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1.
Opt Lett ; 44(19): 4817-4820, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568450

RESUMO

We demonstrate an enhanced efficiency of all-inorganic perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) by doping an electron acceptor of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) as a p-type dopant into the hole-transport layer (HTL) of poly-triarylamine (PTAA). The conductivity of the PTAA was improved by the formation of the CT complex through the electron transfer from the PTAA to F4TCNQ. Moreover, the hydrophobic surface of the PTAA leads to an improved surface morphology of the perovskite films compared to that on the conventionally used HTL of PEDOT:PSS. As a result, the maximum luminance and efficiency for the doped PTAA-based PeLEDs are 28020 cd/m2 and 13.5 cd/A, respectively, corresponding to 32.7% and 48% improvement in the efficiency compared to those of the pure PTAA or PEDOT:PSS-based PeLEDs.

2.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580738

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family proteins, with >160 members, are crucial for virulence, cell wall, host cell fate, host Th1/Th2 balance, and CD8+ T cell recognition. Ca2+ signaling is involved in PE/PPE protein-mediated host-pathogen interaction. PE/PPE proteins also function in heme utilization and nitric oxide production. PE/PPE family proteins are intensively pursued as diagnosis biomarkers and vaccine components.

4.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621928

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Black tongue syndrome (BT) is a rare and self-limiting disorder which can result from physiological and metabolic condition and ingestion of toxic substances. Medications are the most common cause of BT. CASE SUMMARY: A 39-year-old male patient presented with BT after the initiation of imipenem/cilastatin. Within one week of cessation of these drugs, the patient's tongue returned to a normal colour. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This is the first case of BT induced by imipenem/cilastatin. Withdrawal of the combination is likely to reverse the condition.

5.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633717

RESUMO

Carbon dots are a new kind of nanomaterial which has great potential in biomedical applications. Previously, we have synthesized novel Zn2+-passivated carbon dots (Zn-CDs) which showed good osteogenic activity in vitro. In this study, we will further investigate the osteogenic effects of Zn-CDs in vivo which is essential before their clinical use. Herein, Zn2+-passivated carbon dots (Zn-CDs) are prepared and characterized as previously reported. Then, the optimum dose for inducing osteoblasts was evaluated by MTS assay, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity test and alizarin red staining in vitro. Finally, a 5 mm diameter calvarial bone defect model was created in rats and Zn-CDs were applied for repairing the critical bone defect. It was shown that zinc gluconate (Zn-G) and Zn-CDs promoted the survival of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) when the zinc ion concentration was 10-4 mol L-1 (Zn-G: 45.6 µg mL-1) and 10-5 mol L-1 (Zn-CDs: 300 µg mL-1) or below respectively. With regard to the osteogenic capability, the ALP activity induced by Zn-CDs was significantly higher than that by Zn-G. Besides, the results of alizarin red staining showed that the area of calcified nodules was increased in a dose-dependent manner in the Zn-CD group. Moreover, there were more calcium nodules in the Zn-CD group than in the Zn-G group at the same concentration of Zn2+ (10-5 mol L-1). Taken together, Zn-CDs achieved the highest osteogenic effect at the concentration of 10-5 mol L-1 without affecting cell proliferation in long-term stimulation. Importantly, the volume of new bone formation in the Zn-CD group (6.66 ± 1.25 mm3) was twice higher than that in the control group (3.33 ± 0.94 mm3) in vivo. Further histological evaluation confirmed the markedly new bone formation at 8 weeks in the Zn-CD group. The in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that Zn-CDs could be a new predictable nanomaterial with good biocompatibility and fluorescence properties for guiding bone regeneration.

6.
Transfusion ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During sepsis, higher plasma cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels portend worse outcomes. In sepsis models, plasma proteins that bind CFH improve survival. In our canine antibiotic-treated Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia model, with and without red blood cell (RBC) exchange transfusion, commercial human haptoglobin (Hp) concentrates bound and compartmentalized CFH intravascularly, increased CFH clearance, and lowered iron levels, improving shock, lung injury, and survival. We now investigate in our model how very high CFH levels and treatment time affect Hp's beneficial effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two separate canine pneumonia sepsis Hp studies were undertaken: one with exchange transfusion of RBCs after prolonged storage to raise CFH to very high levels and another with rapidly lethal sepsis alone to shorten time to treat. All animals received continuous standard intensive care unit supportive care for 96 hours. RESULTS: Older RBCs markedly elevated plasma CFH levels and, when combined with Hp therapy, created supraphysiologic CFH-Hp complexes that did not increase CFH or iron clearance or improve lung injury and survival. In a rapidly lethal bacterial challenge model without RBC transfusion, Hp binding did not increase clearance of complexes or iron or show benefits seen previously in the less lethal model. DISCUSSION: High-level CFH-Hp complexes may impair clearance mechanisms and eliminate Hp's beneficial effect during sepsis. Rapidly lethal sepsis narrows the therapeutic window for CFH and iron clearance, also decreasing Hp's beneficial effects. In designing clinical trials, dosing and kinetics may be critical factors if Hp infusion is used to treat sepsis.

7.
Poult Sci ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504910

RESUMO

Stocking density is an important environment factor that affects the development of poultry farming, which has caused widespread concern. This study was carried out to determine the effects of stocking density on growth performance, growth regulatory factors, and endocrine hormones in broilers under appropriate environments. A total of 144 Arbor Acres male broilers (BW 1000 ± 70 g) were randomly divided into low stocking density (LSD; 6.25 birds/m2), medium stocking density (MSD; 12.50 birds/m2), and high stocking density (HSD; 18.75 birds/m2) groups, with 6 replicates in each group, and raised in 3 environmental chambers (same size) from 29-day-old to 42-day-old, respectively. The trial period lasted for 14 D with 21 ± 1°C and 60 ± 7% relative humidity, wind speed < 0.5 m/s, ammonia level<5 ppm. The results indicated that average daily food intake and average daily gain in HSD group showed significantly lower than other 2 groups (P < 0.05). Besides, the HSD group significantly reduced breast muscle yield, tibial length, tibial width, and tibial weight of broilers (P < 0.05). The HSD group increased the mRNA expression level of myostatin, and reduced the mRNA expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and myogenic determination factor 1 (P < 0.05). The HSD group significantly reduced the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in tibial growth plate (P < 0.05). The HSD group increased the serum corticosterone levels of broilers (P < 0.05), and decreased the serum IGF-1 and thyroxine (T4) levels of broiler chickens (P < 0.05) than other stocking density groups. Moreover, the serum alkaline phosphatase levels were decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing stocking density, whereas there were no significant effects on the serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in 3 groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, under appropriate environments HSD reduced the growth performance of broilers and this negative effect was likely associated with decreased growth of muscle and bone.

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 118: 44-65, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493709

RESUMO

Anxiety is presumably driven by fear memory. The nucleus accumbens involves emotional regulation. Molecular profiles in the nucleus accumbens related to stress-induced fear memory remain elucidated. Fear memory in mice was induced by a paradigm of social defeat. Physical and psychological stress was delivered to an intruder that was attacked by an aggressive resident. Meanwhile, an observer experienced psychological stress by seeing aggressor attacks. The nucleus accumbens tissues from intruder and observer mice that appear fear memory and anxiety as well as control mice were harvested for analyses of mRNA and miRNA profiles by high throughput sequencing. In the nucleus accumbens of intruders and observers with fear memory and anxiety, genes encoding AdrRα, AChRM2/3, GluRM2/8, HrR1, SSR, BDNF and AC are upregulated, while genes encoding DR3/5, PR2, GPγ8 and P450 are downregulated. Physical and/or psychological stress leads to fear memory and anxiety likely by molecules relevant to certain synapses. Moreover, there are differential expressions in genes that encode GABARA, 5-HTR1/5, CREB3, AChRM2, RyR, Wnt and GPγ13 in the nucleus accumbens from intruders versus observers. GABAergic, serotonergic and cholinergic synapses as well as calcium, Wnt and CREB signaling molecules may be involved in fear memory differently induced by psychological stress and physical/psychological stress. The data from analyzing mRNA and miRNA profiles are consistent. Some molecules are validated by qRT-PCR and dual luciferase reporter assay. Fear memory and anxiety induced by the mixture of physical and psychological stress or psychological stress appear influenced by complicated molecular mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134298, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505343

RESUMO

Many studies have examined the acute toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) towards model bacteria. In this study, we report the time-dependent effects of ZnO NPs on native, selected Zn-resistant and dominant bacteria in estuarine waters. An initial inhibition of bacterial growth followed by a recovery at 24 h was observed, and this rebound phenomenon was particularly notable when the raw water samples were treated with relatively high ZnO NP concentrations (1 and 10 mg/L).By comparing the groups treated with Zn2+, Zn2+ was shown to largely explain the acute cytotoxic effect of ZnO NPs on bacteria in raw waters. Furthermore, similar to the native bacteria, especially the dominant bacteria, the viability of Escherichia coli (E. coli) decreased with the increasing treatments time and the concentrations of ZnO NPs in water with different salinities. Moreover, the expression of Zn-resistance genes including zntA and zntR in E. coli suggested that the Zn-resistance system in E. coli can be activated to defend against the stress of Zn2+ released from ZnO NPs, and salinity may promote this process in estuarine aquatic systems. Thus, the effect of ZnO NPs on bacteria in estuarine water bodies is likely determined by the synergistic effect of environmental salinity and dissolved Zn ions. As such, our findings are of high relevance and importance for understanding the ecological disturbances caused by anthropogenic NPs in estuarine environments.

10.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546726

RESUMO

Mature 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were irradiated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and ultraviolet (UV) light for six days after harvest. Based on evaluation of the basic ripening parameters of fruits, the contents of soluble sugars, organic acids, and carotenoids were analyzed (in pulps) on the sixth day by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that LED and UV irradiation not only accelerated orange ripening but also caused significant changes in the soluble sugar, organic acid, and carotenoid content. Compared with fruit subjected to dark shade (DS) treatment, the total soluble sugar, fructose, and glucose contents increased significantly in UV-treated (UVA, UVB, and UVC) fruits, while the sucrose content increased remarkably in white light, UVB, and UVC-treated fruits (p < 0.05). UV treatment was associated with inducing the largest effect on the total soluble sugar content. Except for UVB, other types of light notably induced an accumulation of the total organic acid content, none but blue light and red light markedly induced citric acid accumulation (p < 0.05). Interestingly, only the red light and dark shade treatments had markedly positive effects in terms of inducing carotenoid accumulation, including the total carotenoid, isolutein, zeaxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, all-trans-violaxanthin, phytofluene, cis-ζ-carotene, and ß-carotene concentrations. Other light treatments had significantly negative effects on carotenoid accumulation (p < 0.05). Therefore, soluble sugar, organic acid, and carotenoid accumulation in sweet oranges vary depending on the levels of UV and LED irradiation. Appropriate light irradiation is a potentially effective way to maintain or improve postharvest fruit quality.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4098, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488850

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 39(9): 472-478, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine which factors drive patients with diplegic cerebral palsy to walk without knee recurvatum despite hyperextension of the knee on physical examination. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all data collected in the Gait Analysis Laboratory between 1999 and 2014. Patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy and at least 5 degrees of knee extension on clinical examination were identified for the study. After IRB approval, a total of 60 children ranging in age from 4 to 17 were included in the study. There were 27 female patients. Gross Motor Function Classification System level was distributed in the population as follows: 34 patients at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, 18 at level II, and 8 at level III. Patients were excluded from this study if they had extrapyramidal involvement, history of selective dorsal rhizotomy or lower extremity surgery. Patient who received botulinum toxin A injections within 1 year of the study were excluded as well. Patients were divided into 2 groups: children that walked with knee hyperextension (KH) and children that walked without knee hyperextension (KF, "knee flexion"). There were 15 subjects in the KH group and 45 subjects in the KF group. Motion Laboratory evaluation included a comprehensive examination, kinematics, and kinetic analysis with a VICOM system. All data were analyzed with unpaired t test to detect differences between the 2 groups. All statistical analysis was done only for the right legs (unless the right leg did not meet the exclusion then the left leg was analyzed) to meet the statistical requirement for independence. The Pearson correlation was applied to correlate the maximum knee extension in stance with maximum ankle dorsiflexion in stance. RESULTS: The static measurement of dorsiflexion with knee flexed showed statistically significant difference (P=0.004) with KH group having 2.3±11.6 degrees and KF group having 13.1±12.2 degrees. There was also a statistically significant difference in the static measurement of dorsiflexion with knee extended (P=0.0014) with KH group having -3.3±9.0 degrees and KF group having 5.8±9.1 degrees. Maximum dorsiflexion in stance phase also showed significant difference (P=0.0022) with the KH group having 0.1±14.0 degrees and KF group having 11.5±11.2 degrees. Maximum dorsiflexion in stance phase also showed significant difference (P<0.001) with the DH group having 0.1 (SD) 14.0 degrees and KF group having 11.5 (SD) 11.2 degrees. There were no significant differences in popliteal angle measurements or any strength measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the plantar flexion knee extension couple is the major contributing factor to cause patients with passive knee hyperextension to walk in a recurvatum pattern. This would have implications of further treatment of the knee hyperextension in stance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-case-control study.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4145, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515482

RESUMO

Crystallographic dislocation has been well-known to be one of the major causes responsible for the unfavorable carrier dynamics in conventional semiconductor devices. Halide perovskite has exhibited promising applications in optoelectronic devices. However, how dislocation impacts its carrier dynamics in the 'defects-tolerant' halide perovskite is largely unknown. Here, via a remote epitaxy approach using polar substrates coated with graphene, we synthesize epitaxial halide perovskite with controlled dislocation density. First-principle calculations and molecular-dynamics simulations reveal weak film-substrate interaction and low density dislocation mechanism in remote epitaxy, respectively. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution atomic force microscopy and Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy unveil the lattice/atomic and dislocation structure of the remote epitaxial film. The controlling of dislocation density enables the unveiling of the dislocation-carrier dynamic relation in halide perovskite. The study provides an avenue to develop free-standing halide perovskite film with low dislocation density and improved carried dynamics.

14.
Nanoscale ; 11(41): 19119-19139, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556427

RESUMO

Perovskite quantum dots (QDs) have been hotly pursued in recent decades owing to their quantum confinement effect and defect-tolerant nature. Their unique optical properties, such as high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) approaching unity, narrow emission bandwidth, tunable wavelength spanning the entire visible spectrum, and compatibility with flexible/stretchable electronics, render perovskite QDs promising for next-generation solid lighting sources and information displays. Herein, the advances in perovskite QDs and their applications in LEDs are reviewed. Strategies to fabricate efficient perovskite QDs and device configuration, including material composition design, synthetic methods, surface engineering, and device optimization, are investigated and highlighted. Moreover, the main challenges in perovskite QDs of instability and toxicity (lead-based) are identified, while the solutions undertaken with respect to composition engineering, device encapsulation, and lead-replacement QDs are demonstrated. Meanwhile, perspectives for the further development of perovskite QDs and corresponding LEDs are presented.

15.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 51(10): 1064-1070, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559416

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor clinical outcomes and without effective targeted therapies. Numerous studies have suggested that HDAC inhibitors (TSA/SAHA) may be effective in TNBCs. Proline oxidase, also known as proline dehydrogenase (POX/PRODH), is a key enzyme in the proline metabolism pathway and plays a vital role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we found that HDAC inhibitors (TSA/SAHA) significantly increased POX expression and autophagy through activating AMPK. Depletion of POX decreased autophagy and increased apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors in TNBC cells. These results suggest that POX contributes to cell survival under chemotherapeutic stresses and might serve as a potential target for treatment of TNBC.

16.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(9): 152449, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although increasing evidence has revealed that FOXD2-AS1 overexpression exists in various solid tumors, the value of FOXD2-AS1 as a prognostic marker in such cancers remains uncertain. Accordingly, the present research aimed to assess the association of FOXD2-AS1 with cancer prognosis and predict the biological function of FOXD2-AS1. METHODS: We systematically retrieved PubMed, PMC, Web of Science, EMBASE and Wiley Online Library databases for eligible articles published up to December 2018. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to evaluate the correlation of FOXD2-AS1 expression with overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological characteristics. We also used five Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets from breast cancer patients to explore the relationship between FOXD2-AS1 expression and prognosis. Finally, we validated FOXD2-AS1 expression in various carcinomas and predicted its biological function based on the public databases. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies with 2502 tumor patients were included. The pooled HRs demonstrated that FOXD2-AS1 overexpression was significantly associated with unfavorable OS (HR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.23-1.57, p < 0.001) and DFS (HR = 2.24, 95%CI: 1.55-3.23, p < 0.001) in tumor patients. The pooled ORs indicated that FOXD2-AS1 upregulation was related to large tumor size (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.26-1.85, p < 0.001), deep invasion depth (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.53-2.58, p < 0.001), distant metastasis (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.69-2.43, p < 0.001) and advanced TNM stage (OR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.06-1.72, p = 0.0150), but not to lymph node metastasis nor differentiation. Moreover, a similar pooled result for the OS of breast cancer patients was obtained (HR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.14-2.11, p = 0.0052) by analyzing GEO data. Finally, elevated FOXD2-AS1 expression in various solid tumor tissues was verified based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. Further functional prediction demonstrated that FOXD2-AS1 may participate in some cancer-related pathways. CONCLUSION: Elevated FOXD2-AS1 expression was associated with poor survival in patients with solid tumors and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for a variety of cancers.

17.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 55, 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human cancer cell lines are fundamental models for cancer research and therapeutic strategy development. However, there is no characterization of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in a large number of cancer cell lines. METHODS: Here, we apply four circRNA identification algorithms to heuristically characterize the expression landscape of circRNAs across ~ 1000 human cancer cell lines from CCLE polyA-enriched RNA-seq data. By using integrative analysis and experimental approaches, we explore the expression landscape, biogenesis, functional consequences, and drug response of circRNAs across different cancer lineages. RESULTS: We revealed highly lineage-specific expression patterns of circRNAs, suggesting that circRNAs may be powerful diagnostic and/or prognostic markers in cancer treatment. We also identified key genes involved in circRNA biogenesis and confirmed that TGF-ß signaling may promote biogenesis of circRNAs. Strikingly, we showed that clinically actionable genes are more likely to generate circRNAs, potentially due to the enrichment of RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites. Among these, circMYC can promote cell proliferation. We observed strong association between the expression of circRNAs and the response to drugs, especially those targeting chromatin histone acetylation. Finally, we developed a user-friendly data portal, CircRNAs in cancer cell lines (CircRiC, https://hanlab.uth.edu/cRic ), to benefit the biomedical research community. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the characterization of circRNAs in cancer cell lines and explored the potential mechanism of circRNA biogenesis as well as its therapeutic implications. We also provide a data portal to facilitate the related biomedical researches.

18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115061, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426963

RESUMO

In this study, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS)-vanillin imine (COS-Vani Imine)-based dual pH responsive nano-micelles (DPRNs) were synthesized. The resultant DPRNs were used for encapsulating genistein and its ultimate release upon pH change. The overall concept of DPRNs for the targeted delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs was successfully demonstrated. The DPRNs were spherical in shape, nanoscale in dimension (71.2-163.4 nm), with dual pH response. The encapsulation/loading of genistein into DPRNs was achieved and the resultant genistein-loaded DPRNs were stable under the physiological pH (˜7.4); under the cancer cell extracellular pH (˜6.8), the amino groups in COS is protonated, thus becoming positively charged, facilitating their adsorption onto negatively charged cancer cells. Under the cancer cell intracellular pH (˜5.0), the genistein-loaded DPRNs were destroyed as a result of the cleavage of pH sensitive benzoic imine, thereby releasing the loaded genistein.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 1229-1237, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412519

RESUMO

Underground drinking water is commonly contaminated with arsenite (As) and fluoride (F) associated with chronic kidney diseases in humans; however, the combined renal toxicity of these pollutants and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between As and F regarding toxic effects on the kidney of rat offspring exposed to pollutants during prenatal and postnatal development. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups that received NaAsO2 (50 mg/L), NaF (100 mg/L), NaAsO2 (50 mg/L) and NaF (100 mg/L) in drinking water, or clean water, respectively, during gestation and lactation. After weaning, six male pups were randomly selected from each group and continued on the same treatment as their mothers for up to three months. The results revealed that subchronic exposure to high-dose As and/or F decreased the organ coefficient of the kidneys and disrupted kidney ultrastructure, moreover inhibited the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the generation of malondialdehyde in the kidney. As exposure alone or combined with F led to an upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and its regulatory targets (Ho-1, Gclc, and Nqo1), whereas the effect of F alone was not significant. These results suggest that the renal toxicity of As and F is associated with the induction of mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress, and alters the expression of Nrf2 and its regulatory targets. Furthermore, variance analysis results showed that an interaction between As and F in the toxicity process.

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