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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131099, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537619

RESUMO

Contamination of rice by cadmium (Cd) is threatening a large population in China. In this study, we report that soaking rice grains in a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution can remove Cd to a desirable extent. The results indicated that the degree of Cd removal was up to 45%∼85% at different soaking times and concentrations of HCl (0.06 M âˆ¼ 0.18 M), which was found to be logarithmically correlated with the reaction time at the optimized liquid-solid ratio of 1:2. Three HCl concentration-dependent mathematical models were established, which revealed various optimal soaking conditions depending on the initial Cd contamination. Four Cd-contaminated rice grain samples with different degrees of contamination were then tested based on the mathematical models, and the final Cd content was reduced to an acceptable extent. Moreover, the physicochemical and food properties of rice flours and rice grains after Cd removal were evaluated to highlight their potential applications.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
Zool Res ; 43(1): 14-25, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766477

RESUMO

Cattle temperament is an interesting trait due to its correlation with production efficiency, labor safety, and animal welfare. To date, however, its genetic basis is not clearly understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study for a series of temperament traits in cattle, assessed with via open field and novel object tests, using autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from the whole-genome sequence. We identified 37 and 29 genome-wide significant loci in the open field and novel object tests, respectively. Gene set analysis revealed the most significant pathway was the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, which may be essential for emotional control in cattle. Analysis of the expression levels of 18 tissue-specific genes based on transcriptomic data showed enrichment in the brain, with some candidate genes involved in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Based on principal component analysis, the first principal component explained the largest variance in the open field and novel object test data, and the most significant loci were assigned to SORCS3 and SESTD1, respectively. Our findings should help facilitate cattle breeding for sound temperament by pyramiding favorable alleles to further improve cattle production.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149912, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482134

RESUMO

Agricultural runoff is the main source of water pollution in Central Asia. Excessive nitrogen (N) inputs from overuse of chemical fertilizers are threatening regional water resources. However, the scarcity of quantitative data and simplified empirical models limit the reliability of grey water footprint (GWF), particularly in undeveloped regions. In this study, we developed an Integrated Excess Nitrogen Load Model (IENLM) to calculate excess N load and evaluate its potential water environmental pressure in Central Asia. The model optimized the biological N fixation and atmospheric N deposition modules by involving more environmental variables and human activities. Results showed that N fertilizer application contributed over 60% to total N input and was mainly responsible for 42.9% increase of total GWF from 101.5 to 145.0 billion m3 during 1992 - 2018. Water pollution level (WPL) increased from 0.55 in 1992 to 2.41 in 2018 and the pollution assimilation capacity of water systems has been fully consumed just by N load from agriculture since 2005. GWF intensity and grey water pollution - efficiency types in all Central Asian countries have improved in recent years except for Turkmenistan. N fertilizer application and agricultural economy development were the main driving factors induced N pollution. Results were validated by riverine nitrate concentrations and the estimates from prior studies. In future, combining the N fertilizer reduction with other farm management practices were projected to effectively improve the WPL. The modeling framework is favorable for N pollution research in data-scarce regions and provides a scientific basis for decision-making for agriculture and water resource managements.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Água , Agricultura , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluição da Água
4.
Food Chem ; 370: 131014, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500288

RESUMO

Liquid foams are crucial to many food systems, yet improving their lifetime remains challenging. In this study, stable foams were prepared by protein networks in association with starch nanocrystals (SNCs). The protein networks were structured by simultaneous folding of hydrophobic rice proteins (RPs) and hydrophilic pea proteins (PPs) due to anti-solvent precipitation from an alkaline solution, forming amphiphilic binary nanostructures (RP-PPs) to facilitate foaming. Relying on polar groups of RP-PPs and SNCs, the two biopolymers spontaneously formed flexible but mechanically strong complexes (RP-PP@SNCs) via dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding. After high-speed frothing, liquid foams that can be stable for up to 4 days were agitated with coherent RP-PP@SNCs docking at the interface in addition to the formation of three-dimensional networks in the continuous phase, contributing to joint stabilization mechanisms of Pickering-type coverages and steric hindrance. This study presents a facile strategy for innovating novel stabilization protocols for liquid foams.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Oryza , Aerossóis , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Amido
5.
Environ Technol ; : 1-36, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736374

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized using Zinc Nitrate as precursor salt, and plant leaves extracts from Azadirachta indica (Common name: Neem), Cymbopogan citratus (Common name: Lemongrass), and Mangifera indica (Common name: Mango), as both chelating and reducing agents for the synthesis of ZnO NPs by a simple cost-effective and eco-friendly green method. The biosynthesized ZnO NPS were well characterized by various methods. XRD pattern revealed a hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO, with no other impurity peaks present revealing XRD crystalline size calculated using Scherrer equation of 13.94-16.37 nm, which is almost in agreement with the sizes given by SEM images. The XPS confirmed the presence of Zn, O, and C, and the carbon peaks are almost in agreement with peaks observed by FTIR. TEM showed the different ZnO with spherical shapes and some aggregations. UV-vis spectroscopy indicates an absorption peak of 350 nm. BET surface area gave 24.98 m2/g, 21.62 m2/g, and 22.72 m2/g, respectively for ZnO-AI, ZnO-Cyc, and ZnO-MI, while BJH pore volume and average pore diameter were estimated to be 0.217 cc/g, 0.209 cc/g, 0.211 cc/g, and 2.132 nm, 2.025 nm, and 2.100 nm respectively for ZnO-AI, ZnO-Cyc, and ZnO-MI.Furthermore, the bio-synthesized ZnO NPs were evaluated for their catalytic and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of aqueous tetracycline (TC). Results indicate that the biosynthesized ZnO NPs exhibit slight catalytic activity and good photodegradation efficiency for TC in varying degrees with ZnO-AI > ZnO-MI > ZnO-Cyc. Optimum operational parameters for TC degradation using the ZnO-AI were established, and maximum degradation efficiency of 84.8% was obtained. In addition, to the excellent photodegradation ability, the catalyst can also be regenerated and reused up to three cycles, with the third cycle still achieving greater than 80% TC degradation.

6.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737420

RESUMO

Gefitinib has been available in the market for 20 years, but its pharmacokinetic mechanism of response is little known. In this study, we examined the pharmacokinetic and metabolomic profiles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with sensitive EGFR mutations. A total of 216 advanced NSCLC patients were enrolled, and administered gefitinib at the standard dosage of 250 mg/day, which was established in heterogeneous subjects with non-sensitive mutations. We identified and quantified three main metabolites (named as M1, M2 and M3) in the plasma of patients, the correlations between the concentration of gefitinib/metabolites and efficacy were analyzed. In exploratory and validation set, gefitinib concentration was not correlated with clinical effects. Considering the result that the therapeutic effects of 250 mg/2-day was better than that of 250 mg/day in a multiple center clinical trial, the standard dose might be higher than that for maximal efficacy according to the hypothetical dose-response curve. Among the three metabolites, the IC50 of M2 in HCC827 and PC9 cell lines was significantly lower, and Conc.brain/Conc.plasma of M2 in mice was significantly higher than those of gefitinib, suggesting its higher potential to penetrate blood-brain barrier and might be more effective in the treatment of brain metastatic tumor than gefitinib. Consistently and attractively, higher M2 plasma concentration was found to be correlated with better clinical outcome in patients with brain metastases (the median PFS of CM2 < 12 ng/mL and CM2 ≥ 12 ng/mL were 17.0 and 27.1 months, respectively, P = 0.038). The plasma concentration of M2 ≥ 12 ng/mL was a strong predictor of the PFS of NSCLC patients. In conclusion, for NSCLC patients with EGFR sensitive mutations, the standard dose is suspectable and could be decreased reasonably. M2 plays an important role in efficacy and may be more effective in the treatment of metastatic tumor than gefitinib.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5005-5014, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738395

RESUMO

Based on the textual research on literature, the key information of Wenjing Decoction were tested and identified, and 15 batches of lyophilized powder samples of Wenjing Decoction were prepared. The specific components, including paeoniflorin, glycyrrhizin, ginsenosides(Rg_1, Re and Rb_1), glycyrrhizic acid, and paeonol, were used as indexes to establish the HPLC method for quantitative evaluation, and the content ranges and transfer rates of these components were determined. The results showed that the contents of paeoniflorin, glycyrrhizin, ginsenosides Rg_1 + Re, ginsenoside Rb_1, glycyrrhizic acid, and paeonol in the 15 batches of samples were 0.62%-0.86%, 0.25%-0.76%, 0.14%-0.30%, 0.07%-0.21%, 0.63%-1.16%, and 0.09%-0.25%, respectively, and their transfer rates from the decoction pieces to the reference materials were 14.99%-19.42%, 28.11%-40.93%, 25.92%-61.88%, 25.03%-64.06%, 23.43%-35.53%, and 5.34%-10.44%, respectively. The consistency of the transfer rates between batches indicated that the preparation process was stable. It is suggested that the contents of paeoniflorin, glycyrrhizin, ginsenosides Rg_1 + Re, ginsenoside Rb_1, glycyrrhizic acid, and paeonol in Wenjing Decoction should not be less than 0.52%, 0.35%, 0.15%, 0.10%, 0.63%, and 0.12%, respectively. In this study, we determined the contents and analyzed the quantity transfer process of the index components in Wenjing Decoction, which can provide a basis for the follow-up development of Wenjing Decoction and the quality control of related preparations.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Glicirrízico , Pós , Controle de Qualidade
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5015-5019, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738396

RESUMO

Five monoterpenoid compounds(1-5) were isolated and purified from the acetone fraction of the aqueous extract of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens by MCI, Sephadex LH-20, silica gel, semi-preparative HPLC, and TLC. Their structures were identified with multiple spectroscopical methods including 1 D-NMR, 2 D-NMR, and MS. The five compounds were identified as(2E,6Z)-8-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl-(E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) acrylate(1),(2E,6E)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-die-noic acid(2),(E)-1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-2-octenoic acid(3), linalyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside(4), and ß-D-glucopyranoside-(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl(5), respectively.Compound 1 was a new monoterpene ester, and compounds 4-5 were isolated from this plant for the first time.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Monoterpenos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Rizoma
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5027-5037, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738398

RESUMO

To obtain the chemical profile of Tibetan medicinal plant ″Bangga″, the present study established the HPLC fingerprint of ″Bangga″ and inferred common chemical constituents of its two original plants, Aconitum tanguticum and A. naviculare by LC-MS. The HPLC analysis was performed on a Kromasil 100 C_8 column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 µm) with acetonitrile(A)-0.1% formic acid in water(B) as mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. Besides, the flow rate was set at 1 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was 35 ℃. The detection wavelength was set at 255 nm and the injection volume was 10 µL. Seventeen batches of ″Bangga″ samples were analyzed and the HPLC fingerprint was established under the above conditions. Similarity evaluation was performed using Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(2012). As a result, 16 common peaks were selec-ted and the similarity values of 17 batches of ″Bangga″ were in the range of 0.702-0.966. Furthermore, one batch of A. tanguticum and one batch of A. naviculare were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and 74 common compounds were inferred, including 10 phenolic acids, 26 flavonoids, and 38 alkaloids. The established method, with good separation and strong specificity, is simple and feasible, and can be used for the quality control of ″Bangga″ and identification of its two original plants. A. tanguticum and A. naviculare are similar in chemical composition and component content, but are quite different in the content of flavonoids.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tibet
10.
Lasers Surg Med ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: Newly developed in vivo skin and skull optical clearing techniques can greatly improve the optical imaging performance, showing great advantages and clinical prospects. However, there is a poor understanding of in vivo optical clearing-induced changes in the skin and skull. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we employed in vivo skin/skull optical clearing techniques to improve the optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging quality. And we also used polarization-sensitive OCT to monitor the dynamic changes in the polarization characteristics of the skin and skull during in vivo optical clearing processes. Two-photon imaging was used to evaluate changes in tissue barrier function and structure. Additionally, Raman spectra were employed for assessing the changes of each component in the skin and skull before and after optical clearing treatment. RESULTS: The results indicated that the polarization states of the skin and skull were altered with the usages of optical clearing agents. And the barrier permeability and collagen fiber distribution of them became disordered. Furthermore, the Raman spectra of tissue demonstrated that the applications of in vivo tissue optical clearing methods could lead to the reduction of proteins, lipids, and inorganic salts in these two organs. Interestingly, after recovery treatment, the structure and function of the skin and skull could almost recover to the initial states. CONCLUSION: In vivo tissue optical clearing can lead to changes in the structure and function of tissue, which was reversible to some extent. This study plays an important role in revealing the underlying mechanisms of tissue optical clearing techniques; moreover, it is conducive to the development and optimization of a novel in vivo tissue optical clearing approaches in future.

11.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131458, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731810

RESUMO

The formation of coherent, three-dimensional (3D) networks by particles either at the interface or in the bulk phase is vital for the stability of emulsions. In this study, nanoparticles of walnut proteins (WPs) were associated by unfolded fibrillar rice proteins (RPs), forming dual protein nanostructures (DPNs) characteristic of coherent 3D networks. The DPNs emulsified walnut oil and formed high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs), which were stable against 2-month storage and 30-min heating at 95 °C. Furthermore, the interfacial structures can be further reinforced by sodium chloride (50 mM and above), and became invulnerable to repeated freeze-thaw treatments. Based on the above results, a plant-based walnut sauce was developed with superior freeze-thaw stability to three arbitrary commercial mayonnaises. The HIPEs with tunable rheological properties in response to salt concentration and excellent stabilities against long-term storage, heating, and freeze-thaw may be potential surrogates of futuristic plant-based textural and sensory materials in foods.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818447

RESUMO

Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) plus total mesorectal excision (TME) has been the standard regimen for treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), because it significantly reduces the rate of local recurrence and enables sphincter preservation. However, distant metastasis remains the major reason for treatment failure, and the value of postoperative chemotherapy is still controversial. Recent studies have examined the use of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT), defined as induction and/or consolidation chemotherapy (CONCT) with radiotherapy (RT) or nCRT prior to surgery. The results indicated that TNT may increase the rates of chemotherapy compliance and pathological complete response (pCR), and probably improve the success rate of sphincter preservation surgery. TNT may also improve disease-free survival and overall survival, and even reduce the rate of relapse. Here, we critically appraise the existing literature on three different TNT schemes used for LARC patients.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818634

RESUMO

The monolayer MoS2 based photodetectors have been widely investigated, which show limited photoelectric performances due to its low light absorption and uncontrollable adsorbates. In this paper, we present a MoS2-based hybrid nanoscrolls device, in which one-dimensional nanoscrollsof MoS2 is hybridized with carbon quantum dots (CQDs). This device architecture effectively enhanced the photodetection performance. The photoresponsivity and detectivity values of MoS2/CQDs-NS photodetectors are respectively 1793 A W-1 and 5.97×1012 Jones, which are 830-fold and 268-fold higher than those of pristine MoS2 under 300 nm illumination at Vds = 5 V. This research indicates a significant progress in fabricating high-performance MoS2 photodetectors.

14.
Mater Horiz ; 8(3): 728-757, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821314

RESUMO

Soft robots that can move like living organisms and adapt to their surroundings are currently in the limelight from fundamental studies to technological applications, due to their advances in material flexibility, human-friendly interaction, and biological adaptation that surpass conventional rigid machines. Light-fueled smart actuators based on responsive soft materials are considered to be one of the most promising candidates to promote the field of untethered soft robotics, thereby attracting considerable attention amongst materials scientists and microroboticists to investigate photomechanics, photoswitch, bioinspired design, and actuation realization. In this review, we discuss the recent state-of-the-art advances in light-driven bimorph soft actuators, with the focus on bilayer strategy, i.e., integration between photoactive and passive layers within a single material system. Bilayer structures can endow soft actuators with unprecedented features such as ultrasensitivity, programmability, superior compatibility, robustness, and sophistication in controllability. We begin with an explanation about the working principle of bimorph soft actuators and introduction of a synthesis pathway toward light-responsive materials for soft robotics. Then, photothermal and photochemical bimorph soft actuators are sequentially introduced, with an emphasis on the design strategy, actuation performance, underlying mechanism, and emerging applications. Finally, this review is concluded with a perspective on the existing challenges and future opportunities in this nascent research Frontier.

15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 561, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of antipsychotic drugs on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels is unclear, and there is no consensus on the association between TNF-α and psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the differences in TNF-α levels and clinical correlations in first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) patients with schizophrenia before and after treatment and in chronic patients. METHODS: A total of 103 (51 FEDN and 52 chronic) patients and 114 healthy controls were recruited. Demographic and clinical data, including TNF-α levels, were recorded. We used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to measure the psychopathology of all patients. RESULTS: TNF-α levels before treatment were significantly higher in FEDN patients than in chronic patients and healthy controls. No significant sex differences were found in the TNF-α levels of patients with schizophrenia. The TNF-α levels before treatment were significantly positively related to changes in PANSS negative symptoms in FEDN patients. The TNF-α levels in chronic patients were significantly negatively correlated with the general psychopathology subscales and PANSS total scores. CONCLUSIONS: Increased TNF-α levels in FEDN patients and their correlation with psychopathology indicate that inflammatory cytokines may play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia, and inflammation-directed therapy may, therefore, improve negative symptoms.

16.
Front Neurol ; 12: 745618, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777214

RESUMO

Background: Hand spasticity after stroke influences the rehabilitation of hand function. Immediate and effective relief of spasticity potentially creates conditions for later rehabilitation training, which has far-reaching significance in the smooth transition of patients to the recovery period. Objective: To evaluate the immediate effect of dry needling (DN) at myofascial trigger point on hand spasticity in stroke patients. Methods: This was a prospective, evaluator blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. A total of 210 participants were randomly divided into DN group (DN, N = 70), sham dry needling group (SDN, N = 70), and control group (N = 70). Participants in the DN group were treated with DN at myofascial trigger point five times (30 min each time) every week for 4 weeks. Subjects in the SDN group were manipulated the same way as in the DN group, except that the acupuncture site was located in the area adjacent to the myofascial trigger point, which constituted a SDN. Routine rehabilitation treatment was performed for participants in the two groups and in the control group. The primary evaluation index was the immediate effect of hand spasticity relief. Secondary evaluation indicators included the cumulative effect of hand spasticity relief from baseline to week 4, and the changes in flexion angles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers 2-5 in the rest position before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after intervention. Results: The immediate effective rate of spasticity relief (thumb, fingers 2-5, and wrist) of patients with different degrees of spasticity in the DN group was higher than that in the control and SDN groups (thumb, χ2 = 55.833, P < 0.001; fingers 2-5, χ2 = 68.096, P < 0.001; wrist, χ2 = 49.180, P < 0.001) (P < 0.05). The effective rate of spasticity relief from baseline to 4 weeks in the DN group exceeded that in the control group and SDN groups (thumb, χ2 = 8.806, P = 0.012; fingers 2-5, χ2 = 8.087, P = 0.018; and wrist, χ2 = 8.653, P = 0.013) (P < 0.05). No difference in immediate and cumulative effect was found between the control group and SDN group. The change of joints flexion angles in resting position before and after each treatment in the DN group was higher than that in the control and SDN groups (P < 0.05), but it was not significantly different between the control group and SDN group. At 4 weeks, although the change in the DN group was higher than that in the control group and SDN group, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Dry needling can relieve varying degrees of hand spasticity instantly in post-stroke. Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR1900022379.

17.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2102135, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787379

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been employed as a powerful therapeutic agent for eradicating tumor via oxidative stress. As an emerging ROS-involving noninvasive anticancer therapeutic modality, sonodynamic therapy (SDT) with high tissue penetration depth and benign remote spatiotemporal selectivity has been progressively utilized as the distinct alternative for ROS-based tumor treatment. However, the hypoxic tumor microenvironment substantially restricts the sonodynamic effect. In this work, an oxygen self-sufficient hybrid sonosensitizer on the basis of photosynthetic microorganisms cyanobacteria (Cyan) integrated with ultrasmall oxygen-deficient bimetallic oxide Mn1.4 WOx nanosonosensitizers, termed as M@C, is designed and engineered to overcome the critical issue of hypoxia-induced tumor resistance and strengthen the SDT effect. The sustained photosynthetic oxygen production by Cyan under light illumination can promote Mn1.4 WOx nanosonosensitizers to produce more ROS against cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo under ultrasound (US) irradiation. Especially, the sustained oxygen evolution for suppressing the gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1α) further boosts and augments the SDT efficiency. Thus, this work provides the paradigm that the rationally engineered biohybrid microorganism-based multifunctional sonosensitizers can serve as an effective bioplatform for augmenting the therapeutic efficiency of SDT, particularly for the treatment of hypoxic tumors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(11): 1411-1416, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779166

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, clinical classification, and treatment of wrist gouty arthritis. Methods: The clinical data of 24 patients with wrist gouty arthritis and complete follow-up between April 2011 and August 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 21 males and 3 females; the first onset age was 21-72 years, with a median age of 50 years. There were 15 cases of simple wrist joint disease, and 9 cases of other joints (hand, knee, ankle, metatarsophalangeal joint) involvement; 19 cases of wrist joint as the first site. Except for 1 patient with a medical history of 21 years, the time from onset to diagnosis in the remaining 23 patients was 7 days to 9 years, with a median time of 2 months. According to the clinical manifestations, imaging manifestations, lesion range, and intraoperative wrist arthroscopy manifestations of wrist gouty arthritis, they were classified into 5 types from mild to severe. Among the 24 patients, 13 were type Ⅰ, 2 were type ⅡA, 3 were type ⅡB, 2 were type ⅢA, 3 were type Ⅳ, and 1 was type Ⅴ. The time from first onset to diagnosis for type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ patients was (12.7±40.1) months, and for type Ⅲ-Ⅴ patients was (152.0± 88.5) months, the difference was significant ( t=-4.355, P=0.001). Thirteen patients with type Ⅰ received conservative treatment (including diet, exercise, lifestyle intervention, and medication), and 11 patients with type Ⅱ-Ⅴ received surgical treatment (including 1 case of arthroscopic synovial membrane and gout crystal clearing, 1 case of ligament repair, 5 cases of lesion debridement/artificial bone grafting and filling, 3 cases of wrist fusion, and 1 case of tophicectomy). Before and after treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to evaluate the improvement of wrist joint pain; and the range of motion of the wrist joint (including palmar flexion, dorsal extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation) was evaluated. Results: Thirteen conservatively treated patients were followed up 10 months to9 years, with an average of 2.2 years. The VAS scores before treatment and at last follow-up were 6.8±0.7 and 2.9±0.9, respectively, and the difference was significant ( t=12.309, P=0.000). During follow-up, there was no wrist bone and wrist joint damage; wrist joint range of motion basically reached normal. At last follow-up, the wrist joint palmar flexion, dorsal extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation significantly improved when compared with the values before treatment ( P<0.05). Eleven surgically treated patients were followed up 5 months to 9 years, with an average of 4.9 years. The swelling and pain of all patients fully relieved, and the VAS scores were 7.3±0.8 before operation, 2.7±0.6 at 1 month after operation, and 2.5±0.6 at last follow-up, which significantly improved after operation ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between 1 month after operation and last follow-up ( P>0.05). Excluded 3 patients who underwent wrist fusion, the other 8 patients had significantly improved wrist joint palmar flexion, dorsal extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation at last follow-up ( P<0.05). The patient's subjective satisfaction with the surgical results reached 100%. Conclusion: A missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis of wrist gouty arthritis will greatly damage the wrist stability and functions. Early and proper interventions can effectively retard the progress of the disease. For the late-stage cases, a staged surgical protocol is recommended.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Gotosa/diagnóstico , Artrite Gotosa/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Punho , Articulação do Punho , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788016

RESUMO

Bromopyrroles (BrPyr) are synthesized naturally by marine sponge symbionts and produced anthropogenically as byproducts of wastewater treatment. BrPyr interact with ryanodine receptors (RYRs) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). Influences of BrPyr on the neuronal network activity remain uncharted. BrPyr analogues with differing spectra of RYR/SERCA activities were tested using RYR-null or RYR1-expressing HEK293 and murine cortical neuronal/glial cocultures (NGCs) loaded with Fluo-4 to elucidate their mechanisms altering Ca2+ dynamics. The NGC electrical spike activity (ESA) was measured from NGCs plated on multielectrode arrays. Nanomolar tetrabromopyrrole (TBP, 1) potentiated caffeine-triggered Ca2+ release independent of extracellular [Ca2+] in RYR1-HEK293, whereas higher concentrations produce slow and sustained rise in cytoplasmic [Ca2+] independent of RYR1 expression. TBP, 2,3,5-tribromopyrrole (2), pyrrole (3), 2,3,4-tribromopyrrole (4), and ethyl 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylate (5) added acutely to NGC showed differential potency; rank order TBP (IC50 ≈ 220 nM) > 2 ≫ 5, whereas 3 and 4 were inactive at 10 µM. TBP >2 µM elicited sustained elevation of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] and loss of neuronal viability. TBP did not alter network ESA. BrPyr from marine and anthropogenic sources are ecological signaling molecules and emerging anthropogenic pollutants of concern to environmental and human health that potently alter ER Ca2+ dynamics and warrant further investigation in vivo.

20.
Chemistry ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791739

RESUMO

Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is wildly used in clinical treatments. However, the online monitoring of the thrombosis formation is limited due to the challenges of the direct visualization of embolic agents and the real-time monitoring of dynamic blood flow. Thus, we developed a photochemical afterglow implant with strong afterglow intensity and a long lifetime for embolization and imaging. The liquid pre-implant injected into the abdominal aorta of mice was rapidly transformed into a hydrogel in situ to embolize the blood vessel. The vascular embolism position can be observed by the enhanced afterglow of the fixed implant, and the long lifetime of afterglow can also be used to monitor the effect of embolization. This provides an excellent candidate in bio-imaging to avoid the autofluorescence interference from continuous light excitation. The study suggests the potential usefulness of the implant as an embolic agent in TAE and artery imaging during a surgical procedure.

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