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1.
Adv Appl Microbiol ; 109: 31-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677646

RESUMO

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins belong to a superfamily of transcription factors, and they are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. Members of the bHLH protein family can form homodimers or heterodimers with themselves or other family members, and they often play bifunctional roles as activators and repressors to uniquely regulate the transcription of downstream target genes. The bHLH transcription factors are usually involved in developmental processes, including cellular proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, these transcription factors often play crucial roles in regulating growth, development, and differentiation in eukaryotes. Aspergillus species fungi are widely distributed in the environment, and they play important roles not only in the decomposition of organic matter as an important environmental microorganism but also in the fermentation and the food processing industry. Furthermore, some pathogenic fungi, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus, affect the environment and human health in important ways. Recent research has shown that some Aspergillus bHLH proteins are significantly involved in the regulation of asexual and sexual reproduction, secondary metabolite production, carbohydrate metabolism, conidial and sclerotial production, among other processes. Here, we review the regulatory mechanisms and biological functions of the bHLH transcription factors of the Aspergillus genus to provide a theoretical reference for further study on the growth and development of Aspergillus and the functions of bHLHs.

2.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460630, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677768

RESUMO

Authentication of original species is embedded in the quality control system of herbal medicines. In this work, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics coupled with chemometric analysis was utilized for the precise authentication of the Fritillaria species for both raw materials and commercial products. First, a stepwise difference-enlarging chemometric analysis strategy was proposed to analyze eight medicinal Fritillaria species. Subsequently, 21 species-specific markers were discovered and the specificity was investigated under different sample preparation methods. Finally, the obtained species-specific markers were successfully utilized to identify the Fritillaria species in commercially relevant products. This work is the first to report robust and specific markers for authentication of Fritillaria products, showing promise for tracking the supply chain of herbal suppliers.

3.
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 107-134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677141

RESUMO

Ganoderma, named lingzhi in China, has been used for centuries as drug and nutraceutical to treat diseases. Based on our research and other literatures, the chapter summarizes the progress of preparation, structural features and properties, bioactivities of Ganoderma polysaccharides. The aim is to provide a comprehensive source of information for researchers and consumers of Ganoderma, so they can better understand Ganoderma polysaccharides and their biological activities. In addition, more clinical studies should be carried out to meet the criteria for new drug development, and more convincing scientific data should be provided. In addition, on the basis of a large number of studies on Ganoderma polysaccharides, we suggest that more clinical studies should be carried out so that Ganoderma can be better recognized and applied all over the world.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Polissacarídeos , China , Ganoderma/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691050

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-positive bacterial strain, CHu50b-6-2T, was isolated from a 67-cm-long sediment core collected from the Daechung Reservoir at a water depth of 17 m, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. The cells of strain CHu50b-6-2T were aerobic non-motile and formed yellow colonies on R2A agar. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the strain formed a separate lineage within the family Microbacteriaceae, exhibiting 98.0%, 97.7% and 97.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Glaciihabitans tibetensis KCTC 29148T, Frigoribacterium faeni KACC 20509T and Lysinibacter cavernae DSM 27960T, respectively. The phylogenetic trees revealed that strain CHu50b-6-2T did not show a clear affiliation to any genus within the family Microbacteriaceae. The chemotaxonomic results showed B1α type peptidoglacan containg 2, 4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) as the diagnostic diamino acid, MK-10 as the predominant respiratory menaquinone, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and an unidentified glycolipid as the major polar lipids, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, and anteiso-C17:0 as the major fatty acids, and a DNA G + C content of 67.3 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain CHu50b-6-2T could be distinguished from all genera within the family Microbacteriaceae and represents a novel genus, Lacisediminihabitans gen. nov., with the name Lacisediminihabitans profunda sp. nov., in the family Microbacteriaceae. The type strain is CHu50b-6-2T (= KCTC 49081T = JCM 32673T).

6.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 7839-7849, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698643

RESUMO

Objective: With the improvement of surgical operation, increasing incidence of secondary benign airway stenosis, as a complication of long-term tracheal intubation and tracheotomy, leads to significant increases in morbidity and mortality. Previous treatment of secondary benign airway stenosis was mainly based on surgical resection and reconstruction. There is an urgent need for new treatment methods except surgery, especially for those inoperable patients. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed 20 patients who had treatments of secondary benign airway stenosis after tracheotomy with Montgomery T-tube. The clinical data including clinical features, efficacy, complications and prognosis were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Complete airway obstruction was 12/20, partial stenosis was 8/20, combined with airway granuloma and endoscopic granulation resection was 16/20, combined with scar stenosis and endoscopic balloon dilatation was 18/20. Plugging successfully was 19/20. Complications included mucous accumulation (20/20), secondary granulation tissue formation (13/20), subcutaneous soft tissue infection (1/20), and T-tube re-implantation (3/20). Conclusions: Montgomery T-tube implantation under rigid bronchoscopy is a safe, feasible and effective tracheal forming method with well tolerance for patients with benign airway stenosis. Secondary benign airway stenosis after tracheal intubation and tracheotomy is an indication of Montgomery T-tube implantation. Compared with the traditional tracheotomy, the advantage of Montgomery T-tube implantation is easy to make the patient phonate, significantly improving the quality of life of patients. T-tube implantation is safe, and the postoperative complications include mucous accumulation and formation of secondary T-tube granulation tissue.

7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(11): 1073-1076, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) with refractory epilepsy in children. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 200 children with epilepsy and 100 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR amplification, agarose gel electrophoresis and target site sequencing. Genotypes of rs1922242, rs2235048, rs10808072, rs868755 and rs1202184 loci of the MDR1 gene were analyzed. RESULTS: No significant difference was found in genotypic distribution and allelic frequencies of the rs1922242, rs2235048, rs10808072 and rs868755 loci between the drug-resistant and drug-sensitive groups. For the rs1202184 locus, a significant difference in genotypic distribution was found (P=0.008). No significant difference was found in the frequencies of various haplotypes between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Genotypes of the rs1202184 locus of the MDR1 gene are associated with refractory epilepsy in children, for which the AA genotype plays a dominant role.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17934, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous treatment modalities have been attempted for masticatory muscle pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). To compare the treatment efficacy of more than 2 competing treatments, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted. METHODS: This study was reported with reference to the extended Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses. Medline via Pubmed, Embase via OVID, and Cochrane Library Central were searched (up to February 11, 2019). Axis I protocol of Diagnostic Criteria or Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD, RDC/TMD) were chosen as diagnostic standards. The PICOS (Problem/patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study design) method was used to screen trials under eligibility criteria. And the NMA was performed with mvmeta commands in Stata (StataCorp, Tex). RESULTS: Of 766 studies searched, 12 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were finally included. Nineteen different therapies were found and further categorized into 9 treatment modalities. The general heterogeneity was not found among included trials. But predictive intervals (PrIs) were conspicuously wider than confidential intervals (CIs) of all pairwise comparisons, indicating that heterogeneity may exist between studies. Complementary therapy showed the greatest probability (42.7%) to be the best intervention. It also had the highest mean rank (2.3) in the rankogram and the biggest value of surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA, 84.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the limited evidence of available trials, complementary therapy seemed to be slightly more effective than remaining treatment modalities for pain reduction in TMD patients with masticatory muscle pain. High-quality randomized controlled trials are expected to validate the findings.

10.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 46: 87-91, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639555

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest that retinoic acid (RA) can exert neuroprotective function in ischemic stroke. However, its role in post-stroke depression (PSD) has still been unclear. We sought to investigate the relationship between circulating RA levels and PSD in patients with ischemic stroke. From September 2018 to March 2019, we prospectively screened patients with ischemic stroke who were hospitalized within 7 days of symptoms onset. RA levels were measured after admission. All patients were followed up at 3 months after stroke. Diagnosis of PSD was made in line with the Chinese version of Structured Clinical Interview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria. PSD risk was estimated using multivariable regression models. In total, 352 ischemic stroke patients were enrolled for the final analysis. Up to 3 months after symptoms onset, 102 subjects experienced PSD. PSD patients showed significantly lower RA levels at baseline as compared to non-PSD patients. In univariate logistic analysis, reduced levels of RA was a significant predictor of PSD. These results were further confirmed in multivariate regression additionally controlled for possible relevant confounders. Our study shows that decreased serum RA levels at admission might be associated with 3-month PSD in ischemic stroke patients.

11.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(41): 6420-6427, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642854

RESUMO

Design and fabrication of smart supramolecular peptide systems is an effective strategy to develop antibacterial agents that can be selectively activated/inactivated by external stimuli for combating bacterial resistance. In this work, we selectively synthesized isomeric tripeptides (i.e., Ala-Gly-Gly-OH and Gly-Gly-Ala-OH) with the simplest structures to construct a minimalistic dual-responsive supramolecular antibacterial system. To impart stimuli-responsiveness, the tripeptides were modified using a hydrophobic n-butylazobenzene tail at the N-terminal, which benefited the enhancement of the hydrophobicity of the tripeptides and they served as synergistic antibacterial moieties. Two different self-assembled 1-D morphologies (i.e., nanotwists and nanofibers) were observed under the same conditions when the position of the Ala residue was altered. More importantly, the supramolecular tripeptide amphiphiles exhibited a reversible assembly/disassembly process in response to different stimuli (i.e., light and host-guest chemistry). Based on the stimuli-responsiveness, the antibacterial/antibiofilm activities against either Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria could be reversibly modulated.

12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; : 110887, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626840

RESUMO

Studies have shown that 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate (EEA), a major diterpenoid lactone in the tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera, can induce hepatotoxicity in vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using the integrated transcriptomic and metabolomics method, in this study we investigated the global effect of EEA exposure on the transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles in mice. The abundance of 7131 genes and 42 metabolites in the liver, as well as 43 metabolites in the serum were altered. It should be noted that EEA mainly damaged hepatic cells through the aberrant regulation of multiple systems primarily including bile acid metabolism, and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. In addition, an imbalance of bile acid metabolism was found to play a key pat in response to EEA-triggered hepatotoxicity. In summary, these findings contributed to understanding the underlying mechanisms of EEA hepatotoxicity.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121344, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606710

RESUMO

The risk of environmental pollution caused by chloramphenicol has necessitated special attention. Biodegradation has tremendous potential for chloramphenicol removal in the environment. Six chloramphenicol-degrading consortia were acclimated under different culture conditions to investigate their chloramphenicol biodegradation behaviors, and the bacterial community structures were comprehensively characterized. The enriched consortia CL and CH which utilized chloramphenicol as their sole carbon and energy source could thoroughly degrade 120 mg/L chloramphenicol within 5 days, and the mineralization rate reached up to 90%. Chloramphenicol biodegradation kinetics by different enriched consortia fit the modified Gompertz model or the first-order decay model (R2≥0.97). Consortia CL could almost completely degrade 1-500 mg/L CAP with a final mineralization rate of 87.8-91.7%. Chloramphenicol 3-acetate was identified to be a major intermediate of CAP biodegradation by metabolite analysis and enzyme activity assay. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed that the diversities and abundances of the main genera in the enriched consortia were distinct from each other. Forty-one core OTUs belonging to 18 genera were the core bacteria which might be related to chloramphenicol biodegradation. Among them, the genera Sphingomonas, Chryseobacterium, Cupriavidus, Bradyrhizobium, Burkholderia, and Afipia with high abundance may play potential roles for chloramphenicol biodegradation.

14.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652492

RESUMO

Porcine rotavirus is a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in suckling piglets, and vaccination is considered to be an effective measure to control these infections. The development of a live mucosal vaccine using Bacillus subtilis spores as an antigen delivery vehicle is a convenient and attractive vaccination strategy against porcine rotavirus. In this study, a shuttle vector was constructed for the spore surface display of the spike protein VP8* from porcine rotavirus (the genotype was G5P[7]). A successful display of the CotB-VP8* fusion protein on the spore surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. The capacity for immune response generated after immunization with the recombinant strain was evaluated in a mouse model. The intestinal fecal IgA and serum IgG were detected by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA). Importantly, recombinant strain spores could elicit strong specific mucosal and humoral immune responses. These encouraging results suggest that recombinant B. subtilis BV could provide a strategy for a potential novel application approach to the development of a new and safe mucosal subunit vaccine against porcine rotavirus.

15.
Plant Dis ; : PDIS06191235RE, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644392

RESUMO

Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease on canola in Alberta, Canada. The pathogen is grouped into pathotypes according to their virulence reaction on differential hosts. Multiple pathotypes or strains are known exist in one field, one plant, or even one gall. This study was conducted with the objective of testing the prevalence of the coexistence of multiple strains in a single gall. In all, 79 canola clubroot galls were collected from 22 fields across Northern Alberta in 2018. Genomic DNA extracted from these single galls was analyzed using RNase H-dependent PCR (rhPCR). The rhPCR primers were designed to amplify a partial sequence of a dimorphic gene, with one primer pair specific to one sequence and the other primer pair specific to the alternative sequence. The amplification of both sequences from DNA obtained from a single gall would indicate that it contains two different P. brassicae strains. The rhPCR analyses indicated that the P. brassicae populations in 50 of the 79 galls consisted of more than one strain. This result emphasizes the need for cautious interpretation of results when a single-gall population is subject to pathotyping or being used as inoculum in plant pathology research. It also confirms that the maintenance of pathotype diversity within single root galls is a common occurrence which has implications for the durability, and stewardship, of single-gene host resistance.

16.
J Proteome Res ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601105

RESUMO

The pituitary gland is a small but important organ located in the base of the brain. Although mostly noncancerous, pituitary adenomas (PAs) can cause serious health problems such as headaches, visual field defects, double vision, and hypopituitarism by invasion of regional structures. Nonfunctioning PAs (NFPAs) approximately account for one-third of PAs manifested by no circulating hormone hypersecretion. Lipid reprogramming has been recognized as a hallmark of tumor cells and proven to play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. However, the lipid molecular pathogenesis of NFPAs has remained obscure to date. To uncover lipid alterations that may contribute to the development of NFPAs and define their molecular characteristics, we investigated tissue lipids of patients with NFPAs including eight null cell adenomas (NCAs) and eight oncocytomas (OCMs) and of five normal pituitary glands as the control (Ctrl) using nontargeted lipidomics based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap Q-Exactive HF mass spectrometry. The lipidomic results were further validated in another set of subjects consisting of 8 NCAs, 10 OCMs, and 6 Ctrls to define crucial lipids discriminating NFPAs from the normal pituitary tumors. Lipidomic analyses revealed that OCM showed more pronounced changes in lipid compositions than NCA and Ctrl. As expected, mitochondria abundant cardiolipins were remarkably increased in OCM, which was accordant with the biochemical evidence of mitochondria hyperplasia in OCM. Significantly increased levels of phospholipids (PLs), especially arachidonic acid (AA)-enriched PLs, were unique characteristics of lipid profiling in OCM vs Ctrl. Our results indicate that AA-PLs may have diagnostic potential for OCM.

17.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596143

RESUMO

Two new highly-oxygenated neo-clerodane diterpenoids, 3S-acetoxyl-mollotucin D dilactone ester (1) and 6S-crotoeurin C (2), and a new lupane-type triterpene, 16ß-hydroxyl-3ß-O-trans-coumaroyl-betulin (6), as well as three known analogues (3-5) were obtained from the leaves of Croton laui. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, and their absolute configurations were determined by combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, and literature data. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited inhibitory activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.6 µM, respectively. Additionally, compound 6 exhibited activity against Col205 and HepG2 cell lines with IC50 values of 12.9 and 17.7 µM, respectively.

18.
Esophagus ; 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal motility disorders which include achalasia, esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJ outflow obstruction), jackhammer esophagus (JE), distal esophageal spasm (DES), etc. are rare disease of unknown causes. The diagnosis is based on endoscopy, barium meal, and high-resolution manometry (HRM). With the development of endoscopy, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has emerged as a standard method for the treatment of achalasia. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to enable gastroenterologists to have a more comprehensive understanding of the application status, technical characteristics, clinical efficacy and future prospect of POEM in the treatment of esophageal motility disorders. METHODS: Through a large number of reading literature, combined with clinical practice, summary and analysis of the indications, procedure, efficacy, complications, and controversies of POEM in the treatment of esophageal motility disorders, as well as the current and future perspectives of POEM were studied. RESULTS: POEM is safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal motility disorders, but the GERD reflux rate is higher. CONCLUSIONS: POEM can be a new option for the treatment of esophageal movement disorders, but large sample, multi-center, long-term study reports are needed, and it promotes the development of NOTES technology.

19.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108517, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554126

RESUMO

Volatile compounds of Lentinula edodes grown in different culture substrate (CS) formulations were analyzed to reveal (i) the relationship between volatile compound production and CS formulations, (ii) the contribution of volatile compounds to L. edodes flavor, (iii) the activities of LOX and γ-GGT enzymes, (iv) γ-GGT gene expression, and (v) the correlation between enzyme activity and volatile compound production. Our results showed that 82 kinds of volatile compounds were analyzed; 25 volatile compounds were considered key flavor components, and sulfur containing compounds, eight-carbon compounds, and aldehyde compounds also had great contributions to mushroom flavor. Bagasse could be used as a partial substitute for sawdust as a carbon source. LOX and γ-GGT activities showed a weak correlation with the volatile end products. The results indicated that the mechanisms by which CS formulations influence volatile compounds production were complex.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555922

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain, CHu64-6-4T, was isolated from a 67-cm-long sediment core collected from the Daechung Reservoir at a water depth of 17 m, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. The cells of strain CHu64-6-4T were aerobic nonmotile and formed colorless colonies on R2A agar. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the strain formed a separate lineage within the family Oxalobacteraceae, exhibiting 97.2% and 97.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Glaciimonas singularis and Paraherbaspirillum soli, respectively. Strain CHu64-6-4T showed less than 74.4% average nucleotide identity compared to the type strains of related genera within the family Oxalobacteraceae. In the UPGMA dendrogram based on the ANI values of genomic sequences, strain CHu64-6-4T formed an evolutionary lineage independent of the genera Glaciimonas and some other taxa. The chemotaxonomic results showed Q-8 as the predominant respiratory ubiquinone, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethnolamine as the major polar lipids, Summed Feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0, and C18:1ω7c as the major fatty acids, and a DNA G+C content of 62.1 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain CHu64-6-4T could be distinguished from all genera within the family Oxalobacteraceae and represents a novel genus, Lacisediminimonas profundi gen. nov., with the name Lacisediminimonas profundi sp. nov., in the family Oxalobacteraceae. The type strain is CHu64-6-4T (=KCTC 62287T=JCM 32676T).

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