0 × 10-323), and with adult cognitive performance including fluid intelligence (r=-0.05, p=2.8 × 10-10) and prospective memory (r=-0.04, p=6.8 × 10-8). Functional connectivities of the medial and lateral temporal cortex, the precuneus, the medial orbitofrontal cortex; and the superior, middle and inferior prefrontal cortex extending back to precentral regions were negatively correlated with the childhood traumatic events (FDR corrected, p<0.01). These lower functional connectivities significantly mediated the associations between childhood traumatic events and addiction, anxiety, depression and well-being (all p<1.0 × 10-3), and cognitive performance. The association between childhood traumatic events and behavioural measures and functional connectivity were confirmed in a replication with different participants in the second release of the UK Biobank dataset. INTERPRETATION: Childhood traumatic events are strongly associated with adult mental health problems mediated by brain functional connectivities in brain areas involved in executive function, emotion, face processing, and memory. This understanding may help with prevention and treatment. FUNDING: Funding was provided by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFC1312900 and No. 2019YFA0709502).

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367293

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting differing impairments at early onset and chronic disease stages. Brain imaging research suggests a core pathological region in patients with first-episode schizophrenia is Broca's area. With disease progression, alterations in thalamic connectivity becomes more prevalent. Understanding the common circuitry underlying pathology in these two groups might highlight a critical common network and novel targets for treatment. In this study, 937 subject samples were collected including patients with first-episode schizophrenia and those with chronic schizophrenia. We used hypothesis-based voxel-level functional connectivity analyses to calculate functional connectivity using the left Broca's area and thalamus as regions of interest in those with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia, respectively. We show for the first time that in both patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia the greatest functional connectivity disruption ended in the pre- and postcentral regions. At the early-onset stage, the core brain region is abnormally connected to pre- and postcentral areas responsible for mouth movement, while in the chronic stage, it expanded to a wider range of sensorimotor areas. Our findings suggest that expanding the focus on the low-order sensory-motor systems beyond high-order cognitive impairments in schizophrenia may show potential for neuromodulation treatment, given the relative accessibility of these cortical regions and their functional and structural connections to the core region at different stages of illness.

11.
iScience ; 25(5): 104227, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434542

RESUMO

The respective value of clinical data and CT examinations in predicting COVID-19 progression is unclear, because the CT scans and clinical data previously used are not synchronized in time. To address this issue, we collected 119 COVID-19 patients with 341 longitudinal CT scans and paired clinical data, and we developed an AI system for the prediction of COVID-19 deterioration. By combining features extracted from CT and clinical data with our system, we can predict whether a patient will develop severe symptoms during hospitalization. Complementary to clinical data, CT examinations show significant add-on values for the prediction of COVID-19 progression in the early stage of COVID-19, especially in the 6th to 8th day after the symptom onset, indicating that this is the ideal time window for the introduction of CT examinations. We release our AI system to provide clinicians with additional assistance to optimize CT usage in the clinical workflow.

12.
Neuroimage ; 255: 119166, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398282

RESUMO

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology has been increasingly used in neuroscience studies. Reproducibility of statistically significant findings generated by MRI-based studies, especially association studies (phenotype vs. MRI metric) and task-induced brain activation, has been recently heavily debated. However, most currently available reproducibility measures depend on thresholds for the test statistics and cannot be use to evaluate overall study reproducibility. It is also crucial to elucidate the relationship between overall study reproducibility and sample size in an experimental design. In this study, we proposed a model-based reproducibility index to quantify reproducibility which could be used in large-scale high-throughput MRI-based studies including both association studies and task-induced brain activation. We performed the model-based reproducibility assessments for a few association studies and task-induced brain activation by using several recent large sMRI/fMRI databases. For large sample size association studies between brain structure/function features and some basic physiological phenotypes (i.e. Sex, BMI), we demonstrated that the model-based reproducibility of these studies is more than 0.99. For MID task activation, similar results could be observed. Furthermore, we proposed a model-based analytical tool to evaluate minimal sample size for the purpose of achieving a desirable model-based reproducibility. Additionally, we evaluated the model-based reproducibility of gray matter volume (GMV) changes for UK Biobank (UKB) vs. Parkinson Progression Marker Initiative (PPMI) and UK Biobank (UKB) vs. Human Connectome Project (HCP). We demonstrated that both sample size and study-specific experimental factors play important roles in the model-based reproducibility assessments for different experiments. In summary, a systematic assessment of reproducibility is fundamental and important in the current large-scale high-throughput MRI-based studies.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 432: 128736, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339832

RESUMO

The widespread microplastics (MPs) pollution has become a concerning environmental issue. The interactions between MPs and typical pollutants may change the bioaccumulation, and toxicity of pollutants, leading to high uncertainty in risk assessment. Still, significant gaps remain in the knowledge available to integrate these interactions in the perspectives of toxicokinetics (TK) and toxicodynamics (TD), which is also an essential part of quantitative toxicological research. This review systematically summarizes the interaction between MPs and typical pollutants in TK and TD processes. MPs can be acted as the vector or sink of pollutants to increase or decrease their bioaccumulation, and also may not affect their bioaccumulation due to no interaction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework enables novel approaches for determining the interaction between MPs and pollutants in the TD process. MPs can directly or indirectly enhance, reduce and not affect the toxicity of pollutants. A series of factors influencing the interaction in TK and TD processes are summarized, including MPs characteristics and exposure scenarios. TK-TD approach can quantitatively understand the interaction between MPs and pollutants based on the mechanism. Given the current knowledge gap in TK and TD processes, future perspectives on combined exposure research are proposed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Toxicocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
PLoS Biol ; 20(3): e3001560, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298460

RESUMO

Hemispheric lateralization constitutes a core architectural principle of human brain organization underlying cognition, often argued to represent a stable, trait-like feature. However, emerging evidence underlines the inherently dynamic nature of brain networks, in which time-resolved alterations in functional lateralization remain uncharted. Integrating dynamic network approaches with the concept of hemispheric laterality, we map the spatiotemporal architecture of whole-brain lateralization in a large sample of high-quality resting-state fMRI data (N = 991, Human Connectome Project). We reveal distinct laterality dynamics across lower-order sensorimotor systems and higher-order associative networks. Specifically, we expose 2 aspects of the laterality dynamics: laterality fluctuations (LF), defined as the standard deviation of laterality time series, and laterality reversal (LR), referring to the number of zero crossings in laterality time series. These 2 measures are associated with moderate and extreme changes in laterality over time, respectively. While LF depict positive association with language function and cognitive flexibility, LR shows a negative association with the same cognitive abilities. These opposing interactions indicate a dynamic balance between intra and interhemispheric communication, i.e., segregation and integration of information across hemispheres. Furthermore, in their time-resolved laterality index, the default mode and language networks correlate negatively with visual/sensorimotor and attention networks, which are linked to better cognitive abilities. Finally, the laterality dynamics are associated with functional connectivity changes of higher-order brain networks and correlate with regional metabolism and structural connectivity. Our results provide insights into the adaptive nature of the lateralized brain and new perspectives for future studies of human cognition, genetics, and brain disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Conectoma , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cognição , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
15.
Cereb Cortex ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233615

RESUMO

The human orbitofrontal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex are involved in reward processing and thereby in emotion but are also implicated in episodic memory. To understand these regions better, the effective connectivity between 360 cortical regions and 24 subcortical regions was measured in 172 humans from the Human Connectome Project and complemented with functional connectivity and diffusion tractography. The orbitofrontal cortex has effective connectivity from gustatory, olfactory, and temporal visual, auditory, and pole cortical areas. The orbitofrontal cortex has connectivity to the pregenual anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and hippocampal system and provides for rewards to be used in memory and navigation to goals. The orbitofrontal and pregenual anterior cortex have connectivity to the supracallosal anterior cingulate cortex, which projects to midcingulate and other premotor cortical areas and provides for action-outcome learning including limb withdrawal or flight or fight to aversive and nonreward stimuli. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex has outputs to language systems in the inferior frontal gyrus. The medial orbitofrontal cortex connects to the nucleus basalis of Meynert and the pregenual cingulate to the septum, and damage to these cortical regions may contribute to memory impairments by disrupting cholinergic influences on the neocortex and hippocampus.

16.
Cereb Cortex ; 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136970

RESUMO

It is unclear how different diets may affect human brain development and if genetic and environmental factors play a part. We investigated diet effects in the UK Biobank data from 18,879 healthy adults and discovered anticorrelated brain-wide gray matter volume (GMV)-association patterns between coffee and cereal intake, coincidence with their anticorrelated genetic constructs. The Mendelian randomization approach further indicated a causal effect of higher coffee intake on reduced total GMV, which is likely through regulating the expression of genes responsible for synaptic development in the brain. The identified genetic factors may further affect people's lifestyle habits and body/blood fat levels through the mediation of cereal/coffee intake, and the brain-wide expression pattern of gene CPLX3, a dedicated marker of subplate neurons that regulate cortical development and plasticity, may underlie the shared GMV-association patterns among the coffee/cereal intake and cognitive functions. All the main findings were successfully replicated. Our findings thus revealed that high-cereal and low-coffee diets shared similar brain and genetic constructs, leading to long-term beneficial associations regarding cognitive, body mass index (BMI), and other metabolic measures. This study has important implications for public health, especially during the pandemic, given the poorer outcomes of COVID-19 patients with greater BMIs.

17.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(8): 2534-2553, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35146831

RESUMO

The critical brain hypothesis suggests that efficient neural computation can be achieved through critical brain dynamics. However, the relationship between human cognitive performance and scale-free brain dynamics remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the whole-brain avalanche activity and its individual variability in the human resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We showed that though the group-level analysis was inaccurate because of individual variability, the subject wise scale-free avalanche activity was significantly associated with maximal synchronization entropy of their brain activity. Meanwhile, the complexity of functional connectivity, as well as structure-function coupling, is maximized in subjects with maximal synchronization entropy. We also observed order-disorder phase transitions in resting-state brain dynamics and found that there were longer times spent in the subcritical regime. These results imply that large-scale brain dynamics favor the slightly subcritical regime of phase transition. Finally, we showed evidence that the neural dynamics of human participants with higher fluid intelligence and working memory scores are closer to criticality. We identified brain regions whose critical dynamics showed significant positive correlations with fluid intelligence performance and found that these regions were located in the prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal cortex, which were believed to be important nodes of brain networks underlying human intelligence. Our results reveal the possible role that avalanche criticality plays in cognitive performance and provide a simple method to identify the critical point and map cortical states on a spectrum of neural dynamics, ranging from subcriticality to supercriticality.


Assuntos
Avalanches , Memória de Curto Prazo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Inteligência , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
18.
Cereb Cortex ; 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034120

RESUMO

Effective connectivity measurements in the human hippocampal memory system based on the resting-state blood oxygenation-level dependent signal were made in 172 participants in the Human Connectome Project to reveal the directionality and strength of the connectivity. A ventral "what" hippocampal stream involves the temporal lobe cortex, perirhinal and parahippocampal TF cortex, and entorhinal cortex. A dorsal "where" hippocampal stream connects parietal cortex with posterior and retrosplenial cingulate cortex, and with parahippocampal TH cortex, which, in turn, project to the presubiculum, which connects to the hippocampus. A third stream involves the orbitofrontal and ventromedial-prefrontal cortex with effective connectivity with the hippocampal, entorhinal, and perirhinal cortex. There is generally stronger forward connectivity to the hippocampus than backward. Thus separate "what," "where," and "reward" streams can converge in the hippocampus, from which back projections return to the sources. However, unlike the simple dual stream hippocampal model, there is a third stream related to reward value; there is some cross-connectivity between these systems before the hippocampus is reached; and the hippocampus has some effective connectivity with earlier stages of processing than the entorhinal cortex and presubiculum. These findings complement diffusion tractography and provide a foundation for new concepts on the operation of the human hippocampal memory system.

19.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a severely debilitating psychiatric disorder with high heritability and polygenic architecture. A higher polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (SzPRS) has been associated with smaller gray matter volume, lower activation, and decreased functional connectivity (FC). However, the effect of polygenic inheritance on the brain white matter microstructure has only been sparsely reported. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and ninety-three healthy controls (HC) with genetics, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data were included in our study. We investigated impaired white matter integrity as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) in the FES group, further examined the effect of SzPRS on white matter FA and FC in the regions connected by SzPRS-related white matter tracts. RESULTS: Decreased FA was observed in FES in many commonly identified regions. Among these regions, we observed that in the FES group, but not the HC group, SzPRS was negatively associated with the mean FA in the genu and body of corpus callosum, right anterior corona radiata, and right superior corona radiata. Higher SzPRS was also associated with lower FCs between the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)-left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), right IFG-left ITG, right IFG-left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and right IFG-right MFG in the FES group. CONCLUSION: Higher polygenic risks are linked with disrupted white matter integrity and FC in patients with schizophrenia. These correlations are strongly driven by the interhemispheric callosal fibers and the connections between frontotemporal regions.

20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(4): 1956-1962, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35079124

RESUMO

Central immunity components especially microglia in dementia have been well studied and corresponding immunotherapy gradually caught the attention. However, few studies focused on peripheral immunity and dementia. To address the issue, we examined the longitudinal association between incident dementia and peripheral immunity markers encompassing immune cell counts, and their derived ratios including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), utilizing data of 361,653 participants from the UK Biobank (UKB). During a median follow-up of 8.99 years, 4239 participants developed dementia. The results revealed that increased innate immunity markers were associated with higher dementia risk (per SD increment hazard ratio [HR]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14; 1.09-1.19 for neutrophils, 1.16; 1.11-1.20 for NLR and 1.11; 1.07-1.16 for SII), while increased adaptive immunity markers were associated with lower dementia risk (0.93; 0.90-0.97 for lymphocytes and 0.94; 0.90-0.98 for LMR). Our study pinpoints the differential role of innate and adaptive immunity in dementia incidence, which may provide some new perspectives in etiology and therapy of dementia.

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