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1.
J Psychiatr Res ; 118: 44-65, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493709

RESUMO

Anxiety is presumably driven by fear memory. The nucleus accumbens involves emotional regulation. Molecular profiles in the nucleus accumbens related to stress-induced fear memory remain elucidated. Fear memory in mice was induced by a paradigm of social defeat. Physical and psychological stress was delivered to an intruder that was attacked by an aggressive resident. Meanwhile, an observer experienced psychological stress by seeing aggressor attacks. The nucleus accumbens tissues from intruder and observer mice that appear fear memory and anxiety as well as control mice were harvested for analyses of mRNA and miRNA profiles by high throughput sequencing. In the nucleus accumbens of intruders and observers with fear memory and anxiety, genes encoding AdrRα, AChRM2/3, GluRM2/8, HrR1, SSR, BDNF and AC are upregulated, while genes encoding DR3/5, PR2, GPγ8 and P450 are downregulated. Physical and/or psychological stress leads to fear memory and anxiety likely by molecules relevant to certain synapses. Moreover, there are differential expressions in genes that encode GABARA, 5-HTR1/5, CREB3, AChRM2, RyR, Wnt and GPγ13 in the nucleus accumbens from intruders versus observers. GABAergic, serotonergic and cholinergic synapses as well as calcium, Wnt and CREB signaling molecules may be involved in fear memory differently induced by psychological stress and physical/psychological stress. The data from analyzing mRNA and miRNA profiles are consistent. Some molecules are validated by qRT-PCR and dual luciferase reporter assay. Fear memory and anxiety induced by the mixture of physical and psychological stress or psychological stress appear influenced by complicated molecular mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134298, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505343

RESUMO

Many studies have examined the acute toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) towards model bacteria. In this study, we report the time-dependent effects of ZnO NPs on native, selected Zn-resistant and dominant bacteria in estuarine waters. An initial inhibition of bacterial growth followed by a recovery at 24 h was observed, and this rebound phenomenon was particularly notable when the raw water samples were treated with relatively high ZnO NP concentrations (1 and 10 mg/L).By comparing the groups treated with Zn2+, Zn2+ was shown to largely explain the acute cytotoxic effect of ZnO NPs on bacteria in raw waters. Furthermore, similar to the native bacteria, especially the dominant bacteria, the viability of Escherichia coli (E. coli) decreased with the increasing treatments time and the concentrations of ZnO NPs in water with different salinities. Moreover, the expression of Zn-resistance genes including zntA and zntR in E. coli suggested that the Zn-resistance system in E. coli can be activated to defend against the stress of Zn2+ released from ZnO NPs, and salinity may promote this process in estuarine aquatic systems. Thus, the effect of ZnO NPs on bacteria in estuarine water bodies is likely determined by the synergistic effect of environmental salinity and dissolved Zn ions. As such, our findings are of high relevance and importance for understanding the ecological disturbances caused by anthropogenic NPs in estuarine environments.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4145, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515482

RESUMO

Crystallographic dislocation has been well-known to be one of the major causes responsible for the unfavorable carrier dynamics in conventional semiconductor devices. Halide perovskite has exhibited promising applications in optoelectronic devices. However, how dislocation impacts its carrier dynamics in the 'defects-tolerant' halide perovskite is largely unknown. Here, via a remote epitaxy approach using polar substrates coated with graphene, we synthesize epitaxial halide perovskite with controlled dislocation density. First-principle calculations and molecular-dynamics simulations reveal weak film-substrate interaction and low density dislocation mechanism in remote epitaxy, respectively. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution atomic force microscopy and Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy unveil the lattice/atomic and dislocation structure of the remote epitaxial film. The controlling of dislocation density enables the unveiling of the dislocation-carrier dynamic relation in halide perovskite. The study provides an avenue to develop free-standing halide perovskite film with low dislocation density and improved carried dynamics.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4098, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488850

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

5.
Poult Sci ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504910

RESUMO

Stocking density is an important environment factor that affects the development of poultry farming, which has caused widespread concern. This study was carried out to determine the effects of stocking density on growth performance, growth regulatory factors, and endocrine hormones in broilers under appropriate environments. A total of 144 Arbor Acres male broilers (BW 1000 ± 70 g) were randomly divided into low stocking density (LSD; 6.25 birds/m2), medium stocking density (MSD; 12.50 birds/m2), and high stocking density (HSD; 18.75 birds/m2) groups, with 6 replicates in each group, and raised in 3 environmental chambers (same size) from 29-day-old to 42-day-old, respectively. The trial period lasted for 14 D with 21 ± 1°C and 60 ± 7% relative humidity, wind speed < 0.5 m/s, ammonia level<5 ppm. The results indicated that average daily food intake and average daily gain in HSD group showed significantly lower than other 2 groups (P < 0.05). Besides, the HSD group significantly reduced breast muscle yield, tibial length, tibial width, and tibial weight of broilers (P < 0.05). The HSD group increased the mRNA expression level of myostatin, and reduced the mRNA expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and myogenic determination factor 1 (P < 0.05). The HSD group significantly reduced the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in tibial growth plate (P < 0.05). The HSD group increased the serum corticosterone levels of broilers (P < 0.05), and decreased the serum IGF-1 and thyroxine (T4) levels of broiler chickens (P < 0.05) than other stocking density groups. Moreover, the serum alkaline phosphatase levels were decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing stocking density, whereas there were no significant effects on the serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in 3 groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, under appropriate environments HSD reduced the growth performance of broilers and this negative effect was likely associated with decreased growth of muscle and bone.

6.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 39(9): 472-478, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine which factors drive patients with diplegic cerebral palsy to walk without knee recurvatum despite hyperextension of the knee on physical examination. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all data collected in the Gait Analysis Laboratory between 1999 and 2014. Patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy and at least 5 degrees of knee extension on clinical examination were identified for the study. After IRB approval, a total of 60 children ranging in age from 4 to 17 were included in the study. There were 27 female patients. Gross Motor Function Classification System level was distributed in the population as follows: 34 patients at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, 18 at level II, and 8 at level III. Patients were excluded from this study if they had extrapyramidal involvement, history of selective dorsal rhizotomy or lower extremity surgery. Patient who received botulinum toxin A injections within 1 year of the study were excluded as well. Patients were divided into 2 groups: children that walked with knee hyperextension (KH) and children that walked without knee hyperextension (KF, "knee flexion"). There were 15 subjects in the KH group and 45 subjects in the KF group. Motion Laboratory evaluation included a comprehensive examination, kinematics, and kinetic analysis with a VICOM system. All data were analyzed with unpaired t test to detect differences between the 2 groups. All statistical analysis was done only for the right legs (unless the right leg did not meet the exclusion then the left leg was analyzed) to meet the statistical requirement for independence. The Pearson correlation was applied to correlate the maximum knee extension in stance with maximum ankle dorsiflexion in stance. RESULTS: The static measurement of dorsiflexion with knee flexed showed statistically significant difference (P=0.004) with KH group having 2.3±11.6 degrees and KF group having 13.1±12.2 degrees. There was also a statistically significant difference in the static measurement of dorsiflexion with knee extended (P=0.0014) with KH group having -3.3±9.0 degrees and KF group having 5.8±9.1 degrees. Maximum dorsiflexion in stance phase also showed significant difference (P=0.0022) with the KH group having 0.1±14.0 degrees and KF group having 11.5±11.2 degrees. Maximum dorsiflexion in stance phase also showed significant difference (P<0.001) with the DH group having 0.1 (SD) 14.0 degrees and KF group having 11.5 (SD) 11.2 degrees. There were no significant differences in popliteal angle measurements or any strength measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the plantar flexion knee extension couple is the major contributing factor to cause patients with passive knee hyperextension to walk in a recurvatum pattern. This would have implications of further treatment of the knee hyperextension in stance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-case-control study.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(70): 10476-10479, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411601

RESUMO

The realization of the facile and green synthesis of low-dimensional nanomaterials is critical not only for energy storage but also for catalysis. A selective aqueous corrosion strategy is presented here for obtaining low-dimensional metals, including nanoparticles, nanofibers and nanosheets, based on the dealloying of aqueous-favoring metal from its bulk alloy.

11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115061, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426963

RESUMO

In this study, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS)-vanillin imine (COS-Vani Imine)-based dual pH responsive nano-micelles (DPRNs) were synthesized. The resultant DPRNs were used for encapsulating genistein and its ultimate release upon pH change. The overall concept of DPRNs for the targeted delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs was successfully demonstrated. The DPRNs were spherical in shape, nanoscale in dimension (71.2-163.4 nm), with dual pH response. The encapsulation/loading of genistein into DPRNs was achieved and the resultant genistein-loaded DPRNs were stable under the physiological pH (˜7.4); under the cancer cell extracellular pH (˜6.8), the amino groups in COS is protonated, thus becoming positively charged, facilitating their adsorption onto negatively charged cancer cells. Under the cancer cell intracellular pH (˜5.0), the genistein-loaded DPRNs were destroyed as a result of the cleavage of pH sensitive benzoic imine, thereby releasing the loaded genistein.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 1229-1237, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412519

RESUMO

Underground drinking water is commonly contaminated with arsenite (As) and fluoride (F) associated with chronic kidney diseases in humans; however, the combined renal toxicity of these pollutants and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between As and F regarding toxic effects on the kidney of rat offspring exposed to pollutants during prenatal and postnatal development. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups that received NaAsO2 (50 mg/L), NaF (100 mg/L), NaAsO2 (50 mg/L) and NaF (100 mg/L) in drinking water, or clean water, respectively, during gestation and lactation. After weaning, six male pups were randomly selected from each group and continued on the same treatment as their mothers for up to three months. The results revealed that subchronic exposure to high-dose As and/or F decreased the organ coefficient of the kidneys and disrupted kidney ultrastructure, moreover inhibited the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the generation of malondialdehyde in the kidney. As exposure alone or combined with F led to an upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and its regulatory targets (Ho-1, Gclc, and Nqo1), whereas the effect of F alone was not significant. These results suggest that the renal toxicity of As and F is associated with the induction of mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress, and alters the expression of Nrf2 and its regulatory targets. Furthermore, variance analysis results showed that an interaction between As and F in the toxicity process.

13.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(9): 152449, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although increasing evidence has revealed that FOXD2-AS1 overexpression exists in various solid tumors, the value of FOXD2-AS1 as a prognostic marker in such cancers remains uncertain. Accordingly, the present research aimed to assess the association of FOXD2-AS1 with cancer prognosis and predict the biological function of FOXD2-AS1. METHODS: We systematically retrieved PubMed, PMC, Web of Science, EMBASE and Wiley Online Library databases for eligible articles published up to December 2018. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to evaluate the correlation of FOXD2-AS1 expression with overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological characteristics. We also used five Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets from breast cancer patients to explore the relationship between FOXD2-AS1 expression and prognosis. Finally, we validated FOXD2-AS1 expression in various carcinomas and predicted its biological function based on the public databases. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies with 2502 tumor patients were included. The pooled HRs demonstrated that FOXD2-AS1 overexpression was significantly associated with unfavorable OS (HR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.23-1.57, p < 0.001) and DFS (HR = 2.24, 95%CI: 1.55-3.23, p < 0.001) in tumor patients. The pooled ORs indicated that FOXD2-AS1 upregulation was related to large tumor size (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.26-1.85, p < 0.001), deep invasion depth (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.53-2.58, p < 0.001), distant metastasis (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.69-2.43, p < 0.001) and advanced TNM stage (OR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.06-1.72, p = 0.0150), but not to lymph node metastasis nor differentiation. Moreover, a similar pooled result for the OS of breast cancer patients was obtained (HR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.14-2.11, p = 0.0052) by analyzing GEO data. Finally, elevated FOXD2-AS1 expression in various solid tumor tissues was verified based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. Further functional prediction demonstrated that FOXD2-AS1 may participate in some cancer-related pathways. CONCLUSION: Elevated FOXD2-AS1 expression was associated with poor survival in patients with solid tumors and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for a variety of cancers.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3551, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391533

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a vascular remodeling disease of cardiopulmonary units. No cure is currently available due to an incomplete understanding of vascular remodeling. Here we identify CD146-hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) cross-regulation as a key determinant in vascular remodeling and PAH pathogenesis. CD146 is markedly upregulated in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs/SMCs) and in proportion to disease severity. CD146 expression and HIF-1α transcriptional program reinforce each other to physiologically enable PASMCs to adopt a more synthetic phenotype. Disruption of CD146-HIF-1α cross-talk by genetic ablation of Cd146 in SMCs mitigates pulmonary vascular remodeling in chronic hypoxic mice. Strikingly, targeting of this axis with anti-CD146 antibodies alleviates established pulmonary hypertension (PH) and enhances cardiac function in two rodent models. This study provides mechanistic insights into hypoxic reprogramming that permits vascular remodeling, and thus provides proof of concept for anti-remodeling therapy for PAH through direct modulation of CD146-HIF-1α cross-regulation.

15.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 55, 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human cancer cell lines are fundamental models for cancer research and therapeutic strategy development. However, there is no characterization of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in a large number of cancer cell lines. METHODS: Here, we apply four circRNA identification algorithms to heuristically characterize the expression landscape of circRNAs across ~ 1000 human cancer cell lines from CCLE polyA-enriched RNA-seq data. By using integrative analysis and experimental approaches, we explore the expression landscape, biogenesis, functional consequences, and drug response of circRNAs across different cancer lineages. RESULTS: We revealed highly lineage-specific expression patterns of circRNAs, suggesting that circRNAs may be powerful diagnostic and/or prognostic markers in cancer treatment. We also identified key genes involved in circRNA biogenesis and confirmed that TGF-ß signaling may promote biogenesis of circRNAs. Strikingly, we showed that clinically actionable genes are more likely to generate circRNAs, potentially due to the enrichment of RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites. Among these, circMYC can promote cell proliferation. We observed strong association between the expression of circRNAs and the response to drugs, especially those targeting chromatin histone acetylation. Finally, we developed a user-friendly data portal, CircRNAs in cancer cell lines (CircRiC, https://hanlab.uth.edu/cRic ), to benefit the biomedical research community. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the characterization of circRNAs in cancer cell lines and explored the potential mechanism of circRNA biogenesis as well as its therapeutic implications. We also provide a data portal to facilitate the related biomedical researches.

16.
Brain Res ; 1721: 146333, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302097

RESUMO

After associative learning, a signal induces the recall of its associated signal, or the other way around. This reciprocal retrieval of associated signals is essential for associative thinking and logical reasoning. For the cellular mechanism underlying this associative memory, we hypothesized that the formation of synapse innervations among coactivated sensory cortices and the recruitment of associative memory cells were involved in the integrative storage and reciprocal retrieval of associated signals. Our study indicated that the paired whisker and olfaction stimulations led to an odorant-induced whisker motion and a whisker-induced olfaction response, a reciprocal form of associative memory retrieval. In mice that showed the reciprocal retrieval of associated signals, their barrel and piriform cortical neurons became mutually innervated through their axon projection and new synapse formation. These piriform and barrel cortical neurons gained the ability to encode both whisker and olfaction signals based on synapse innervations from the innate input and the newly formed input. Therefore, the associated activation of sensory cortices by pairing input signals initiates their mutual synapse innervations, and the neurons innervated by new and innate synapses are recruited to be associative memory cells that encode these associated signals. Mutual synapse innervations among sensory cortices to recruit associative memory cells may compose the primary foundation for the integrative storage and reciprocal retrieval of associated signals. Our study also reveals that new synapses onto the neurons enable these neurons to encode memories to new specific signals.

17.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2252-2262, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298990

RESUMO

Spot blotch, caused by the fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus, is a limiting factor for barley (Hordeum vulgare) production in northeast China, which causes significant grain yield losses and kernel quality degradation. It is critical to determine the virulence diversity of C. sativus populations for barley resistance breeding and the judicious grouping of available resistance varieties according to the predominant pathotypes in disease epidemic regions. With little information on the barley pathogen in China, this study selected 12 typical barley genotypes to differentiate the pathotypes of C. sativus isolates collected in China. Seventy-one isolates were grouped into 19 Chinese pathotypes based on infection responses. Seventeen isolates were classified as pathotype 3, which has only been identified in China, whereas most (52 of 71) were classified as pathotype 1. All of the tested isolates had low virulence on the North Dakota (ND) durable, resistant line ND B112. Using 22 selected amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations, genetic polymorphism was used to analyze 68 isolates, which clustered into three distinct groups using the unweighted pair group method average with the genetic distance coefficient. No relationship was found between the virulence of isolates and their origins. Isolates of the same pathotype or those collected from the same location did not group into clusters based on the AFLP analysis.

18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 213-224, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319363

RESUMO

Low-level cognitive processes like visual search are crucial for hazard detection. In dual-target searches, subsequent search misses (SSMs) are known to occur when the identification of one target impedes detection of another that is concurrently presented. Despite the high likelihood of concurrent hazards in busy driving environments, SSMs have not been empirically investigated in driving. In three studies, participants were asked to identify safety-related target(s) in simulated traffic scenes that contained zero, one, or two target(s) of low or high perceptual saliency. These targets were defined as objects or events that would have prevented safe travel in the direction indicated by an arrow preceding the traffic scene. Findings from the pilot study (n = 20) and Experiment 1 (n = 29) demonstrated that detecting one target hindered drivers' abilities to find a second from the same scene. In Experiment 2 (n = 30), explicit instructions regarding the level of risk were manipulated. It was found that search times were affected by the instructions, though SSMs persisted. Implications of SSMs in understanding the causes of some crashes are discussed, as well as future directions to improve ecological and criterion validity and to explore the roles of expertise and cognitive capabilities in multi-hazard detection.

19.
Nitric Oxide ; 91: 1-14, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299340

RESUMO

Dysfunction in the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway can lead to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mammals. Discovery of an alternative pathway to NO generation involving reduction from nitrate to nitrite and to NO has motivated the evaluation of nitrite as an alternative to inhaled NO for PH. In contrast, inhaled nitrate has not been evaluated to date, and potential benefits include a prolonged half-life and decreased risk of methemoglobinemia. In a canine model of acute hypoxia-induced PH we evaluated the effects of inhaled nitrate to reduce pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). In a randomized controlled trial, inhaled nitrate was compared to inhaled nitrite and inhaled saline. Exhaled NO, PAP and systemic blood pressures were continuously monitored. Inhaled nitrite significantly decreased PAP and increased exhaled NO. In contrast, inhaled nitrate and inhaled saline did not decrease PAP or increase exhaled NO. Unexpectedly, we found that inhaled nitrite resulted in prolonged (>5 h) exhaled NO release, increase in nitrate venous/arterial levels and a late surge in venous nitrite levels. These findings do not support a therapeutic role for inhaled nitrate in PH but may have therapeutic implications for inhaled nitrite in various disease states.

20.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(8): 1723-1732, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360114

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women in the worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a poor clinical outcome. The antitumor efficacy of Ilamycins, natural products with anti-tuberculosis activity isolated from deep sea-derived Streptomyces atratus, in TNBC has not been investigated, and the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that Ilamycin-E, but not -F, decreases cell viability, inhibits G1/S cell cycle progression, and promotes apoptosis in the TNBC cell lines HCC1937 and MDA-MB-468. Ilamycin E promotes apoptosis via activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increasing the expression of CHOP, and down-regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Depletion of CHOP or overexpression of Bcl2 significantly rescued Ilamycin E-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that Ilamycin E has anti-cancer activity in TNBC.

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