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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 132021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952717

RESUMO

Pain in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent cause of low quality of life, and morphine is routinely used as a first-line opiate analgesic in HCC. Morphine may exert not only analgesic effects but also anti-cancer effects via unknown mechanisms. Here we show that morphine can inhibit HCC cell proliferation. We further show that DEAD-box helicase 49 (DDX49) is up-regulated in HCC tumors, and that knocking down the DDX49 gene decreases tumor formation in vivo and in vitro, as well as reduces tumor metastasis in vivo. Morphine decreases DDX49 expression in HCC cells. Our results suggest that DDX49 contributes to HCC, and that morphine may exert anti-cancer effects by down-regulating it.

2.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974528

RESUMO

The hemoglobin, albumin, lymphocyte and platelet (HALP) score has been confirmed as a prognostic factor in several types of cancers. The current study aimed to assess the prognostic value of preoperative HALP score, an inflammatory and nutritional based score, in predicting cancer-specific survival (CSS) in resectable patients undergoing curative resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The clinical data of 355 consecutive patients with ESCC who underwent curative resection were retrospectively conducted and analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off value for preoperative HALP. The areas under the curve (AUC) for preoperative HALP and other variables were calculated and compared. Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to identify the factors associated with CSS. According to the ROC curve, the optimal cut-off value for preoperative HALP was 31.8. The 5-year CSS for preoperative HALP low (≤31.8) and high (>31.8) was 15.1% and 47.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). Preoperative HALP had reliable abilities to predict CSS in resectable ESCC patients in any stage or gender, according to the subgroup analysis based on the patients' cancer stage and gender. Multivariate analyses confirmed that preoperative HALP was an independent prognostic score regarding CSS in patients with resectable ESCC (p < 0.001). This study confirmed that the postoperative HALP score could be regarded as a potential independent prognostic factor for CSS in patients with resectable ESCC.

3.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(5): 678-689, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copanlisib, an intravenous pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, showed efficacy and safety as monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma who had received at least two therapies. The CHRONOS-3 study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of copanlisib plus rituximab in patients with relapsed indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: CHRONOS-3 was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study in 186 academic medical centres across Asia, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, North America, Russia, South Africa, and South America. Patients aged 18 years and older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of no more than 2 and histologically confirmed CD20-positive indolent B-cell lymphoma relapsed after the last anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody-containing therapy and progression-free and treatment-free for at least 12 months, or at least 6 months for patients unwilling or unfit to receive chemotherapy, were randomly assigned (2:1) with an interactive voice-web response system via block randomisation (block size of six) to copanlisib (60 mg given as a 1-h intravenous infusion on an intermittent schedule on days 1, 8, and 15 [28-day cycle]) plus rituximab (375 mg/m2 given intravenously weekly on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 during cycle 1 and day 1 of cycles 3, 5, 7, and 9) or placebo plus rituximab, stratified on the basis of histology, progression-free and treatment-free interval, presence of bulky disease, and previous treatment with PI3K inhibitors. The primary outcome was progression-free survival in the full analysis set (all randomised patients) by masked central review. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02367040 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 3, 2015, and Dec 17, 2019, 652 patients were screened for eligibility. 307 of 458 patients were randomly assigned to copanlisib plus rituximab and 151 patients were randomly assigned to placebo plus rituximab. With a median follow-up of 19·2 months (IQR 7·4-28·8) and 205 total events, copanlisib plus rituximab showed a statistically and clinically significant improvement in progression-free survival versus placebo plus rituximab; median progression-free survival 21·5 months (95% CI 17·8-33·0) versus 13·8 months (10·2-17·5; hazard ratio 0·52 [95% CI 0·39-0·69]; p<0·0001). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were hyperglycaemia (173 [56%] of 307 patients in the copanlisib plus rituximab group vs 12 [8%] of 146 in the placebo plus rituximab group) and hypertension (122 [40%] vs 13 [9%]). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 145 (47%) of 307 patients receiving copanlisib plus rituximab and 27 (18%) of 146 patients receiving placebo plus rituximab. One (<1%) drug-related death (pneumonitis) occurred in the copanlisib plus rituximab group and none occurred in the placebo plus rituximab group. INTERPRETATION: Copanlisib plus rituximab improved progression-free survival in patients with relapsed indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma compared with placebo plus rituximab. To our knowledge, copanlisib is the first PI3K inhibitor to be safely combined with rituximab and the first to show broad and superior efficacy in combination with rituximab in patients with relapsed indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. FUNDING: Bayer.

4.
Adv Ther ; 38(4): 1889-1903, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751401

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have limited access to rituximab. IBI301 is a recombinant chimeric murine/human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and is a candidate biosimilar to rituximab. This study aimed to assess the therapeutic equivalence of IBI301 and rituximab in previously untreated patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial compared IBI301 and rituximab, both plus the chemotherapy of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, and prednisone (CHOP), was conducted in 68 centers across China. Eligible patients with untreated CD20 positive (CD20+) DLBCL randomly received IBI301 (375 mg/m2) plus the standard CHOP or rituximab (375 mg/m2) plus the standard CHOP for six cycles of a 21-day cycle. The primary end point was the overall remission rate (ORR). Efficacy equivalence was defined if 95% CIs for the ORR difference between the two groups were within a ± 12.0% margin. RESULTS: Between August 22, 2016, and September 5, 2018, 419 patients were randomly allocated into the IBI301 group (N = 209) and rituximab group (N = 210). In the full analysis set, the ORR was 89.9% and 93.8% in the IBI301 and rituximab groups, respectively, and the ORR difference was -3.9% (95% CI - 9.1%-1.3%), falling within a ± 12.0% margin. The occurrences of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (100% vs. 99.0%) and AEs of grade ≥ 3 (87.1% vs. 83.3%) were similar in the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: IBI301 had a non-inferiority efficacy and a comparable safety compared with rituximab. IBI301 plus CHOP could be suggested as a candidate treatment regimen for untreated patients with CD20+ DLBCL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02867566).


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , China , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Padrões de Referência , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
5.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 98, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epigenetic abnormality of tumor-associated genes contributes to the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, methylation in colorectal cancer is still poorly characterized. METHOD: By integration of DNA methylation data from the GEO database and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, the aberrantly methylated genes involved in CRC tumorigenesis were identified. Subsequent in vitro experiments further validated their role in CRC. RESULTS: We performed integrative genomic analysis and identified HPSE2, a novel tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated through promoter methylation in CRC. K-M survival analysis showed that hypermethylation-low expression of heparanase 2 (HPSE2) was related to poor patient prognosis. Overexpression of HPSE2 reduced cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. HPSE2 could regulate the p53 signaling pathway to block the cell cycle in G1 phase. CONCLUSION: HPSE2, a novel tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated through promoter methylation in CRC. HPSE2 performs a tumor suppressive function by activating the p53/ p21 signaling cascade. The promoter hypermethylation of HPSE2 is a potential therapeutic target in patients with CRC, especially those with late-stage CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Metilação de DNA , Proliferação de Células/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glucuronidase , Humanos , Prognóstico
6.
Theranostics ; 11(8): 3742-3759, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664859

RESUMO

Background: Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a type II arginine methyltransferase that symmetrically di-methylates arginine residues on both histone and non-histone protein substrates. Accumulating evidence suggests that PRMT5 exerts its oncogenic properties in a wide spectrum of human malignancies. However, the underlying mechanisms by which PRMT5 contributes to the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain to be defined. Methods: Western blot and real-time PCR were used to analyze the expression of CDKN2B. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), immunofluorescence and GST pulldown assays were employed to investigate the interaction between PRMT5 and EZH2. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to validate CDKN2B as a direct target of PRMT5/EZH2. DNA methylation status at the CpG islands of promoter region of CDKN2B gene was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing. The effect of PRMT5/EZH2 on malignant phenotypes was examined through in vitro and in vivo assays. PRMT5 and EZH2 protein expression levels in CRC tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. Results: We observed that PRMT5-deficient CRC cells exhibit proliferation defects in vitro. PRMT5 was identified as a major transcriptional repressor of CDKN2B (p15INK4b) for determining CRC progression. Mechanistically, PRMT5-mediated histone marks H4R3me2s and H3R8me2s were predominantly deposited at the promoter region of CDKN2B gene in CRC cells. Knockdown of PRMT5 in CRC cells decreased the accumulation of H4R3me2s and H3R8me2s marks and reduced the CpG methylation level of CDKN2B promoter, then re-activated CDKN2B expression. Strikingly, silencing of CDKN2B partially abrogated the proliferation defects caused by PRMT5 depletion in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we proved that PRMT5 interacted with Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), leading to enhanced EZH2 binding and H3K27me3 deposition together with decreased transcriptional output of CDKN2B gene. Importantly, we found that the combined interventions exerted a synergistic inhibitory effect of combined treatment with PRMT5i (GSK591) and EZH2i (GSK126) on the growth of CRC cells/xenografts in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, PRMT5 and EZH2 were found to be significantly elevated and associated with poor prognosis in CRC patients. Conclusion: PRMT5 functionally associates with EZH2 to promote CRC progression through epigenetically repressing CDKN2B expression. Thus, our findings raise the possibility that combinational intervention of PRMT5 and EZH2 may be a promising strategy for CRC therapy.

7.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this post-hoc analysis, we evaluated anlotinib treatment-induced hypertension as a potential predictive factor of efficacy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. METHODS: A total of 109 patients enrolled in the anlotinib group in a phase 2 trial were included. The tumor response was assessed by computed tomography at week 3, week 6, and then every 6 weeks until progressive disease was observed. The primary endpoint of the study was progression free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: In all patients, the median PFS was 3.02 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.63-3.65 months] and the OS was 6.11 months (95% CI: 4.40-7.79 months). The ORR was 7.34% (95% CI: 3.22%-13.95%). A total of 59 (54%) patients were diagnosed with treatment-induced hypertension (Group A), and the remaining patients (n = 50, 46%) were in Group B. Baseline prognostic factors were similar between the 2 groups. Patients in Group A had a longer PFS and OS and higher ORR. When stratifying patients using a previously known history of hypertension, treatment-induced hypertension was a predictor only for patients without previous hypertension, who had longer PFS [hazard ratio (HR): 0.40, 95% CI: 0.24-0.68] and OS (HR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.21-0.67). CONCLUSIONS: We showed, for the first time, a correlation between treatment-induced hypertension and better prognoses in recurrent or metastatic ESCC patients treated with anlotinib, without a previously known history of hypertension. Treatment-induced hypertension may be a simple and low cost predictor for anlotinib antitumor efficacy in these patients, which may also reflect the intended target inhibition.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Furmonertinib (AST2818) is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting both sensitising EGFR and EGFR Thr790Met (T790M) mutations. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of furmonertinib in patients with EGFR T790M mutated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: This study was a single-arm, open-label, phase 2b study at 46 hospitals across mainland China. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with centrally confirmed EGFR T790M mutations in tumour tissue who progressed after first or second generation EGFR TKIs or with primary EGFR T790M mutations received furmonertinib 80 mg orally once daily. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. Efficacy was assessed by blinded independent central review as per the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1) in all patients who had measurable disease at baseline and received at least one dose of furmonertinib. Safety was assessed as per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03) in all patients who received at least one dose of furmonertinib with at least one safety assessment during follow-up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03452592) and is ongoing for survival follow-up. FINDINGS: From Jun 4, 2018, to Dec 8, 2018, 220 patients received furmonertinib treatment. All 220 patients were included in the efficacy and safety analyses. At the data cutoff point of Jan 29, 2020, 71 (32%) patients remained on treatment. The median duration of follow-up was 9·6 months (range 0·7-19·4). The objective response rate was 74% (163 of 220 [95% CI 68-80]). Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 58 (26%) patients and treatment-related grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 25 (11%) patients. The most common all-cause grade 3 or higher adverse events were increased γ-glutamyltransferase (five; 2%), increased aspartate aminotransferase, increased alanine aminotransferase, hyponatraemia, hypertension, pulmonary infection, hypermagnesaemia, and pericardial effusion (three each; 1%). Treatment-related diarrhoea was reported in ten (5%) patients and rashes were reported in 16 (7%) patients, all grade 1-2. Serious adverse events were reported in 52 (24%) patients, of which 12 (5%) were possibly treatment-related as evaluated by the investigator. INTERPRETATION: Furmonertinib has promising efficacy and an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of patients with EGFR T790M mutated NSCLC. Furmonertinib is expected to become a new treatment option after first or second generation EGFR TKIs in the Chinese population. FUNDING: Shanghai Allist Pharmaceutical Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

9.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(3): 351-360, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite therapeutic advances in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, resistance to trastuzumab inevitably develops. In the PHOEBE study, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of pyrotinib (an irreversible pan-HER inhibitor) plus capecitabine after previous trastuzumab. METHODS: This is an open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at 29 hospitals in China. Patients with pathologically confirmed HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, aged 18-70 years, who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and had been previously treated with trastuzumab and taxanes were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral pyrotinib 400 mg or lapatinib 1250 mg once daily plus oral capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1-14 of each 21-day cycle. Randomisation was done via a centralised interactive web-response system with a block size of four or six and stratified by hormone receptor status and previous lines of chemotherapy for metastatic disease. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival according to masked independent central review. Efficacy and safety were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of the study drugs. Results presented here are from a prespecified interim analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03080805. FINDINGS: Between July 31, 2017, and Oct 30, 2018, 267 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned. 134 patients received pyrotinib plus capecitabine and 132 received lapatinib plus capecitabine. At data cutoff of the interim analysis on March 31, 2019, median progression-free survival was significantly longer with pyrotinib plus capecitabine (12·5 months [95% CI 9·7-not reached]) than with lapatinib plus capecitabine (6·8 months [5·4-8·1]; hazard ratio 0·39 [95% CI 0·27-0·56]; one-sided p<0·0001). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were diarrhoea (41 [31%] in the pyrotinib group vs 11 [8%] in the lapatinib group) and hand-foot syndrome (22 [16%] vs 20 [15%]). Serious adverse events were reported for 14 (10%) patients in the pyrotinib group and 11 (8%) patients in the lapatinib group. No treatment-related deaths were reported in the pyrotinib group and one sudden death in the lapatinib group was considered treatment related. INTERPRETATION: Pyrotinib plus capecitabine significantly improved progression-free survival compared with that for lapatinib plus capecitabine, with manageable toxicity, and can be considered an alternative treatment option for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer after trastuzumab and chemotherapy. FUNDING: Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine and National Key R&D Program of China. TRANSLATIONS: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Aminoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/secundário , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lapatinib/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Cancer Med ; 10(5): 1681-1689, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no randomized trials on the effect of antiangiogenic therapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The following study investigated the efficacy and safety of anlotinib in patients with advanced ESCC who were previously treated with chemotherapy. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2 trial (NCT02649361) was conducted in 13 Chinese hospitals. Eligible patients were adults with histologically confirmed recurrent or metastatic ESCC who were previously treated with chemotherapy, and were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive oral anlotinib 12 mg or placebo on days 1-14 (repeated every 21 days). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-five patients were randomly assigned to the anlotinib (n = 110) or the placebo (n = 55) arm. Median PFS was 3.02 months (95% CI 2.63-3.65) in the anlotinib group and 1.41 months (95% CI 1.38-1.41) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.46 [95% CI 0.32-0.66]; p < 0.001). The most common treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were hypertension (17 [16%] patients), decreased appetite (6 [6%] patients), and hyponatremia (4 [4%] patients) in the anlotinib group and decreased appetite (2 [4%] patients) in the placebo group. Three (3%) deaths in the anlotinib group were considered as drug related, while there were no treatment-related deaths in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: The use of anlotinib in previously treated, recurrent, or metastatic ESCC patients significantly improved PFS compared with placebo. Our findings suggest that antiangiogenesis might be an important therapeutic target in advanced ESCC. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Study of Anlotinib in Patients With Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ALTER1102), NCT02649361.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(5): 827-839, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: By implementing dynamic circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis, we explored the impact of TP53 mutations on tumor evolution and resistance mechanisms to ensartinib in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. METHODS: In a multicenter phase 2 trial, patients with ALK-positive NSCLC who progressed on crizotinib were treated with ensartinib. Blood samples for ctDNA analysis were collected at baseline, cycle 3 day 1, and progression disease (PD) and analyzed with a 212-gene panel. RESULTS: A total of 440 samples were collected from 168 patients. Baseline TP53 mutations (20.2%) significantly correlated with inferior progression-free survival (4.2 mo versus 11.7 mo, p < 0.0001). Patients with TP53 mutations had higher mutation load than those without TP53 mutations at baseline (13.79 ± 3.72 versus 4.67 ± 0.39, p < 0.001). Although there was no significant difference in mutation load between these groups at cycle 3 day 1 (5.89 ± 2.25 versus 3.72 ± 0.62, p = 0.425), patients with mutated TP53 developed more mutations at PD (7.07 ± 1.25 versus 3.20 ± 0.33, p = 0.003). Frequency and abundance of secondary ALK mutations G1269A, G1202R, and E1210K increased markedly at PD than baseline. In patients without secondary ALK mutations, we identified ALK-independent resistance mechanisms including bypass signaling activation, downstream effector protein reactivation, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and epigenetic dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted the advantage of ctDNA analysis for monitoring tumor evolution. TP53 mutations promoted genetic evolution and accelerated occurrence of resistance. We also unveiled ALK-dependent resistance mechanisms, mainly by G1269A, G1202R, and E1210K mutations, and ALK-independent resistance mechanisms to ensartinib.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(7): 704-712, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As yet, no checkpoint inhibitor has been approved to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study was aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity, safety, and biomarkers of toripalimab, a new programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor for recurrent or metastatic NPC (RM-NPC) refractory to standard chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this single-arm, multicenter phase II study, patients with RM-NPC received 3 mg/kg toripalimab once every 2 weeks via intravenous infusion until confirmed disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). The secondary end points included safety, duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among all 190 patients, the ORR was 20.5% with median DOR 12.8 months, median PFS 1.9 months, and median OS 17.4 months. Among 92 patients who failed at least two lines of systemic chemotherapy, the ORR was 23.9%. The ORRs were 27.1% and 19.4% in PD-L1+ and PD-L1- patients, respectively (P = .31). Patients with ≥ 50% decrease of plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA copy number on day 28 had significantly better ORR than those with < 50% decrease, 48.3% versus 5.7% (P = .0001). Tumor mutational burden had a median value of 0.95 muts/mega-base in the cohort and had no predictive value for response. Whole-exome sequencing results from 174 patients revealed that the patients with genomic amplification in 11q13 region or ETV6 genomic alterations had poor responses to toripalimab. CONCLUSION: The POLARIS-02 study demonstrated a manageable safety profile and durable clinical response of toripalimab in patients with chemorefractory metastatic NPC. An early decrease in plasma EBV DNA copy number correlated with favorable response.

13.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514882

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T) has shown remarkable efficacy in treating tumors of lymphopoietic origin. Herein, we demonstrate an effective CAR-T cell treatment for recurrent and malignant CD30-positive peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) has been demonstrated. The extracellular fragment gene sequences of CD30 were obtained from tumor tissues of PTCL patients and cloned into a plasmid vector to express the CD30 antigen. The CD30 targeting single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) was obtained from CD30-positive monoclonal hybridoma cells, which were obtained from CD30 antigen immunized mice. After a second-generation of CAR lentiviral construction, CD30 CAR T cells were produced and used to determine the cytotoxicity of this construct toward Karpas 299 cells. The results of CD30 CAR T-mediated cell lysis show that 9C11-2 CAR T cells could significantly promote the lysis of CD30-positive Karpas 299 cells in both LDH and real-time cell electronic sensing (RTCA) assays. In vivo data show that 9C11-2 CAR T cells effectively suppress the tumor growth in a Karpas 299 cell xenograft NCG mouse model. The CD30 CAR T cells exhibited an efficient cytotoxic effect after being co-cultured with the target cells and they also exhibited a significant tumor-inhibiting ability after being intravenously injected into PTCL xenograft tumors; these observations suggest that the new CD30 CAR-T cell may be a promising therapeutic candidate for cancer therapy.

14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(3): 305-314, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy has been shown to be efficacious as treatment for advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without targetable genetic aberrations; however, there is scarce evidence of the effectiveness of the combinations in the Asian population. We evaluated camrelizumab plus chemotherapy against non-squamous NSCLC in China. METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial (CameL) in 52 hospitals in China for patients with non-squamous NSCLC without EGFR and ALK alteration. Eligible patients were aged 18-70 years and had no previous systemic chemotherapy, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and at least one measurable lesion per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 4-6 cycles of carboplatin (area under curve 5 mg/mL per min) plus pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) with or without camrelizumab (200 mg) every 3 weeks, followed by maintenance therapy with camrelizumab plus pemetrexed or pemetrexed alone. Medication was administered intravenously on day 1 of each 3-week treatment cycle. Randomisation was done using a centralised interactive web-response system with the block size randomly generated as four or six and stratified by sex and smoking history. The two primary endpoints were progression-free survival per blinded independent central review, in all patients and in patients who were PD-L1 positive. Primary analysis was done in the full analysis set that included all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of the study treatment. Herein, due to the primary endpoint being met at the interim analysis, we reported the findings of prespecified interim analysis, which only included confirmatory statistical testing for progression-free survival in all patients. Safety was assessed in the as-treated population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03134872 (follow-up is ongoing). FINDINGS: Between May 12, 2017, and June 6, 2018, of the 419 patients who were randomly assigned, seven did not receive assigned treatment and 412 received either camrelizumab plus chemotherapy (n=205) or chemotherapy alone (n=207). At interim analysis, median follow-up duration was 11·9 months (IQR 9·0-14·9). Progression-free survival in this interim analysis was significantly prolonged with camrelizumab plus chemotherapy than with chemotherapy alone (median 11·3 months [95% CI 9·6-15·4] vs 8·3 months [6·0-9·7]; hazard ratio 0·60 [0·45-0·79]; one-sided p=0·0001). Most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were decreased neutrophil count (78 [38%] patients in the camrelizumab plus chemotherapy group vs 63 [30%] patients in the chemotherapy alone group), decreased white blood cell count (40 [20%] vs 30 [14%]), anaemia (38 [19%] vs 23 [11%]), and decreased platelet count (34 [17%] vs 24 [12%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 74 (36%) patients in the camrelizumab plus chemotherapy group and 27 (13%) patients in the chemotherapy alone group. INTERPRETATION: The primary endpoint was met at the interim analysis, showing a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in progression-free survival with camrelizumab plus carboplatin and pemetrexed versus chemotherapy alone in all patients, supporting camrelizumab plus carboplatin and pemetrexed as a first-line treatment option for Chinese patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC without EGFR and ALK alterations. The trial is being continued to collect long-term outcomes in all patients and carry out confirmatory statistical testing for progression-free survival in the PD-L1-positive population. FUNDING: Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Método Simples-Cego
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(5): 1296-1304, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our preclinical work suggests that appropriate angiogenesis inhibition could potentiate PD-1/PD-L1 blockade via alleviating hypoxia, increasing infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages. We hereby conducted a clinical trial to evaluate this combination in pretreated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included phase Ib apatinib dose-escalation and phase II expansion cohorts. Patients received apatinib at doses of 250-500 mg orally once daily, in combination with camrelizumab 200 mg intravenously every 2 weeks. RESULTS: From March 2017 to October 2018, 105 chemotherapy-pretreated patients with nonsquamous NSCLC were enrolled and received apatinib 250 mg (recommended phase II dose) and camrelizumab. Among them, one (1.0%) complete response, 28 (26.7%) partial responses, and 48 (45.7%) stable diseases were observed. In the efficacy-evaluable population (n = 94), objective response rate (ORR) was 30.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7-41.2]. The median progression-free survival was 5.7 months (95% CI, 4.5-8.8) and overall survival was 15.5 months (95% CI, 10.9-24.5). Efficacy of combination therapy was evident across all PD-L1 and tumor mutation burden subgroups, and appeared to be improved in patients with STK11/KEAP1 mutation (mutant vs. wild-type, ORR: 42.9% vs. 28.1%; 1-year survival rate: 85.1% vs. 53.1%). No unexpected adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Combined apatinib and camrelizumab showed encouraging antitumor activity and acceptable toxicity in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Patients with STK11/KEAP1 mutation might derive more benefits from this combination. We will validate these results in an ongoing phase III trial (NCT04203485).

16.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 7-14, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 CheckMate 078 study, nivolumab showed significant overall survival (OS) benefit and superior tolerability versus docetaxel in a predominantly Chinese patient population with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, data on long-term outcomes with immunotherapy in Asian patients are limited. We report 2-year efficacy and safety data. METHODS: Patients with advanced/metastatic NSCLC and disease progression after platinum-doublet chemotherapy were randomized 2:1 to nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks; n = 338) or docetaxel (75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks; n = 166) until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or other protocol-defined reasons. The primary endpoint was OS; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, objective response rate, and safety. RESULTS: After 25.9 months minimum follow-up, 21 patients (6 %) remained on nivolumab versus 0 on docetaxel. Median OS was 11.9 months with nivolumab versus 9.5 months with docetaxel (HR: 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.61-0.93); 2-year OS rates were 28 % versus 18 %, respectively. Survival benefits were observed across a variety of predefined subgroups. At 2 years, 39 % and 0 % of responders had ongoing responses with nivolumab and docetaxel, respectively. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 12 % of patients with nivolumab versus 47 % with docetaxel, leading to discontinuation in 4 % and 5 % of patients, respectively. No new treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSION: At 2 years, nivolumab maintained a favorable safety profile and continued to demonstrate superior OS versus docetaxel in this predominantly Chinese patient population with previously treated NSCLC. These data are consistent with long-term outcomes from the global CheckMate 017/057 studies.

17.
Cancer Biol Med ; 17(4): 896-909, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299642

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) is a potentially fatal and common complication in myelosuppressive chemotherapy. The timing and grade of CIN may play prognostic and predictive roles in cancer therapy. CIN is associated with older age, poor functional and nutritional status, the presence of significant comorbidities, the type of cancer, previous chemotherapy cycles, the stage of the disease, specific chemotherapy regimens, and combined therapies. There are many key points and new challenges in the management of CIN in adults including: (1) Genetic risk factors to evaluate the patient's risk for CIN remain unclear. However, these risk factors urgently need to be identified. (2) Febrile neutropenia (FN) remains one of the most common reasons for oncological emergency. No consensus nomogram for FN risk assessment has been established. (3) Different assessment tools [e.g., Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC), the Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia (CISNE) score model, and other tools] have been suggested to help stratify the risk of complications in patients with FN. However, current tools have limitations. The CISNE score model is useful to support decision-making, especially for patients with stable FN. (4) There are still some challenges, including the benefits of granulocyte colony stimulating factor treatment and the optimal antibiotic regimen in emergency management of FN. In view of the current reports, our group discusses the key points, new challenges, and management of CIN.

18.
J Cancer ; 11(24): 7216-7223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193885

RESUMO

Gefitinib, a first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), is recommended for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who harbor activating EGFR mutations. However, the tumors of most patients initially sensitive to gefitinib will develop resistance within several months of therapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle to NSCLC treatment. The novel glutathione transferase P1 (GSTPi) inhibitor 6-(7-nitro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio) hexanol (NBDHEX) has recently been shown to be active against tumors. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of NBDHEX against NSCLC. Treatment with NBDHEX inhibited GSTpi enzymatic activity and promoted apoptosis of gefinitb-resistant NSCLC cells. Moreover, NBDHEX reduced tumor growth in mice. These findings indicated that NBDHEX is a good candidate for treatment of NSCLC patients, and that NBDHEX offers a new approach to cancer therapy.

19.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(10): 6015-6026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194011

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells plays a critical role in the tumor microenvironment, including disorder of lipid metabolism. Recently, lipid metabolism has received increasing attention in cancer research. The proteins of relevant evolutionary and lymphoid interest (PRELI) domain containing family contains 6 proteins. Functionally, the PRELI-like family proteins were mainly involved in mitochondrial lipid transport and correlated with several types of diseases and malignant tumors. Here we review current knowledge of the functions, structures, biological functions and underlying mechanisms of the PRELI-like family proteins in cancer progression, which provide insights into the clinical translational application.

20.
PeerJ ; 8: e9621, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194339

RESUMO

We aimed to identify prognostic signature based on autophagy-related genes (ARGs) for breast cancer patients. The datasets of breast cancer were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression was conducted to construct multiple-ARG risk signature. In total, 32 ARGs were identified as differentially expressed between tumors and adjacent normal tissues based on TCGA. Six ARGs (IFNG, TP63, PPP1R15A, PTK6, EIF4EBP1 and NKX2-3) with non-zero coefficient were selected from the 32 ARGs using LASSO regression. The 6-ARG signature divided patients into high-and low-risk group. Survival analysis indicated that low-risk group had longer survival time than high-risk group. We further validated the 6-ARG signature using dataset from GEO and found similar results. We analyzed the associations between ARGs and breast cancer survival in TCGA and nine GEO datasets, and obtained 170 ARGs with significant associations. EIF4EBP1, FOS and FAS were the top three ARGs with highest numbers of significant associations. EIF4EBP1 may be a key ARG which had a higher expression level in patients with more malignant molecular subtypes and higher grade breast cancer. In conclusion, our 6-ARG signature was of significance in predicting of overall survival of patients with breast cancer. EIF4EBP1 may be a key ARG associated with breast cancer survival.

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