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1.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820419

RESUMO

Herein, we describe a highly effective 1,8-conjugate-addition-mediated formal (3+3)-annulation of (aza)-para-quinone methides in situ generated from propargylic alcohols with 4-hydroxycoumarins and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds under the catalysis of a Brønsted acid. This methodology affords efficient and practical access to synthetically important and highly functionalized pyranocoumarins and pyrans in excellent yields under mild conditions. Importantly, these products exhibit impressive inhibitory activity toward α-glucosidase.

2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 262: 117949, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838826

RESUMO

Uniaxially assembling cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) can induce strong solid-state emission based on optical inelastic scattering, whereas the CNC assembly membranes are not flexible enough for further applications. Thus, we introduced CNC into flexible sodium alginate (SA) and further controlled the assembly structure of CNC to increase the membrane toughness and maintain the emission properties. The results indicated that the stretchability increased from 0.027 % to 37 % when 33-37% when 33 % SA was introduced. The assembly achirality was controlled by tuning CNC concentration in suspension, and the co-assembly could further control the wavelength of the assembly-induced emission from 420 nm to 440 nm. Furthermore, the improved stretchability made assembly membrane an optical sensor, whose excitation wavelength blue-shifted about 30 nm under a 30 % strain. The emission of the co-assembly membrane could also respond to humidity, and this cellulose-based material should have great potential in biosensor and wearable devices.

3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-46, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840358

RESUMO

Influenza H3N8 viruses have been recovered frequently from wild bird species, including Anseriformes (primarily from migratory ducks) and Charadriiformes (primarily from shorebirds). However, little attention has been given to the transmission ability of H3N8 avian influenza viruses among mammals. Here, we study the potential human health threat and the molecular basis of mammalian transmissibility of H3N8 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild bird reservoirs. We classified eight H3N8 viruses into seven different genotypes based on genomic diversity. Six of eight H3N8 viruses isolated naturally from wild birds have acquired the ability to bind to the human-type receptor. However, the affinity for α-2,6-linked SAs was lower than that for α-2,3-linked SAs. Experiments on guinea pigs demonstrated that three viruses transmitted efficiently to direct-contact guinea pigs without prior adaptation. Notably, one virus transmitted efficiently via respiratory droplets in guinea pigs but not in ferrets. We further found that the PB1 S524G mutation conferred T222 virus airborne transmissibility between ferrets. We also determined that the 524G mutant increased viral pathogenicity slightly in mice compared with the WT (wild type). Based on these results, we elucidated the potential human health threat and molecular basis of mammalian transmissibility of H3N8 influenza viruses. We emphasized the need for continued surveillance of the H3N8 influenza viruses circulating in birds.

4.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(3): 43-53, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822498

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum mycelia are rich in active substances such as triterpenoids and sterols. However, reports on the development of effective submerged fermentation processes are lacking and the resulting total triterpene and sterol yield is still quite low. In this study, a new G. lucidum strain G0017 mycelium isolated by screening was studied in a 3-L fermenter to investigate the effect of aeration rate in liquid submerged fermentation production of triterpenoids and sterols. By fitting the specific mycelial growth rate and the specific production rate of the triterpenoid and sterol model, an effective multistage aeration rate control process for triterpenoid and sterol fermentation production was developed. This process was validated and proven in 3-L and 50-L fermenters. The resulting yields of triterpenoids and sterols were 3.34 and 3.46 g/L, respectively, which were 69.54% and 75.63% higher than the fixed aeration rate of 1.50 volume of air per volume of liquid per minute. This optimized fermentation production process conceivably could be applied to larger-scale industrial production and perhaps also to improve liquid submerged fermentation processes with relevant edible and medicinal mushrooms.

5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009227, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647020

RESUMO

Since its first emergence in 2012, cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have continued to occur. At the end of January 2020, 2519 laboratory confirmed cases with a case-fatality rate of 34.3% have been reported. Approximately 84% of human cases have been reported in the tropical region of Saudi Arabia. The emergence of MERS-CoV has highlighted need for a rapid and accurate assay to triage patients with a suspected infection in a timely manner because of the lack of an approved vaccine or an effective treatment for MERS-CoV to prevent and control potential outbreaks. In this study, we present two rapid and visual nucleic acid assays that target the MERS-CoV UpE and N genes as a panel that combines reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification with a closed vertical flow visualization strip (RT-RPA-VF). This test panel was designed to improve the diagnostic accuracy through dual-target screening after referencing laboratory testing guidance for MERS-CoV. The limit of detection was 1.2×101 copies/µl viral RNA for the UpE assay and 1.2 copies/µl viral RNA for the N assay, with almost consistent with the sensitivity of the RT-qPCR assays. The two assays exhibited no cross-reactivity with multiple CoVs, including the bat severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV), the bat coronavirus HKU4, and the human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, HKU1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Furthermore, the panel does not require sophisticated equipment and provides rapid detection within 30 min. This panel displays good sensitivity and specificity and may be useful to rapidly detect MERS-CoV early during an outbreak and for disease surveillance.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Transcrição Reversa , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 71, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602894

RESUMO

Mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics plays a fundamental role in neuroprotection; however, there is still a severe lack of therapeutic targets for this biological process. Here, we found that the naturally derived small molecule echinacoside (ECH) significantly promotes mitochondrial fusion progression. ECH selectively binds to the previously uncharacterized casein kinase 2 (CK2) α' subunit (CK2α') as a direct cellular target, and genetic knockdown of CK2α' abolishes ECH-mediated mitochondrial fusion. Mechanistically, ECH allosterically regulates CK2α' conformation to recruit basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3) to form a binary protein complex. Then, the CK2α'/BTF3 complex facilitates ß-catenin nuclear translocation to activate TCF/LEF transcription factors and stimulate transcription of the mitochondrial fusion gene Mfn2. Strikingly, in a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, ECH administration was found to significantly improve cerebral injuries and behavioral deficits by enhancing Mfn2 expression in wild-type but not CK2α'+/- mice. Taken together, our findings reveal, for the first time, that CK2 is essential for promoting mitochondrial fusion in a Wnt/ß-catenin-dependent manner and suggest that pharmacologically targeting CK2 is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke.

8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566453

RESUMO

H9N2 influenza virus has been reported worldwide for several decades, and it has evolved into multiple genotypes among domestic poultry. However, the study involving ecology and evolution of low pathogenic avian influenza virus H9N2 in wild birds in China is limited. Here, we carried out surveillance of avian influenza virus H9N2 in wild birds along with the East Asian-Australian migratory flyway in China in 2017. To estimate the prevalence of H9N2 avian virus in wild birds, information on exposure of wild bird populations to H9N2 viruses using serology, in addition to virology, would greatly improve monitoring capabilities. In this study, we also present serological data of H9N2 among wild birds in China during 2013-2016. We report the identification of poultry-derived H9N2 isolates from asymptomatic infected multispecies wild birds such as Common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Little owl (Athene noctua) and Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) in North China in June 2017. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Tianjin H9N2 isolates belong to the G81 and carry internal genes highly homologous to human H10N8 and H7N9. The isolates could directly infect mice without adaptation but were restricted to replicate in the respiratory system. Glycan-binding preference analyses suggested that the H9N2 isolates have acquired a binding affinity for the human-like receptor. Notably, results from transmission experiment in guinea pigs and ferrets demonstrated the wild birds-derived H9N2 influenza virus exhibits efficient transmission phenotypes in mammalian models via respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that the H9N2 AIVs continued to circulate extensively in wild bird populations and migratory birds play an important role in the spread and genetic diversification of H9N2 AIVs. The pandemic potential of H9N2 viruses demonstrated by aerosol transmission in mammalian models via respiratory droplets highlights the importance of monitoring influenza viruses in these hosts.

9.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 166: 201-211, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610658

RESUMO

Chronic alcoholism often causes liver injuries characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation as well as oxidative stress and finally leads to advanced cirrhosis and liver cancer. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FASTK) and its homologs are gradually known as multifunctional proteins involved in various biological processes; however, the role of FASTK and its family members in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is still unexplored. Here we found that, among FASTK family members, the expression of FASTK was specifically induced both in livers of mice received chronic ethanol ingestion and in ethanol-stimulated hepatocytes. Animal studies showed that genetic deletion of FASTK attenuated chronic ethanol ingestion-induced liver damage, steatosis, and inflammation. Moreover, FASTK deficiency was associated with improved oxidative/anti-oxidative system homeostasis and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in livers upon chronic ethanol stimulation. Importantly, FASTK ablation preserved hepatic sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression/activity upon chronic ethanol ingestion and SIRT1 silencing via adenovirus-mediated small interfering RNA transfer diminished FASTK deletion-elicited beneficial effects on alcohol-associated hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Mechanistically, ethanol increased the phosphorylation of human antigen R (HuR, a RNA binding protein that stabilizes SIRT1 mRNA) and triggered the dissociation of HuR-SIRT1 mRNA complex, in turn promoting SIRT1 mRNA decay. Genetic deletion of FASTK diminished ethanol-induced HuR phosphorylation and HuR-SIRT1 mRNA complex dissociation, thereby enhancing SIRT1 mRNA stability. Collectively, these findings for the first time highlight a critical role of FASTK in the pathogenesis of ALD and implicate HuR-SIRT1 mRNA complex involves in this process.

10.
Analyst ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295353

RESUMO

In recent years, α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) have played a significant role in the treatment of type II diabetes (T2D), so it is necessary to develop a reliable and sensitive method to find new AGIs. Herein, we establish a novel method based on fluorescent carbon nitride nanoparticles (CNNPs) for the sensitive detection of the activity of α-glucosidase (α-glu) and the screening of its inhibitors. A CNNP-based fluorescent probe is synthesized from green raw materials, urea and lysine, by a one-pot method. In the presence of α-glu, the substrate 4-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG) is hydrolyzed to generate 4-nitrophenol (pNP), leading to the fluorescence (FL) quenching of CNNPs due to the inner filter effect (IFE). On the other hand, the activity of α-glu is inhibited after the addition of AGIs, which turns on the FL of CNNPs. In this way, the detection of α-glu activity and the screening of AGIs are achieved. The linear range is 1.25-10.00 U L-1 with a limit of detection as low as 0.17 U L-1 and the IC50 values of two typical inhibitors (gallic acid and acarbose) are 813 µM and 465 µM, respectively. The CNNP probe is further applied for the determination of α-glu activity in human serum samples with satisfactory results.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 590732, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281787

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe infectious disease, which can through mosquito bites, direct contact and aerosol transmission infect sheep, goats, people, camels, cattle, buffaloes, and so on. In this paper, a conserved region of the S RNA segment of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) ZH501 strain was used as target sequence. The RVFV RT-LAMP-VF assay was successfully established combined reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification with a vertical flow visualization strip. The detection limit is up to 1.94 × 100 copies/µl of synthesized RVFV-RNA. RNA extracted from cell culture of an inactivated RVFV-BJ01 strain was also used as templates, and the detection limit is 1.83 × 103 copies/µl. In addition, there was no cross-reactivity with other viruses that can cause similar fever symptoms. The RVFV-LAMP-VF assay exhibited very high levels of diagnostic sensitivity, which had 100-fold more sensitive than RVFV real-time RT-PCR assay. Accordingly, the RVFV RT-LAMP-VF assay developed in this study is suitable for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of RVFV without specialized equipment and can rapidly complete detection within 60 min, and the results are visible by vertical flow visualization strip within 5 min.

12.
Vet Microbiol ; 251: 108920, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197867

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the causative agent of canine distemper (CD), which is one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild and domestic carnivores. Vaccination represents an effective approach to prevent CDV infection among domestic carnivores. Canarypox-vectored recombinant CD vaccines (such as Recombitek CDV, PureVax Ferret Distemper, and Merial) with the CDV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) genes can induce a potent immune response in dogs and ferrets. However, the vaccine's effectiveness varies with the species. In the current study, we developed a highly efficient recombinant canarypox virus termed as "ALVAC-CDV-M-F-H/C5-" that contained CDV virus-like particles (VLPs) by using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method, which enabled concurrent expression of the matrix (M), H, and F genes. The recombinant strain provided faster seroconversion than the parent strain among minks as well as provided higher rates of antibody positivity than the parent strain among foxes and minks even before the administration of a second booster vaccination. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be applied for the rapid and efficient modification of the ALVAC-CDV-F-H genome and also that a high-dose new recombinant strain that produces CDV VLPs may present good outcomes in the prevention of CD among foxes and minks.

13.
Vet Microbiol ; 251: 108906, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160196

RESUMO

Rabies remains an important public health threat in most developing countries. To develop a more effective and safe oral vaccine against rabies, we constructed recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 carrying one or two copies of the G gene with a dendritic cell-targeting peptide (DCpep) fused at the C-terminal designated NC8-pSIP409-sRVG or NC8-pSIP409-dRVG, respectively. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of these recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum against RABV were evaluated by oral administration in a mouse model. The results showed that recombinant NC8-pSIP409-dRVG possessed more G protein, resulting in more functional maturation of DCs. After three cycle of oral immunization, NC8-pSIP409-dRVG induced significantly higher levels of specific IgG antibody and mixed Th1/Th2 with a strong Th1-biasd immune response in mice. Most importantly, although the titers of RABV neutralizing antibody (VNA) were below the threshold of 0.5 IU/mL, the NC8-pSIP409-dRVG could protect 60 % of inoculated mice against lethal RABV challenge. These data reveal that recombinant NC8-pSIP409-dRVG may be a novel and promising oral vaccine candidate to prevent and control of animal rabies.

14.
Front Chem ; 8: 585723, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102449

RESUMO

Frequent oil-leakage accidents and large quantities of oil-bearing wastewater discharge cause severe environmental pollution and huge economic losses. Recently, superwetting porous materials are successfully utilized to separate oil/water mixture (OWM) based on the different interfacial behavior of water and oil. Here, we summarize the recent development of efficient oil/water separation (OWS) based on the femtosecond laser-induced superwetting materials. The typical wettability-based separation manners (including "oil-removing" and "water-removing") and the characteristic of the femtosecond laser are introduced as background. Various laser-structured porous sheets with either superhydrophobicity or underwater superoleophobicity are successfully used to separate different OWMs. The laser processing methods, surface wettability, separation process, and separation mechanism of these laser-structured separation materials are reviewed. Finally, the current challenges and prospects in achieving OWS by femtosecond laser microfabrication are discussed.

15.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(6): 2177-2186, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909067

RESUMO

Wound age estimation is a complex, multifactorial issue. It is considered to have great practical significance that combining multi-biomarkers and multi-methods for injury time estimation. We optimized our earlier "up, no change, or down" model by adding data on the expression levels of mRNAs encoding ABHD2, MAD2L2, and ARID5A, and we converted the relative quantitative expression levels of seven genes into a vector rather than a color model. We used Python to derive the cosine similarity (CS) between a test set and the vector matrix; the highest similarity most accurately reflected the injury time. For the optimized model, the internal and external verifications were approximately 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The good double-blinded results indicated that the model was stable and reliable. In summary, we used a vector matrix and cosine similarities derived by Python to mine the levels of genes expressed in contused skeletal muscle. We are the first to combine several biomarkers and methods for wound age estimation.

16.
J Org Chem ; 85(20): 13306-13316, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991169

RESUMO

Herein, we report an efficient Brønsted acid-catalyzed formal (3+3)-annulation of (aza)-para-quinone methides generated in situ from propargylic alcohols with naphthol derivatives, which involves a 1,8-conjugate addition/6-endo annulation process. This protocol provides an effective method for preparing important functionalized pyranocoumarins under mild conditions.

17.
Biosci Rep ; 40(7)2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614041

RESUMO

Recent years, it is a highly debated topic that whether methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and A1298C polymorphism could increase susceptibility to venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the Asian and Caucasian. Therefore, we expect to settle that controversy evidentially. Basic methods: Electronic databases (Pubmed, embase, Cochrane library, scopus, OvidSP, Wiley Online library, Springer link, EBSCO, Elsevier Science Direct, Google scholar) without date limitation were searched. Crude odds ratio (OR) along with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated to assess the association quantitatively. Finally, a total of 37 eligible studies were included, containing 31 for MTHFR C677T polymorphism and 6 for MTHFR A1298C polymorphism. The pooled results suggested that MTHFR C677T mutation may increase susceptibility to VTE in reverse recessive model (CC+CT vs TT): OR = 0.68 (0.56, 0.83), reverse dominant model (CC vs CT +TT): OR = 0.82 (0.72, 0.94), heterozygote model (CT vs TT): OR = 0.65 (0.52, 0.81), homozygote model (CC vs TT): OR = 0.73 (0.60, 0.89) and allele model (C vs T): OR = 0.80 (0.71, 0.90). Subgroup analysis about Asian also support that results, but Caucasian group not. In addition, MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may be not related to VTE in all genetic model. The results of meta-analysis indicated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism might increase the risk of VTE, especially in Asian population.

18.
Exp Eye Res ; 197: 108125, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622067

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the feasibility of reconstructing corneal endothelial sheets by seeding non-infected monoclonal human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) onto porcine Descemet's membrane (DM) and verifying the function in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Denuded porcine DM was decellularized for haematoxylin and eosin staining, and DNA was removed via incubation with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE). The physical properties of the incubated DMs were evaluated and compared to those of unincubated DMs. The non-infected monoclonal HCECs were examined by chromosome analysis and the cell proliferation was evaluated by BrdU-labelling. Then HCECs at passage 30 were then seeded on the DM and cultured for approximately 5 days. The cell growth, density and expression of the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase), the tight-junction-associated protein zonula occludens (ZO-1) and acetylated alpha tubulin were examined by electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry to compare HCECs cultivated on porcine DM and those cultured in vitro. Cells on the reconstructed HCEC sheets were labeled with DiI, and the sheets were subsequently transplanted into cat eyes via DM endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). The corneal transparency, thickness, anterior segment, and HCEC density were monitored in vivo, and the corneal endothelial cell morphology and histological structure were examined ex vivo 98 days after surgery. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the elongation at break of the DMs and the thickness of the DMs incubated with EGDE compared to those of the unincubated DMs (P > 0.05). Results of chromosome analysis shown the number of the HCEC cell line was still 46 and no abnormal chromosome structure was found. BrdU-labelling shown the HCECs stopped proliferating after 5 days and the cells formed a single layer. The cells transferred to porcine DM formed tight connections with the substrate and generated layers of hexagonal cells on day 5. Adjacent cells cultivated on DM were closely attached to each other, tightly adhered to the porcine DM and expressed the Na+/K+-ATPase, ZO-1 protein and acetylated alpha tubulin, as did HCECs cultured in vitro. In addition, the HCEC density on DMs was 3020.14 ± 52.30 cells/mm2. After surgery, the corneas gradually became transparent, and the thickness decreased to 525.33 ± 56.23 µm at day 98 after the transplantation, while the control corneas showed consistent oedema during the monitoring period. The HCEC density was 2521.60 ± 78.24 cells/mm2 in vivo 98 days after transplantation. The histological results showed that the DiI-labeled cells were dense in the transplanted area and had a hexagonal or polygonal morphology and a normal ultrastructure; adjacent cells were closely attached to each other and tightly adhered to the porcine DM. CONCLUSIONS: Seeding non-infected monoclonal HCECs on porcine DM could reconstruct functional corneal endothelial sheets. These results may help uncover new applications for tissue-engineered endothelium in endothelial keratoplasty.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12026, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694571

RESUMO

This study was aimed to describe the standardized treatment rate of syphilis-infected pregnant women in Hunan province and to explore the determinants for standardized treatment. All syphilis-infected pregnant women registered in the Information System of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of Syphilis Management (IPMTCT) in Hunan between January 2015 and December 2018 were included in this study. Among 9,059 pregnant women with syphilis, 7,797 received syphilis treatment, with a treatment rate of 86.1%, and 4,963 underwent standardized syphilis treatment, with an average standardized treatment rate of 54.8%. The facilitators for the standardized treatment included abnormal reproductive histories (aOR = 1.15, 95%CI:1.03-1.28), time of first prenatal care within 1-12 weeks (aOR = 5.17, 95%CI:4.19-6.37) or within 13-27 weeks (aOR = 5.56, 95%CI:4.46-6.92), previous syphilis infection (aOR = 1.64, 95%CI: 1.48-1.81), and definite syphilis infection status of sexual partner (negative: aOR = 1.73, 95%CI:1.57-1.91; positive: aOR = 1.62, 95%CI:1.34-1.95). The barriers included marital status being unmarried/divorced/widowed (aOR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.65-0.99), pluripara (aOR = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.46-0.74), number of children ≥ 2 (aOR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.35-0.57), and syphilis clinical stage being primary/secondary/tertiary (aOR = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.58-0.88) or unclear (aOR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.70-0.86). Though the treatment rate of syphilis-infected pregnant women was high, the standardized treatment rate was low. The facilitators and barriers on standardized treatment of gestational syphilis were identified at the patient level.

20.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575562

RESUMO

Hyperactivation of microglia in the brain is closely related to neuroinflammation and leads to neuronal dysfunction. Costunolide (CTL) is a natural sesquiterpene lactone with wide pharmacological activities including anti-inflammation and antioxidation. In this study, we found that CTL significantly inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. Moreover, CTL effectively attenuated IKKß/NF-κB signaling pathway activation. To identify direct cellular target of CTL, we performed high-throughput reverse virtual screening assay using scPDB protein structure library, and found cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) was the most specific binding protein for CTL. We further confirmed the binding ability of CTL with CDK2 using cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) and drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) assays. Surface plasmon resonance analysis also supported that CTL specifically bound to CDK2 with a dissociation constant at micromole level. Furthermore, knocking down CDK2 obviously reversed the anti-inflammation effect of CTL via AKT/IKKß/NF-κB signaling pathway on BV-2 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that CTL inhibits microglia-mediated neuroinflammation through directly targeting CDK2, and provide insights into the role of CDK2 as a promising anti-neuroinflammation therapeutic target.

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