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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(6): 1324-1333, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782578

RESUMO

Lithium is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis, but the mechanism by which lithium protects against spinal cord injury remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal administration of lithium chloride (LiCl) in a rat model of spinal cord injury alleviated pathological spinal cord injury and inhibited expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and interleukin 1 ß. Lithium inhibited pyroptosis and reduced inflammation by inhibiting Caspase-1 expression, reducing the oxidative stress response, and inhibiting activation of the Nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome. We also investigated the neuroprotective effects of lithium intervention on oxygen/glucose-deprived PC12 cells. We found that lithium reduced inflammation, oxidative damage, apoptosis, and necrosis and up-regulated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 in PC12 cells. All-trans retinoic acid, an Nrf2 inhibitor, reversed the effects of lithium. These results suggest that lithium exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-pyroptotic effects through the Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway to promote recovery after spinal cord injury. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Xi'an Jiaotong University (approval No. 2018-2053) on October 23, 2018.

2.
Comput Urban Sci ; 1(1): 24, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816254

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused various impacts on people's lives, while changes in people's lives have shown mixed effects on mitigating the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Understanding how to capture such two-way interactions is crucial, not only to control the pandemic but also to support post-pandemic urban recovery policies. As suggested by the life-oriented approach, the above interactions exist with respect to a variety of life domains, which form a complex behavior system. Through a review of the literature, this paper first points out inconsistent evidence about behavioral factors affecting the spread of COVID-19, and then argues that existing studies on the impacts of COVID-19 on people's lives have ignored behavioral co-changes in multiple life domains. Furthermore, selected uncertain trends of people's lives for the post-pandemic recovery are described. Finally, this paper concludes with a summary about "what should be computed?" in Computational Urban Science with respect to how to catch up with delays in the SDGs caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, how to address digital divides and dilemmas of e-society, how to capture behavioral co-changes during the post-pandemic recovery process, and how to better manage post-pandemic recovery policymaking processes.

3.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806497

RESUMO

(-)-5-Methylmellein (1) and its new dimer (2) were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Inonotus sinensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, HR-EI-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR. The structure of Compound 2 was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 2 was tested for the cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines.

4.
Plant J ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807484

RESUMO

L-Tyrosine is an essential amino acid for protein synthesis and is also used in plants to synthesize diverse natural products. Plants primarily synthesize tyrosine via TyrA arogenate dehydrogenase (TyrAa or ADH), which are typically strongly feedback inhibited by tyrosine. However, two plant lineages, Fabaceae (legumes) and Caryophyllales, have TyrA enzymes that exhibit relaxed sensitivity to tyrosine inhibition, which are associated with elevated production of tyrosine-derived compounds, such as betalain pigments uniquely produced in core Caryophyllales. While we previously showed that a single D222N substitution is primarily responsible for the deregulation of legume TyrAs, it is unknown when and how the deregulated Caryophyllales TyrA emerged. Here, through phylogeny-guided TyrA structure-function analysis, we found that functionally deregulated TyrAs evolved early in the core Caryophyllales before the origin of betalains, where the E208D amino acid substitution in the active site-which is at a different and opposite location from D222N found in legume TyrAs-played a key role in the TyrA functionalization. Unlike legumes, however, additional substitutions on non-active site residues further contributed to the deregulation of TyrAs in Caryophyllales. Introduction of a mutation analogous to E208D partially de-regulated tyrosine-sensitive TyrAs, such as Arabidopsis TyrA2 (AtTyrA2). Moreover, the combined introduction of D222N and E208D additively deregulated AtTyrA2, whose expression in Nicotiana benthamiana led to highly elevated accumulation of tyrosine in planta. This study demonstrates that phylogeny-guided characterization of key residues underlying primary metabolic innovations can provide powerful tools to boost the production of essential plant natural products.

5.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 652443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746227

RESUMO

Previous studies showed that CXCR7 expression was upregulated after enzalutamide (ENZ) treatment, and an increased level of CXCR7 could increase the invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells. This study demonstrated that the levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT1, C-Myc, and VEGFR2 were significantly reduced after CCX771, a specific CXCR7 inhibitor, treatment. This effect further increased after the combination treatment of ENZ and CCX771. Then, we verified that targeting the inhibition of JAK2 or STAT1 could remarkably increase apoptosis and DNA damage and decrease the migration of CRPC cells. More importantly, the combination treatment of ENZ + JAK2/STAT1 led to much greater suppression than the single-agent treatment of JAK2 or STAT1. Subcutaneous CRPC xenograft tumor growth was also reduced by single-agent ENZ treatment and single-agent FLUD, a specific STAT1 antagonist, treatment; but much superior effect was elicited by the combination treatment of ENZ + FLUD. The proliferative indices significantly decreased following combination treatment in tumor tissues compared with control-treatment tissues and single-agent-treatment tissues. Our results demonstrated that CXCR7, which signifies an androgen receptor (AR)-independent signaling pathway, caused CRPC progression via the downstream JAK2/STAT1 signal transduction cascade. Combined inhibition targeting both the AR and JAK2/STAT1 resulted in substantial tumor suppression due to the reduction in DNA damage repair ability and increment in apoptosis.

6.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753398

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) were reported to play vital roles in the progression of DN. Herein, the action of circular RNA_0037128 (circ_0037128) was investigated in DN. The level of circ_0037128, microRNA-497-5p (miR-497-5p) and nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) was determined using quantitative real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The feature of circ_0037128 was tested by RNase R and Actinomycin D treatment assays. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining assays were conducted to evaluate the proliferation ability. The relative proteins expression was determined via western blot analysis. Levels of the inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined by the matched kits. Dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were conducted for evaluating the correlation between miR-497-5p and circ_0037128 or NFAT5. Circ_0037128 and NFAT5 were enhanced, while miR-497-5p was weakened in kidney tissues of DN patients and high glucose (HG)-cultured HK-2 cells. Circ_0037128 inhibition bated HG-caused inhibition effect on cell proliferation and promotion effects on oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis in HK-2 cells. Moreover, circ_0037128 knockdown alleviated HG-caused cell damage via regulating miR-497-5p. In addition, NFAT5 overexpression could reverse the influence of miR-497-5p on HG-induced injury in HK-2 cells. Mechanically, circ_0037128 sponged miR-497-5p to modulate NFAT5. Circ_0037128 downregulation could mitigate HG-stimulated cell damage via regulating the miR-497-5p/NFAT5 axis in HK-2 cells in vitro, providing a possible therapy target for DN.

7.
J Neurol ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to investigate the associations of sleep disorders with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) α-synuclein (α-syn) in healthy controls (HCs), and patients with prodromal and early Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We included a total of 575 individuals, consisting of 360 PD individuals, 46 prodromal PD individuals, and 169 HCs. Multiple linear regression models and linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the associations of sleep disorders with baseline and longitudinal CSF α-syn. Associations between the change rates of sleep disorders and CSF α-syn were further investigated via multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: In PD, probable Rapid-eye-movement sleep Behavior Disorder (pRBD) (ß = - 0.1199; P = 0.0444) and RBD sub-items, such as aggressive dreams (ß = - 0.1652; P = 0.0072) and hurting bed partner (ß = - 0.2468; P = 0.0010), contributed to lower CSF α-syn. The association between aggressive dreams and lower CSF α-syn further survived Bonferroni correction (P < 0.0036). In prodromal PD, dream-enacting (a specific RBD behavior) was significantly associated with decreased CSF α-syn during the follow-up (ß = - 0.0124; P = 0.0237). HCs with daytime sleepiness when inactive-sitting in public places (ß = - 0.0033; P = 0.0135) showed decreased CSF α-syn. Furthermore, increased possibilities of daytime sleepiness when sitting and reading contributed to a greater decrease of CSF α-syn in HCs (ß = - 196.8779; P = 0.0433). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disorders were associated with decreased CSF α-syn. Sleep management may be important for disease monitoring and preventing the progression of α-syn pathology.

8.
ACS Omega ; 6(38): 25089-25095, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604687

RESUMO

Four polyketide-amino acid derivatives, pardinumones A-D (1-4), were isolated from the wild mushroom Tricholoma pardinum. Their structures together with absolute configurations were characterized by means of spectroscopic data analyses, as well as calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and NMR with sorted training set (STS) protocol analysis. Compounds 1-4 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with MIC values in the range of 6.25-50 µg/mL.

10.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1577-1581, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of enhanced autophagy in megakaryocyte to proplatelet formation in children with immune thrombocytopenia(ITP). METHODS: Giemsa staining and immunofluorescence staining were used to observe megakaryocyte morphology and proplatelet formation, Western blot was used to determine the expression of cytoskeleton protein and autophagy related protein. Autophagr regulation drugs Rap or 3-MA was used to regulate autophagy of megakaryocytes. RESULTS: Some vacuole-like structures was found in ITP megakaryocytes of the children, the expression of LC3II/I (ITP 1.32±0.18; Ctrl 0.49±0.16,P<0.05) and Atg5-Atg12 (ITP 0.69±0.17; Ctrl 0.12±0.08,P<0.05) was significantly higher in ITP children as compared with those in control group. The immu- nofluorescence staining showed that the cytoskeleton arrangement in megakaryocytes of ITP children was abnormal, and the phosphorylation of myosin light chain was also increased(ITP 0.74±0.09, Ctrl 0.05±0.02,P<0.05). In vitro, inducer or inhibitor of autophagy could regulate the production of proplatelet and the expression of cell cycle related protein, including CyclinD1(Veh 1.08±0.12; Rap 0.46±0.04; Rap+3-MA 0.70±0.03), CyclinD2(Veh 0.47±0.04; Rap 0.27±0.04; Rap+3-MA 0.41±0.03), P21(Veh 0.15±0.01; Rap 0.04±0.01; Rap+3-MA 0.05±0.01). CONCLUSION: Enhanced autophagy is the key factor of poor proplatelet formation in megakaryocytes of ITP children.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Trombocitopenia , Autofagia , Plaquetas , Humanos , Megacariócitos
11.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 257, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessel from pre-existing ones, plays an important role in many pathophysiological diseases, such as cancer. Opioids are often used in clinic for the management of chronic pain in cancer patients at terminal phases. Here, we investigated and compared the effects and mechanisms of four opioids on angiogenesis. METHODS: We performed angiogenesis assays on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) that represent an in vitro model to assess the toxicity of drugs to endothelium. RESULTS: Morphine and oxycodone at 0.1 µM to 100 µM dose-dependently increased endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation. We observed the same in endothelial cells exposed to fentanyl at 0.1 µM to 10 µM but there was a gradual loss of stimulation by fentanyl at 100 µM and 1000 µM. Morphine and fentanyl reduced endothelial cell apoptosis-induced by serum withdrawal whereas oxycodone did not display anti-apoptotic effect, via decreasing Bax level. Oxycodone at the same concentrations was less potent than morphine and fentanyl. Different from other three opioids, codeine at all tested concentrations did not affect endothelial cell tube formation, proliferation and survival. Mechanism studies demonstrated that opioids acted on endothelial cells via µ-opioid receptor-independent pathway. Although we observed the increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cells exposed to morphine, fentanyl and oxycodone, the rescue studies demonstrated that the stimulatory effects of morphine but not fentanyl nor oxycodone were reversed by a specific MAPK inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Our work demonstrates the differential effects and mechanisms of opioids on angiogenesis.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 762120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712244

RESUMO

Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with poor prognostic outcomes. The current stratifying system does not predict prognostic outcomes and therapeutic benefits precisely for RCC patients. Here, we aim to construct an immune prognostic predictive model to assist clinician to predict RCC prognosis. Methods: Herein, an immune prognostic signature was developed, and its predictive ability was confirmed in the kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) cohorts based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Several immunogenomic analyses were conducted to investigate the correlations between immune risk scores and immune cell infiltrations, immune checkpoints, cancer genotypes, tumor mutational burden, and responses to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Results: The immune prognostic signature contained 14 immune-associated genes and was found to be an independent prognostic factor for KIRC. Furthermore, the immune risk score was established as a novel marker for predicting the overall survival outcomes for RCC. The risk score was correlated with some significant immunophenotypic factors, including T cell infiltration, antitumor immunity, antitumor response, oncogenic pathways, and immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic response. Conclusions: The immune prognostic, predictive model can be effectively and efficiently used in the prediction of survival outcomes and immunotherapeutic responses of RCC patients.

13.
J Virol ; : JVI0150021, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613824

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF), a devastating infectious disease in swine, severely threatens the global pig farming industry. Disease control has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Here, we report that deletion of the QP509L and QP383R genes (ASFV-ΔQP509L/QP383R) from the highly virulent ASFV CN/GS/2018 strain results in complete viral attenuation in swine. Animals inoculated with ASFV-ΔQP509L/QP383R at a 104 50% hemadsorbing dose (HAD50) remained clinically normal during the 17-day observational period. All ASFV-ΔQP509L/QP383R-infected animals had low viremia titers and developed a low-level p30-specific antibody response. However, ASFV-ΔQP509L/QP383R did not induce protection against challenge with the virulent parental ASFV CN/GS/2018 isolate. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that innate immune-related genes (Ifnb, Traf2, Cxcl10, Isg15, Rantes, and Mx1) were significantly lower in ASFV-ΔQP509L/QP383R-infected than in ASFV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages. In addition, ASFV-ΔQP509L/QP383R-infected pigs had low levels of IFN-ß based on ELISA. These data suggest that deletion of ASFV QP509L/383R reduces virulence but does not induce protection against lethal ASFV challenge. Importance African swine fever (ASF) is endemic to several parts of the word, with outbreaks of the disease devastating the swine farming industry; currently, no commercially available vaccine exists. Here, we report that deletion of the previously uncharacterized QP509L and QP383R viral genes completely attenuates virulence in the ASFV CN/GS/2018 isolate. However, ASFV-ΔQP509L/QP383R-infected animals were not protected from developing an ASF infection after challenge with the virulent parental virus. ASFV-ΔQP509L/QP383R induced lower levels of innate immune-related genes and IFN-ß than the parental virus. Our results increase our knowledge on developing an effective and live ASF attenuated vaccine.

14.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0065821, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668754

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease affecting pigs, with up to a 100% case fatality rate. The causative agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a large multienveloped DNA virus which is the sole member of the family Asfarviridae. The double-stranded DNA genome of ASFV encodes more than 150 proteins; the functions of more than half of these viral proteins remain unknown. In this study, we determined that the uncharacterized protein F317L of ASFV had an antagonistic function against host innate immune response. F317L impaired NF-κB pathway activation by disruption of NF-κB activity. F317L interacted with IκB kinase ß (IKKß) and suppressed its phosphorylation, which subsequently reduced phosphorylation and ubiquitination of IκBα and enhanced IκBα stabilization. The accumulation of IκBα then blocked NF-κB activation and inhibited its nuclear translocation, resulting in decreased expression of various proinflammatory cytokines. As expected, overexpression of F317L promoted ASFV replication, and knockdown of F317L expression suppressed ASFV replication. This also indicated the crucial role of NF-κB pathway signaling in suppression of ASFV replication. Truncation mutation analysis indicated that the region spanning amino acids 109 to 208 of F317L was critical for inhibition of NF-κB activity. This is the first report about the function of F317L protein of ASFV, which provides insights for investigation of ASFV immune evasion mechanisms and development of ASFV live-attenuated vaccine. IMPORTANCE African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important pig diseases, causing a high case fatality rate and trade restrictions upon reported outbreaks. The limited understanding of the functions of the proteins of the causative agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), has become a primary barrier to developing available commercial ASFV vaccines. ASFV infection causes severe immunosuppression. However, the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Identification of the viral factors responsible for causing immunosuppression will provide targets for developing ASFV live-attenuated vaccine through deletion of these viral factors. In this study, we determined that the uncharacterized protein F317L of ASFV had an antagonistic function against host innate immune response. Knockdown of F317L expression clearly inhibited ASFV replication. This is the first report about the function of F317L protein of ASFV, which provides new data to understand how ASFV inhibits host innate immune response and provides insights for developing ASFV live-attenuated vaccine.

15.
Plant J ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643970

RESUMO

Light quantity and quality affect many aspects of plant growth and development. However, few reports have addressed the molecular connections between seed oil accumulation and light conditions, especially dense shade. Shade-avoiding plants can redirect plant resources into extension growth at the expense of leaf and root expansion in an attempt to reach areas containing richer light. Here, we report that tung tree seed oil accumulation is suppressed by dense shade during the rapid oil accumulation phase. Transcriptome analysis confirmed that oil accumulation suppression due to dense shade was attributed to reduced expression of fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis-related genes. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 32 core transcription factors (TFs) specifically upregulated in densely shaded seeds during the rapid oil accumulation period. Among these, VfHB21, a class I homeodomain leucine zipper TF, was shown to suppress expression of FAD2 and FADX, two key genes related to α-eleostearic acid, by directly binding to HD-ZIP I/II motifs in their respective promoter regions. VfHB21 also binds to similar motifs in the promoters of VfWRI1 and VfDGAT2, two additional key seed lipid regulatory/biosynthetic genes. Functional conservation of HB21 during plant evolution was demonstrated by the fact that AtWRI1, AtSAD1, and AtFAD2 were downregulated in VfHB21-overexpressor lines of transgenic Arabidopsis, with concomitant seed oil reduction, and the fact that AtHB21 expression also was induced by shade. This study reveals some of the regulatory mechanisms that specifically control tung tree seed oil biosynthesis and more broadly regulate plant storage carbon partitioning in response to dense shade conditions.

16.
Fitoterapia ; 156: 105070, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718093

RESUMO

Kiwi (Actinidia chinensis) plants are severely destroyed by canker disease which is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa). This program tries to find anti-Psa agents among secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from kiwi plant itself. The chemical investigation on one kiwi endophytic fungi, Fusarium tricinctum, resulted in the isolation of nine new imidazole alkaloids, fusaritricines A-I (1-9) together with seven known analogues (10-16). The structures of new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic methods. Compounds 2, 3, 9, and 13 showed good antibacterial activity against Psa with MIC values between 25 and 50 µg/mL. It is suggested that imidazole alkaloids should be potential anti-Psa agents.

17.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(10): 2096-2104, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the disease progression of Parkinson's disease patients with subjective cognitive complaint (PD-SCC). This longitudinal cohort study aims to compare the progression of clinical features and quality of life (QoL) in PD patients with normal cognition (NC), SCC, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: A total of 383 PD patients were enrolled, including 189 PD-NC patients, 59 PD-SCC patients, and 135 PD-MCI patients, with 1-7 years of follow-up. Linear mixed models were applied to evaluate longitudinal changes in motor symptoms, nonmotor features (cognitive impairment, depression, and excessive daytime sleepiness), and QoL in PD. RESULTS: At baseline, PD-SCC patients had lower Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) scores than PD-NC patients (all p < 0.05). Longitudinal analyses revealed that the PD-SCC group exhibited faster progression in terms of BDI scores (p = 0.042) and PDQ-39 scores (p = 0.035) than the PD-NC group. The PD-MCI group exhibited faster progression rates in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores (p = 0.001) and PDQ-39 scores (p = 0.005) than the PD-NC group. In addition, the PD-SCC group exhibited a greater reduction in attention (Trail Making Test Part A, p = 0.047) and executive function (Stroop Color-Word Test, p = 0.037) than the PD-NC group. INTERPRETATION: PD-SCC patients exhibited faster deterioration of depression and QoL than PD-NC patients, and SCC may be an indicator of initial attention and executive function decline in PD. Our findings provided a more accurate prognosis in PD-SCC patients.

18.
Eur J Immunol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559883

RESUMO

Chronic airway inflammation mediated by CD8+ T lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Deciphering the fingerprint of the chronic inflammation orchestrated by CD8+ T cells may allow the development of novel approaches to COPD management. Here, the expression of IL-27 and IFN-γ+ CD8+ Tc1 cells were evaluated in patients with COPD and in cigarette smoke-exposed mice. The production of IL-27 by marrow-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was assessed. The role of IL-27 in IFN-γ+ CD8+ Tc1 cells was explored. We demonstrated that elevated IL-27 was accompanied by an exaggerated IFN-γ+ CD8+ Tc1 response in a smoking mouse model of emphysema. We noted that lung dendritic cells were one of the main sources of IL-27 during chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Moreover, CSE directly induced the production of IL-27 by mDCs in vitro. IL-27 negatively regulated the differentiation of IFN-γ+ CD8+ Tc1 cells isolated from cigarette smoke-exposed mice in a STAT1- and STAT3-independent manner. Systemic administration of recombinant IL-27 attenuated IFN-γ+ CD8+ Tc1 response in the late phase of cigarette smoke exposure. Our results uncovered that IL-27 negatively regulates IFN-γ+ CD8+ Tc1 response in the late stage of chronic cigarette smoke exposure, which may provide a new strategy for the anti-inflammatory treatment of smoking-related COPD/emphysema.

19.
Nanoscale ; 13(39): 16690-16695, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590652

RESUMO

Sulfurized polyacrylonitrile (SPAN) is a promising cathode material for stable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries due to its shuttle-free redox mechanism. However, the redox kinetics of SPAN needs to be enhanced to improve Li-S batteries. Herein, a salt-templating method is proposed for the fabrication of ultrathin SPAN nanosheets, which can afford a large contact area with the electrolyte and shorten the transport paths of electrons/ions involved in the reaction. In situ Raman analysis confirms the reversible breaking and formation of C-S/S-S bonds in SPAN nanosheets during cycling while ex situ SEM reveals the formation of lithium sulfide particles on the surface of SPAN nanosheets at the end of discharge. At a high current density of 2 A g-1, coin cells based on a SPAN nanosheet cathode can deliver a reversible capacity of 408 mA h g-1composite over 100 cycles with a capacity retention rate of 95%. Meanwhile, pouch cells using a SPAN nanosheet cathode exhibit a capacity retention rate close to 100% after 100 cycles at the same current density. These results herald a new approach for powering Li-S batteries by the nanoscale design of the SPAN cathode.

20.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112963, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562671

RESUMO

Three undescribed lanostane triterpenoids, together with twenty-one known compounds, were isolated from artificially cultivated fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Ganoderma sichuanense. The absolute configuration at C-25 of ganoderic acid A and its derivatives was determined to be 25R by application of the phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME) method. Among the isolated compounds, ganoderiol F exhibited the most potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra with an MIC value of 0.781 µg/ml.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Triterpenos , Carpóforos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Ácidos Heptanoicos , Lanosterol/análogos & derivados , Estrutura Molecular , Triterpenos/farmacologia
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