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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(1): 170-177, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100453

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a neuropeptide that has various physiological functions and has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in a number of neurological disease models. However, the underlying mechanisms of ghrelin in Parkinson's disease remain largely unexplored. The current study aimed to study the effects of ghrelin in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and evaluate the potential underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we treated an SH-SY5Y cell model with 6-OHDA, and observed that pretreatment with different concentrations of ghrelin (1, 10, and 100 nM) for 30 minutes relieved the neurotoxic effects of 6-OHDA, as revealed by Cell Counting Kit-8 and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assays. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay results demonstrated that 6-OHDA treatment upregulated α-synuclein and lincRNA-p21 and downregulated TG-interacting factor 1 (TGIF1), which was predicted as a potential transcription regulator of the gene encoding α-synuclein (SNCA). Ghrelin pretreatment was able to reverse the trends caused by 6-OHDA. The Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay results revealed that inhibiting either α-synuclein or lincRNA-p21 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) relieved 6-OHDA-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibiting lincRNA-p21 also partially upregulated TGIF1. By retrieving information from a bioinformatics database and performing both double luciferase and RNA immunoprecipitation assays, we found that lincRNA-p21 and TGIF1 were able to form a double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen homolog 1 (STAU1) binding site and further activate the STAU1-mediated mRNA decay pathway. In addition, TGIF1 was able to transcriptionally regulate α-synuclein expression by binding to the promoter of SNCA. The Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay results showed that either knockdown of TGIF1 or overexpression of lincRNA-p21 notably abolished the neuroprotective effects of ghrelin against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these findings suggest that ghrelin exerts neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity via the lincRNA-p21/TGIF1/α-synuclein pathway.

2.
Talanta ; 236: 122847, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635237

RESUMO

Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) is the most abundant protein in SARS-CoV2 and is highly conserved, and there are no homologous proteins in the human body, making it an ideal biomarker for the early diagnosis of SARS-CoV2. However, early detection of clinical specimens for SARS-CoV2 remains a challenge due to false-negative results with viral RNA and host antibodies based testing. In this manuscript, a microfluidic chip with femtoliter-sized wells was fabricated for the sensitive digital detection of N protein. Briefly, ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal)-linked antibody/N protein/aptamer immunocomplexes were formed on magnetic beads (MBs). Afterwards, the MBs and ß-Gal substrate fluorescein-di-ß-d-galactopyranoside (FDG) were injected into the chip together. Each well of the chip would only hold one MB as confined by the diameter of the wells. The MBs in the wells were sealed by fluorocarbon oil, which confines the fluorescent (FL) product generated from the reaction between ß-Gal and FDG in the individual femtoliter-sized well and creates a locally high concentration of the FL product. The FL images of the wells were acquired using a conventional inverted FL microscope. The number of FL wells with MBs (FL wells number) and the number of wells with MBs (MBs wells number) were counted, respectively. The percentage of FL wells was calculated by dividing (FL wells number) by (MBs wells number). The higher the percentage of FL wells, the higher the N protein concentration. The detection limit of this digital method for N protein was 33.28 pg/mL, which was 300 times lower than traditional double-antibody sandwich based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).


Assuntos
Imunoensaio/métodos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral
3.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822732

RESUMO

Vibrio harveyi is a common aquaculture pathogen causing diseases in a variety of aquatic animals. toxR, a conserved virulence-associated gene in vibrios, is identified in V. harveyi 345, a pathogenic strain isolated from diseased fish. In this study, to gain insight into function of ToxR in V. harveyi, an in-frame deletion of the toxR gene was constructed to reveal the role of ToxR in the physiology and virulence of V. harveyi. The statistical analysis showed no significant differences in the growth ability, motility, extracellular protease secretion, antibiotic susceptibility, virulence by intraperitoneal injection, and the ability of V. harveyi to colonize the spleen and liver tissues of the pearl gentian grouper between the wild-type (WT) and the toxR mutant. However, the deletion of toxR increased the biofilm formation. The structure of the V. harveyi biofilm was further analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the results showed that deletion of toxR increased the number and density of V. harveyi biofilm. Since biofilm production is flagella, exopolysaccharide (EPS), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dependent, 16 of V. harveyi biofilm-related genes were selected for further analysis. Based on quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), the expression levels of these genes, including genes flrB, motY, and mshA, flaE, flrA, and gmhD, were significantly up-regulated in the ΔtoxR+ strain as compared with the WT+ and C-ΔtoxR strains during the early and mid-exponential, while epsG, flaA, flaE, flgD, flgE, flrB, flrC, lpxB, motY, mshA, and scrG genes were inhibited because of deletion of the toxR gene in the stationary growth phase. Our results indicate that ToxR plays an important role in controlling the biofilm in V. harveyi.

4.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(30): 9302-9309, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DYNC1H1 gene encodes a part of the dynamic protein, and the protein mutations may further affect the growth and development of neurons, resulting in degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, and a variety of clinical phenotypes finally resulting in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 20 (CMT20), mental retardation 13 (MRD13) and spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominant 1 (SMA-LED). The incidence of the disease is low, and it is difficult to diagnose, especially in children. Here, we report a case of DYNC1H1 gene mutation and review the related literature to improve the pediatrician's understanding of DYNC1H1 gene-related disease to make an early correct diagnosis and provide better services for children. CASE SUMMARY: A 4-mo-old Chinese female child with adducted thumbs, high arch feet, and epileptic seizure presented slow response, delayed development, and low limb muscle strength. Electroencephalogram showed abnormal waves, a large number of multifocal sharp waves, sharp slow waves, and multiple spasms with a series of attacks. High-throughput sequencing and Sanger sequencing identified a heterozygous mutation, c.5885G>A (p.R1962H), in the DYNC1H1 gene (NM_001376) of the proband, which was not identified in her parents. Combined with the clinical manifestations and pedigree of this family, this mutation is likely pathogenic based on the American Academy of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. The child was followed when she was 1 year and 2 mo old. The magnetic resonance imaging result was consistent with the findings of white matter myelinated dysplasia and congenital giant gyrus. The extensive neurogenic damage to the extremities was considered, as the results of electromyography showed that the motor conduction velocity and sensory conduction of the nerves of the extremities were not abnormal, and the degree of fit of the children with severe contraction was poor. At present, the child is 80 cm in length and 9 kg in weight, with slender limbs and low muscle strength, and still does not raise her head. She cannot sit or speak. Speech, motor, and mental development was significantly delayed. There is still no effective treatment for this disease. CONCLUSION: We herein report a de novo variant of DYNC1H1 gene, c.5885G>A (p.R1962H), leading to overlapping phenotypes (seizure, general growth retardation, and muscle weakness) of CMT20, MRD13, and SMA-LED, but there is no effective treatment for such condition. Our case enriches the DYNC1H1 gene mutation spectrum and provides an important basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment and genetic counseling.

5.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-6, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decompensated tinnitus substantially degrades quality of life. Anxiety and poor sleep are comorbidities in decompensated tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: This multicenter study was designed to investigate the risk factors of decompensated tinnitus and to analyze the interaction effect of anxiety and poor sleep on decompensated tinnitus by conducting a multicenter study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with subjective chronic tinnitus who presented to five Chinese hospitals in China from September 2019 to November 2020. Demographic characteristics, pure tone audiometry, tinnitus-related tests, psychometric and sleep questionnaires were applied. RESULTS: A total of 338 patients were included, and 99 (29.3%) patients were in the decompensated group. Poor sleep and anxiety were possible risk factors of decompensated tinnitus by a forced-entry binary logistic analysis. Sleep disturbances and anxiety had an additive interaction that accounted for 87% of the decompensated tinnitus cases in our study population (RERI = 10.96, S = 18.22, AP = 0.87). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Anxiety and sleep disturbances are possible risk factors of decompensated tinnitus. The combination of poor sleep and anxiety exerts a greater impact on tinnitus severity than either risk factor alone.

6.
Fitoterapia ; 156: 105071, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743931

RESUMO

Adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells is an important initiating step in atherogenesis. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the diet, quercetin has been reported to inhibit monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. However, it is poorly absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract during oral intake but rather is metabolized by the intestinal microbiota into various phenolic acids. Since the biological properties of the microbial metabolites of quercetin remain largely unknown, herein, we investigated how the microbial metabolite of quercetin, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (3HPPA) impact monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Direct treatment with 3HPPA for 24 h was not cytotoxic to human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Cotreatment with 3HPPA inhibited tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to HAECs, and suppressed the upregulation of cell adhesion molecule E-selectin but not intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Furthermore, 3HPPA was found to inhibit TNFα-induced nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). We conclude that 3HPPA mitigates the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells by suppressing the expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-selectin in HAECs via inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, providing additional evidence for the health benefits of dietary flavonoids and their microbial metabolites as therapeutic agents in atherosclerosis.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8388258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659640

RESUMO

Oxidative stress (OS) arises when the body is subjected to harmful endogenous or exogenous factors that overwhelm the antioxidant system. There is increasing evidence that OS is involved in a number of diseases, including ovarian cancer (OC). OC is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, and risk factors include genetic factors, age, infertility, nulliparity, microbial infections, obesity, smoking, etc. OS can promote the proliferation, metastasis, and therapy resistance of OC, while high levels of OS have cytotoxic effects and induce apoptosis in OC cells. This review focuses on the relationship between OS and the development of OC from four aspects: genetic alterations, signaling pathways, transcription factors, and the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, strategies to target aberrant OS in OC are summarized and discussed, with a view to providing new ideas for clinical treatment.

8.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, certain efforts have been made to investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with EYS mutations. However, data for Chinese patients are limited. OBJECTIVES: To perform a detailed phenotyping and genetic characterization of 55 Chinese patients with EYS-RD, and to identify risk factors for these clinical data. METHODS: A total of 55 patients with EYS-RD were recruited. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), patient age, age at symptom onset, disease duration, and genetic information were collected. RESULTS: Thirty-six novel variants, three hot mutations of EYS (30.3%, c.6416G>A, c.6557G>A, c.7492G>C) and one hot region (49.06%, Laminin G domains) were identified. In all, 36.84% of the mutations occurred at base G site, and majority of mutations (56.56%) were missense. Late-truncating mutations are significantly more prevalent (41.30%). The mean age of onset was 15.65 ± 14.67 years old; it had no significant correlation with genotype. The average BCVA was 0.73 ± 0.93 LogMAR, and 61.8% of eyes had a BCVA better than 0.52 logMAR. BCVA was positively correlated with disease duration time. The mean MD was 23.18 ± 7.34 dB, MD showed a significant correlation with genotype and age. Cataract was present in 56.45% of patients, and 42.59% of patients showed an absence of pigmentation in the retina. Cataract and hyperpigmentation both showed a significant correlation with age. CONCLUSIONS: EYS-RD is associated with a moderate phenotype with onset around adolescence, but great variability. Our study largely enhances the current knowledge of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of EYS-RD, which could pave the way for better management of these patients.

9.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 2933199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707460

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is an important risk factor of low back pain. We previously found upregulated markers of fibrosis, the late stage of chronic inflammation, in degenerated IVD with a small number of clinical specimens. Here, we aimed to study on a larger scale the association of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an inflammation and/or pain marker, with IVDD. This study involved 107 LBP participants. The IVD degeneration level was graded on a 1-5 scale according to the Pfirrmann classification system. Discs at grades 1-3 were further grouped as white discs with grades 4-5 as black discs. We recorded baseline information about age, gender, body mass index (BMI), diabetes history, smoking history, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Their association with IVDD was statistically analyzed. The expression level of COX2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The total integrated COX2 optical density (IOD), number of COX2-positive cells, and total cell number of each image were counted and analyzed by Image-Pro Plus software. The IOD and number of COX2-positive cells were divided by the total cell number to obtain COX2 expression density (IOD/cell) and COX2 positivity (cell+/cell). As a result, among the baseline information investigated, only age was found to have a significant association with IVDD. The IOD/cell was found to be significantly increased from grade 2 to grade 5, as well as in black discs compared to white discs. The cell+/cell displayed the same trend that it increased in highly degenerative discs compared to their counterparts. In conclusion, the expression of COX2 is associated with IVDD, which highlights COX2 as a biomarker for IVD degeneration and indicates the involvement of inflammation and pain signaling in IVDD.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 126-133, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Excessive Internet use is a common health problem globally. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, correlates, and network structure of Internet addiction symptoms (Internet addiction hereafter) among Chinese pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study using Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) to evaluate Internet addiction and quality of life (QOL), respectively. Univariate analyses, multivariate logistic regression analyses, and network analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of a total of 1,060 women who completed the study, 320 (30.19%, 95% CI=27.42%-32.96%) women reported Internet addiction during or after pregnancy. Women with previous adverse pregnancy experiences (OR=1.831, P=0.001) and physical comorbidities (OR=1.724, P=0.004) had a higher likelihood of developing Internet addiction. Internet addiction was significantly associated with poor QOL in all domains. Network analyses revealed that IAT item 16 (request an extension for longer time spent online) was the most central symptom in the analyses, and also one of the strongest bridging symptoms linking the Internet addiction and QOL communities. LIMITATIONS: This was a cross-sectional study, all study findings were based on self-reported data, and possible recall bias and selection bias may exist. CONCLUSION: Internet addiction is common among Chinese pregnant and postpartum women, and is significantly associated with lower QOL. Effective strategies, especially focusing on central symptoms, are needed to reduce the impact of Internet addiction and improve QOL in pregnant and postpartum women.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567221

RESUMO

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, which currently lacks disease-modifying therapy to slow down its progression. Idebenone, a coenzyme Q10 (CQ10) analogue, is a well-known antioxidant and has been used to treat neurological disorders. However, the mechanism of Idebenone on PD has not been fully elucidated. This study aims to predict the potential targets of Idebenone and explore its therapeutic mechanism against PD. Method: We obtained potential therapeutic targets through database prediction, followed by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis. Next, we constructed and analyzed a protein-protein interaction network (PPI) and a drug-target-pathway-disease network. A molecular docking test was conducted to identify the interactions between Idebenone and potential targets. Lastly, a PD cell line of SH-SY5Y overexpressing mutant α-synuclein was used to validate the molecular mechanism. Result: A total of 87 targets were identified based on network pharmacology. The enrichment analysis highlighted manipulation of MAP kinase activity and the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway as potential pharmacological targets for Idebenone against PD. Additionally, molecular docking showed that AKT and MAPK could bind tightly with Idebenone. In the cell model of PD, Idebenone activated autophagy and promoted α-synuclein degradation by suppressing the AKT/mTOR pathway. Pretreating cells with chloroquine (CQ) to block autophagic flux could diminish the pharmacological effect of Idebenone to clear α-synuclein. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Idebenone exerts its anti-PD effects by enhancing autophagy and clearance of α-synuclein, thus providing a theoretical and experimental basis for Idebenone therapy against PD.

12.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559203

RESUMO

Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with an exaggerated platelet thrombotic response at sites of vascular injury. Here, a human medical examination report showed that elevated human plasma Hcy levels were positively correlated with enhanced blood coagulation and platelet activity, suggesting that humans with HHcy are more prone to thrombus formation at the sites of vascular injury. Accordingly, we observed accelerated platelet activation, primary hemostasis, and thrombus formation both in acute and chronic HHcy ApoE-/- mice. Upon Hcy administration in C57BL/6J mice, platelet aggregation, spreading, and clot retraction were markedly promoted. More importantly, homocysteine (Hcy) increased the affinity of platelet integrin αIIbß3 with ligands and enhanced integrin outside-in signaling by promoting membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure in vitro. Mechanistically, lipidomics analysis showed that lysophosphatidylcholines were the primary metabolites leading to clustering of HHcy-stimulated platelets. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity and autotaxin (ATX, a secreted lysophospholipase D) secretion were upregulated by Hcy, leading to membrane phospholipid hydrolysis and PS exposure. Moreover, secreted ATX directly interacted with integrin ß3. Inhibitors of cPLA2 and ATX activity blocked integrin αIIbß3 outside-in signaling and thrombosis in HHcy ApoE-/- mice. This study identifies a novel mechanism by which HHcy promotes platelet membrane phospholipid catabolism and extracellular ATX secretion to activate integrin outside-in signaling, consequently to exaggerate thrombosis. This study reveals an innovative approach to treat HHcy-related thrombotic diseases.

13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 738031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513963

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke are the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis is their common pathological foundation. It is known that atherosclerosis is characterized by endothelial activation/injury, accumulation of inflammatory immune cells and lipid-rich foam cells, followed by the development of atherosclerotic plaque. Either from arterial vessel wall or blood circulation, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, foam cells, and platelets have been considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Exosomes, as natural nano-carriers and intercellular messengers, play a significant role in modulation of cell-to-cell communication. Under physiological or pathological conditions, exosomes can deliver their cargos including donor cell-specific proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids to target cells, which in turn affect the function of the target cells. In this review, we will describe the pathophysiological significance of various exosomes derived from different cell types associated with atherosclerosis, and the potential applications of exosome in clinical diagnosis and treatment.

14.
Light Sci Appl ; 10(1): 183, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521809

RESUMO

Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) based on entanglement can directly transmit confidential information. However, the inability to simultaneously distinguish the four sets of encoded entangled states limits its practical application. Here, we explore a QSDC network based on time-energy entanglement and sum-frequency generation. In total,15 users are in a fully connected QSDC network, and the fidelity of the entangled state shared by any two users is >97%. The results show that when any two users are performing QSDC over 40 km of optical fiber, the fidelity of the entangled state shared by them is still >95%, and the rate of information transmission can be maintained above 1 Kbp/s. Our result demonstrates the feasibility of a proposed QSDC network and hence lays the foundation for the realization of satellite-based long-distance and global QSDC in the future.

15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 118: 213-218, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517139

RESUMO

Apoptosis plays essential roles in the immune defense mechanism against pathogen infection. Caspase 3 is a family of cysteine proteases involved in apoptosis and the immune response. In this study, the full-length of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) caspase 3 (designated as Sp-caspase 3) was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame of Sp-caspase 3 was comprised a 1035 bp, which encoded a putative protein of 344 amino acids. Sp-caspase 3 was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues with a high-level expression in hemocytes. Cellular localization analysis revealed that Sp-caspase 3 was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Over-expression of Sp-caspase 3 could induce cell apoptosis. In addition, V. Parahaemolyticus infection induced the relative expression of caspase-3 mRNA and increased caspase-3 activity. Knocking down Sp-caspase 3 in vivo significantly reduced cell apoptosis and increased mortality of mud crab after V. parahaemolyticus infection. These results indicated that Sp-caspase 3 played important roles in the immune response and apoptosis against bacterial infection.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575918

RESUMO

Dehydrocostus lactone (DHL), a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the traditional Chinese herbs Saussurea lappa and Inula helenium L., has important anti-inflammatory properties used for treating colitis, fibrosis, and Gram-negative bacteria-induced acute lung injury (ALI). However, the effects of DHL on Gram-positive bacteria-induced macrophage activation and ALI remains unclear. In this study, we found that DHL inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, the degradation of IκBα, and the activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, but enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and primary bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Given the critical role of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB and AMPK/Nrf2 signaling pathways in the balance of M1/M2 macrophage polarization and inflammation, we speculated that DHL would also have an effect on macrophage polarization. Further studies verified that DHL promoted M2 macrophage polarization and reduced M1 polarization, then resulted in a decreased inflammatory response. An in vivo study also revealed that DHL exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced ALI. In addition, DHL treatment significantly inhibited the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway and activated AMPK/Nrf2 signaling, leading to accelerated switching of macrophages from M1 to M2 in the MRSA-induced murine ALI model. Collectively, these data demonstrated that DHL can promote macrophage polarization to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype via interfering in p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling, as well as activating the AMPK/Nrf2 pathway in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggested that DHL might be a novel candidate for treating inflammatory diseases caused by Gram-positive bacteria.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/etiologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Plasticidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/metabolismo , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/patologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Thorax ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that compromised lung health may be linked to cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about its association with sudden cardiac death (SCD). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the link between impaired lung function, airflow obstruction and risk of SCD by race and gender in four US communities. METHODS: A total of 14 708 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants who underwent spirometry and were asked about lung health (1987-1989) were followed. The main outcome was physician-adjudicated SCD. Fine-Gray proportional subdistribution hazard models with Firth's penalised partial likelihood correction were used to estimate the HRs. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 25.4 years, 706 (4.8%) subjects experienced SCD. The incidence of SCD was inversely associated with FEV1 in each of the four race and gender groups and across all smoking status categories. After adjusting for multiple measured confounders, HRs of SCD comparing the lowest with the highest quintile of FEV1 were 2.62 (95% CI 1.62 to 4.26) for white males, 1.80 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.15) for white females, 2.07 (95% CI 1.05 to 4.11) for black males and 2.62 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.65) for black females. The above associations were consistently observed among the never smokers. Moderate to very severe airflow obstruction was associated with increased risk of SCD. Addition of FEV1 significantly improved the predictive power for SCD. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired lung function and airflow obstruction were associated with increased risk of SCD in general population. Additional research to elucidate the underlying mechanisms is warranted.

18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417573

RESUMO

Ethyl ferulate (EF) is abundant in Rhizoma Chuanxiong and grains (e.g., rice and maize) and possesses antioxidative, antiapoptotic, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is still unknown. In the present study, we found that EF significantly alleviated LPS-induced pathological damage and neutrophil infiltration and inhibited the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) in murine lung tissues. Moreover, EF reduced the gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and iNOS and decreased the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and BMDMs. Mechanistic experiments revealed that EF prominently activated the AMPK/Nrf2 pathway and promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation. AMPK inhibition (Compound C) and Nrf2 inhibition (ML385) abolished the beneficial effect of EF on the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the protective effect of EF on LPS-induced ALI was not observed in Nrf2 knockout mice. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that EF ameliorates LPS-induced ALI in an AMPK/Nrf2-dependent manner. These findings provide a foundation for developing EF as a new anti-inflammatory agent for LPS-induced ALI/ARDS therapy.

19.
ASN Neuro ; 13: 17590914211037505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463559

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of high morbidity, mortality, and disability worldwide; however, the treatment methods are limited and do not always achieve satisfactory results. The pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is complex, defined by multiple mechanisms; among them, programmed death of neuronal cells plays a significant role. Ferroptosis is a novel type of regulated cell death characterized by iron redistribution or accumulation and increased lipid peroxidation in the membrane. Ferroptosis is implicated in many pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this review, we summarize current research findings on ferroptosis, including possible molecular mechanisms and therapeutic applications of ferroptosis regulators, with a focus on the involvement of ferroptosis in the pathogenesis and treatment of ischemic stroke. Understanding the role of ferroptosis in ischemic stroke will throw some light on the development of methods for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this devastating disease.

20.
PLoS Biol ; 19(8): e3001348, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351905

RESUMO

Beige fat dissipates energy and functions as a defense against cold and obesity, but the mechanism for its development is unclear. We found that interleukin (IL)-25 signaling through its cognate receptor, IL-17 receptor B (IL-17RB), increased in adipose tissue after cold exposure and ß3-adrenoceptor agonist stimulation. IL-25 induced beige fat formation in white adipose tissue (WAT) by releasing IL-4 and IL-13 and promoting alternative activation of macrophages that regulate innervation and up-regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) up-regulation to produce more catecholamine including norepinephrine (NE). Blockade of IL-4Rα or depletion of macrophages with clodronate-loaded liposomes in vivo significantly impaired the beige fat formation in WAT. Mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) were protected from obesity and related metabolic disorders when given IL-25 through a process that involved the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis. In conclusion, the activation of IL-25 signaling in WAT may have therapeutic potential for controlling obesity and its associated metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Bege/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Bege/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3 , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Homeostase , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/fisiologia
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