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1.
Hum Resour Health ; 18(1): 29, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study compares perspectives on specialized ophthalmic medical institutions, identifies the gaps in property and geographic offerings, and explores the ways that ophthalmic medical institutions can better allocate resources. The results of this research will increase patient's access to equitable and high-quality ophthalmic care in China. METHODS: The data for this research was gathered from the Survey of China National Eye Care Capacity and Resource for the year 2015. The paper specified the number, professional level of expertise, and educational background of ophthalmic health personnel. The authors of the paper analyzed and compared the differences in ophthalmic care in public vs. private and urban vs. rural regions in China. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: Of the 395 specialized ophthalmic hospitals surveyed, 332 were private medical institutions (84%), and 63 were public (16%). Of the 26 607 ophthalmic personnel surveyed, working in specialized ophthalmic hospitals, 17 561 were in private hospitals (66%) and 9 046 were in public ones (34%). Furthermore, 22 578 of those personnel worked in urban ophthalmic institutions (85%) and 4 029 worked in rural ones (15%). As for regional differences, 14 090 personnel were located in eastern China (53%), 8 828 in central regions (33%), and 3 689 in the western regions (14%). CONCLUSIONS: Public ophthalmic medical institutions still face challenges in providing equitable and widespread care. The availability of well-staffed health centers varies significantly by region. These variations impact resource allocation and directly lead to inequalities and inaccessibility of health services in certain regions of China.

2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117248

RESUMO

Bacterial lung infections are major healthcare challenges killing millions of people worldwide and resulting in a huge economic burden. Both basic and clinical research have elucidated host mechanisms that contribute to the bacterial clearance where an indispensable role of immune cells has been established. However, the role of respiratory epithelial cells in bacterial clearance has garnered limited attention due to their weak inflammatory or phagocytic ability compared to immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. These studies often underappreciate the fact that epithelial cells are the most abundant cells in the lung, not only serving as building blocks but also providing immune protection throughout the lung. Epithelial cells function either independently to eradicate the pathogen or communicate with immune cells to orchestrate pathogen clearance. The epithelial cells have multiple mechanisms that include mucus production, antimicrobial peptide production, muco-ciliary clearance, and phagocytosis, all of which contribute to their direct antibacterial function. Secretion of cytokines to recruit immune cells and potentiate their antimicrobial activities is a pathway by which the epithelium contributes to bacterial clearance. Successful pathogens outsmart epithelial resistance and find a way to replicate in sufficient numbers to establish infections in the airway or lung epithelial surfaces. In this mini-review, we discuss evidences that establish important roles for epithelial host defense against invading respiratory bacterial pathogens and demonstrate how pathogens outsmart these epithelial immune mechanisms to successfully establish infection. Finally, we discuss briefly how to boost epithelial immunity to improve outcomes in bacterial lung infections.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196301

RESUMO

The application of screen-printed thin-film thermoelectric (TE) devices is still in its infancy, mainly due to low TE performance of screen-printed films and especially the poor electrical transport properties. Herein, we design and prepare a high-performance screen-printed Bi2Te3 film through introducing excessive Te-based nanosolder (Te-NS) to simultaneously realize the conduction channel construction and defect control. On one hand, the promoted carrier migration makes the electrical conductivity dramatically rise about 7 times, with a maximum power factor of 4.65 µW cm -1 K -2. Meanwhile, the defect formation mechanism in the screen-printed Bi2Te3 film after the introduction of Te-NS is also in-depth studied, and the bipolar conduction is reduced by increased generation of TeBi• and/or more suppression of BiTe', resulting in a postponed temperature of the maximum Seebeck coefficient. Hence, the large engineering power factor is achieved with excellent temperature linearity, indicating a possibility of screen-printed film application in a large temperature region. A TE device with a single leg has been fabricated to further demonstrate the generation validity. An open-circuit voltage of 11.34 mV and a maximum output power of 27.1 µW at a temperature gradient of 105 K have been achieved over a wide temperature range from 303 to 478 K. This study provides a theoretical and practical basis for the performance improvement of screen-printed TE films and devices.

5.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(4): 717-721, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005917

RESUMO

Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is still a challenge despite years of researching, especially for those of poor prognosis. Zhang and his team recently proved that FLT3 gene mutation was identified in ~5% of ALL and the mutation spectrum is different from AML. Recently, chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CART) therapy presents great efficacy in treating refractory leukemia. We report a case of a refractory ALL patient with FLT3-ITD mutations and unfavorable karyotypes, who failed to respond to chemotherapy and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, successfully treated by CART therapy. FLT3-ITD mutations were downregulated dramatically into 14.1% positive 3 days after the infusion and remained negative until now. MRD has stayed to be negative from the 10th day. This case suggests that CART-cell therapy might be effective in treating FLT3-ITD positive refractory ALL, implying the possibility to overcome the traditional prognosis scoring system for leukemia and providing a new chance for other leukemia patients with inferior prognosis factors.

6.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 367(4)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108899

RESUMO

Excessive secretion of inflammatory factors (cytokine storm) plays a significant role in H1N1-induced acute pneumonia, and autophagy acts as a cell-intrinsic mechanism to regulate inflammation. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), originating from the astragalus root, possesses multiple pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation. However, the influences of AS-IV on H1N1-induced autophagy and inflammation have remained elusive. It has been reported that H1N1 infection leads to the accumulation of autophagosomes but obstructs autophagosomes incorporating into lysosomes, whereas the present study showed that AS-IV enhanced autophagy activation in H1N1 infection. Furthermore, we found that AS-IV promoted H1N1-triggered formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Additionally, it was noted that AS-IV did not affect viral replication, mRNA level of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) and pro-IL-1ß protein level, but significantly decreased secretion of IL-1ß, and chloroquine (CQ, as an inhibitor of autophagy) increased secretion of IL-1ß in H1N1 infection. In conclusion, AS-IV stimulates the formation of autophagosomes and the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes in H1N1 infection and may lead to decreased IL-1ß secretion.

7.
Ann Bot ; 125(1): 119-130, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Roots take up phosphorus (P) as inorganic phosphate (Pi). Enhanced root proliferation in Pi-rich patches enables plants to capture the unevenly distributed Pi, but the underlying control of root proliferation remains largely unknown. Here, the role of auxin in this response was investigated in maize (Zea mays). METHODS: A split-root, hydroponics system was employed to investigate root responses to Pi supply, with one (heterogeneous) or both (homogeneous) sides receiving 0 or 500 µm Pi. KEY RESULTS: Maize roots proliferated in Pi-rich media, particularly with heterogeneous Pi supply. The second-order lateral root number was 3-fold greater in roots of plants receiving a heterogeneous Pi supply than in roots of plants with a homogeneous Pi supply. Root proliferation in a heterogeneous Pi supply was inhibited by the auxin transporter inhibitor 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). The proliferation of lateral roots was accompanied by an enhanced auxin response in the apical meristem and vascular tissues at the root tip, as demonstrated in a DR5::RFP marker line. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the response of maize root morphology to a heterogeneous Pi supply is modulated by local signals of Pi availability and systemic signals of plant P nutritional status, and is mediated by auxin redistribution.

9.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 27(1): 29-38, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635501

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the distribution of cataract surgery performed by ophthalmologists in China.Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate nationwide ophthalmological resources and capacity for cataract surgery in China⁠-The 2014 China National Eye Care Capacity and Resource Survey. Data analyzed in this report included regional distribution, urban-rural comparison, levels and types of medical institutions, and cataract surgery types and volume per surgeon. In China, only ophthalmologists at or above the level of attending are eligible to perform cataract surgery independently, so the ability of cataract surgery for ophthalmologists at or above the level of attending is analyzed in the current study. Descriptive statistics were used.Results: 36,333 ophthalmologists were included in this survey, which is an average of 1.33 ophthalmologists to every 50,000 population. Of the surgeons in this survey, 23,412 (50.22%) were attending or more senior ophthalmologists and were mainly distributed in eastern urban areas. Annual average cataract surgeries per ophthalmologist in China were 259 in 2017, less than 300 cases.Conclusion: The average number of ophthalmologists per population in China has achieved the goal of WHO's Vision 2020; however, these surgeons are concentrated in urban areas. Further, the ability of cataract surgery among ophthalmologists is unbalanced. The annual average cataract surgeries performed by ophthalmologists are insufficient, which is an important factor resulting in the current situation in China that ophthalmic service capacity has not met the requirements for eliminating cataract blindness.

10.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(3): 2891-2900, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602642

RESUMO

Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been widely reported to play pivotal roles in the regulation of human cancers. Although the oncogenic property of lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 3 (SNHG3) has been revealed in a variety of cancers, functions and regulatory mechanism of SNHG3 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain to be investigated. In this study, we detected the upregulated expression of SNHG3 in NSCLC tissues as well as cells through quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we determined that a high-level of SNHG3 was associated with a low overall survival rate of patients with NSCLC. Through gain and loss of function experiments, we demonstrated that SNHG3 had a significantly positive effect on NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. Mechanistic investigations revealed that SNHG3 was a predicted direct transcriptional target of E2F1. We observed that the transcriptional activation of SNHG3 could be induced by E2F1. To explore the mechanism, rescue experiments were carried out, which revealed that the cotreatment with SB-431542, JSI-124, or JSI-124 + SB-431542 rescued the effects brought by the overexpression of SNHG3 on NSCLC cell proliferation, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. Our results suggested that E2F1 activated SNHG3 and promoted cell proliferation and migration in NSCLC via transforming growth factor-ß pathway and interleukin-6/janus-activated kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, which implied that SNHG3 may be a biomarker for the treatment of patients with NSCLC.

11.
iScience ; 22: 123-132, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765993

RESUMO

Flagellated bacteria move collectively in a swirling pattern on agar surfaces immersed in a thin layer of viscous "swarm fluid," but the role of this fluid in mediating the cooperation of the bacterial population is not well understood. Herein, we use gold nanorods (AuNRs) as single particle tracers to explore the spatiotemporal structure of the swarm fluid. Individual AuNRs are moving in a plane of ∼2 µm above swarms, traveling for long distances in high speed without interferences from bacterial movements. The particles are lifted and transported by collective mixing of small vortices around bacteria during localized clustering and de-clustering of motile cells. Their motions fit the Lévy walk model, revealing efficient fluidic flows above the swarms. These flows provide obstacle-free highways for long-range material transportations, allow swarming bacteria to perform population-level communications, and imply the essential role of the fluid phase on the emergence of large-scale synergy.

12.
Infect Immun ; 87(9)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262980

RESUMO

Pneumonia due to Gram-negative bacteria is associated with high mortality. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium that is associated with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Bacteria have been described to release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that are capable of mediating systemic inflammation. The mechanism by which A. baumannii OMVs mediate inflammation is not fully defined. We sought to investigate the roles that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play in A. baumannii OMV-mediated pulmonary inflammation. We isolated OMVs from A. baumannii cultures and intranasally introduced the OMVs into mice. Intranasal introduction of A. baumannii OMVs mediated pulmonary inflammation, which is associated with neutrophil recruitment and weight loss. In addition, A. baumannii OMVs increased the release of several chemokines and cytokines in the mouse lungs. The proinflammatory responses were partially inhibited in TLR2- and TLR4-deficient mice compared to those of wild-type mice. This study highlights the important roles of TLRs in A. baumannii OMV-induced pulmonary inflammation in vivo.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/fisiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Vesículas Secretórias/fisiologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 24305-24312, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256395

RESUMO

Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key to air quality control and pollution prevention. Though receptor models have been widely used in source apportionment of VOCs, they are not applicable to identify the potential source of labile species. In this study, the potential source of methyl mercaptan (MeSH) near a large refining and petrochemical plant was identified using an indirect method. When wind directions were controlled, the study period was separated into two subperiods depending on the detection of MeSH. Relative contributions from potential sources were predicted by chemical mass balance model and positive matrix factorization model based on ambient concentrations of sulfur-free compounds. Both models predicted that petroleum refinery and petrochemical production were the dominant sources of VOCs in the study area. When MeSH was detected, the relative contribution from gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, or crude oil increased by 7.4 to 26.8% point, depending on wind direction and the predictive model used, suggesting a close relationship between MeSH and the emission from petroleum refinery. Consistent with the indirect source apportionment, among the coexisting VOCs, MeSH was most highly correlated or associated with ethane, propane, isobutane, cis-2-pentente, and isoprene, which are major components of the products or by-products of petrochemical refining processes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Poluição do Ar , Gasolina , Petróleo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vento
14.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(8): 1527-1533, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169510

RESUMO

Human activities have huge impact on the aquatic environment. Knowledge on sources of the contaminants provides guidelines to determine the ideal location and maintenance of monitoring stations, thus advancing environmental monitoring and pollution control. Factor analysis (FA) may be the most popular method for source identification, but the results should be affirmed. Following this logic, in this research, firstly the potential sources were determined, and secondly the contaminant concentrations in the source regions and the non-source regions were compared. To identify the potential sources, 75 meteorological, economic and social indicators were used to group the study regions. FA was used to reduce dimensionality and factor scores were calculated. The grouping was based on the weighted factor scores while the weight was variance explained by each factor respectively. Each group was supposed to correspond to a factor; that is, a potential source. The results indicated that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus and arsenic in wastewater were significantly different between groups. Animal husbandry, mining and/or energy industry were the main sources of COD, ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus; animal husbandry, mining, energy industry, and/or heavy and chemical industry were the main sources of phosphorus; humid climate and/or secondary industry were the main sources of arsenic.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , China , Humanos
15.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(12)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200432

RESUMO

The addition of expansive agents could overcome the main disadvantages of raw concrete including high brittleness and low tensile strength. Few studies have investigated the early hydration kinetics of expansive cementitious binders, though the findings from the early hydration kinetics are helpful for understanding their technical performances. In this study, mixtures of 3CaO•3Al2O3•CaSO4 and CaSO4 (i.e., ZY-type™ expansive agent) with different proportions of mineral admixtures (e.g., fly ash and slag) were added into cement pastes to investigate the early hydration kinetics mechanism of expansive cementitious binders. Early hydration heat evolution rate and cumulative hydration heat were measured by isothermal calorimeter. Kinetic parameters were estimated based on the Krstulovic-Dabic model and Knudsen equations. Mechanical performances of expansive cementitious binders were tested in order to evaluate if they met the basic requirements of shrinkage-compensating materials in technical use. The early hydration heat released from cementitious binders containing ZY-type™ expansive agent was much greater than that released by pure cement, supporting the idea that addition of the expansive agent would improve the reaction of cement. The early hydration kinetic rates were decreased due to the reactions of the mineral admixture (e.g., fly ash or slag) and the ZY-type™ expansive agent in the cement system. The hydration reaction of cementitious binders containing ZY-type™ expansive agent obeyed the Krstulovic-Dabic model well. Three processes are involved in the hydration reaction of cementitious binders containing ZY-type™ expansive agent. These are nucleation and crystal growth (NG), interactions at phase boundaries (I), and diffusion (D). The 14-day expansion rates of cementitious binders containing ZY-type™ expansive agent are in the range of 2.0 × 10-4 to 3.5 × 10-4, which could meet the basic requirements of anti-cracking performances in technical use according to Chinese industry standard JGJ/T 178-2009. This study could provide an insight into understanding the effects of expansive agents on the hydration and mechanical performances of cementitious binders.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156438

RESUMO

Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) is a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to display vasoprotective effects in chronic ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of DCA on vascular dementia (VD) and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated angiogenesis. After cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats, DCA was administered continuously for 21 days; following which, histological analysis, and cognitive functional tests were conducted. Rat bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated, their function and quantity were measured, and the effects of long-term administration of DCA on EPCs in a rat model of VD was studied. We found that long-term DCA administration improved cognitive function in VD rats, reduced brain infarct size and brain atrophy, increased VEGF and bFGF levels in vivo, promoted angiogenesis in damaged areas, and significantly improved EPC function in VD rats. Compared with the VD group, AKT, Nrf2, eNOS expression, and intracellular NO levels were elevated in EPCs of DCA-treated VD rats. In addition, GSK3ß and intracellular ROS levels were decreased. Simultaneously, it was found that DCA directly acted on EPCs, and improved EPC functional behavior. Taken together, these findings suggested that long-term DCA administration improved cognitive function in a rat model of VD, and did so in part, by improving EPC function. Observations suggest that prolonged DCA administration might be beneficial in treating VD.

17.
Electrophoresis ; 40(16-17): 2227-2234, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228277

RESUMO

Direct observation and characterization of individual noble metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and their chemical reactions have attracted much attention owing to their unique physical and chemical properties and extensive applications. To achieve high-throughput information-rich evaluation of MNPs, it would be advantageous to combine highly efficient microcolumn separation technology with on-column high resolution plasmonic imaging technique. Here, with a chromatic aberration-suppressed supercontinuum laser light-sheet scattering imaging system and colorimetric detection, we monitored oxidation process of single gold nanorods inside a capillary under gravity driven flow, and observed heterogenous reaction intermediates and pathways for different MNP surface modifications. The results suggest that molecular interactions and bindings with MNPs have a significant impact on their reaction kinetics. This high-throughput on-line single particle detection technique could be potentially applied to chemical and biochemical reaction studies of other MNPs.

18.
Exp Neurol ; 318: 165-173, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082390

RESUMO

Dopaminergic (DAergic) hypofunction in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and is regulated by serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The lateral habenula (LHb) is a key element in controlling DRN 5-HT neurons. We investigated how the LHb impacts the activity of mPFC neurons and whether it mediates the involvement of DRN on development of symptoms in a pharmacological animal model of schizophrenia. We used immunohisochemistry to assess cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity of the LHb in MK-801 model rats and extracellular firing recording to compare firing rates in LHb neurons of acute MK-801-treated rats. The sucrose preference, social interaction, and radial arm maze tests were used to access schizophrenia-like behavior in rats with electrolytically lesioned LHb. Finally, we examined levels of the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the mPFC, and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) in the DRN of rats with LHb lesions to determine the possible mechanism underlying the schizophrenia-like behavior associated with lesioned LHb. We found that COX levels and LHb neuron firing rates decreased significantly in MK-801-treated animals. The LHb lesions induced negative and cognitive, but not positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The D1R and TH levels decreased in the mPFC while TPH2 expression elevated in the DRN and mPFC of LHb-lesioned rats. These results suggest that LHb hypoactivity may contribute to the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia by downregulating D1R expression in the mPFC, which might be mediated by DRN 5-HT neurons.

19.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 87, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944034

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Abnormal glycolytic metabolism contributes to joint inflammation and destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examine the expression and function of hexokinases in RA and evaluate the potential of their specific inhibitor for clinical treatment. METHODS: Detection of HKs was assessed in synovial tissue by immunohistology and Western blot. SiRNA and a specific hexokinases inhibitor, lonidamine (LND), were used to evaluate the role of hexokinase-I/II (HK-I/II). Pro-inflammatory and glycolysis factors, cell viability, and apoptosis were assessed by ELISA, RT-qPCR, MTS, and flow cytometry. The clinical effects of LND on type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA-/1 mouse model was evaluated by scoring their clinical responses, synovitis, and cartilage destructions, and ELISA was employed to analyze the concentrations of antibody in the serum of CIA model. RESULTS: HK-I/II expression and their activities increased in the synovium of RA compared with osteoarthritis (OA). Silencing HK-I/II (siHK-I/II) or LND treatment decreased the production of pro-inflammatory factors, such as IL-6, IL-8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, and cell viability, but induced cell apoptosis of RASFs. The expression of TNF-α and IL-1ß of macrophage in response to LPS stimulation were depressed as well after treatment with siHK-I/II or LND. Furthermore, leucocyte infiltration co-cultured with RASFs was also suppressed after inhibiting the expression or activity of HK-I/II. These anti-inflammatory effects overlapped with their anti-glycolytic activities. Treatment with LND in mice with CIA decreased the production of antibodies against IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b and consequently attenuated joint inflammation and destruction. CONCLUSIONS: HK-I/II contribute to shape the inflammatory phenotype of RASFs and macrophages. LND may be a potential drug in treating patients with RA.

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