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2.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluated the associations between different forms and sources of Fe and breast cancer risk in Southern Chinese women. DESIGN: Case-control study. We collected data on the consumption of Fe from different forms and food sources by using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis was used to reveal potential associations between Fe intake and breast cancer risk. SETTING: A case-control study of women at three major hospitals in Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: From June 2007 to March 2019, 1591 breast cancer cases and 1622 age-matched controls were recruited. RESULTS: In quartile analyses, Fe from plants and Fe from white meat intake were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, with OR of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·47, 0·89, Ptrend = 0·006) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·96, Ptrend = 0·014), respectively, comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between total dietary Fe, heme or non-heme Fe, Fe from meat or red meat and breast cancer risk. RCS analysis demonstrated J-shaped associations between total dietary Fe, non-heme Fe and breast cancer, and reverse L-shaped associations between heme Fe, Fe from meat and Fe from red meat and breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Fe from plants and white meat were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Significant non-linear J-shaped associations were found between total dietary Fe, non-heme Fe and breast cancer risk, and reverse L-shaped associations were found between heme Fe, Fe from meat or red meat and breast cancer risk.

3.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 161-169, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554485

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to impact countries worldwide. At present, inadequate diagnosis and unreliable evaluation systems hinder the implementation and development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Here, we conducted a horizontal and longitudinal study comparing the detection rates of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in different types of samples collected from COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2-infected monkeys. We also detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the above clinical and animal model samples to identify a reliable approach for the accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results showed that, regardless of clinical symptoms, the highest detection levels of viral nucleic acid were found in sputum and tracheal brush samples, resulting in a high and stable diagnosis rate. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies were not detected in 6.90% of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, integration of nucleic acid detection results from the various sample types did not improve the diagnosis rate. Moreover, dynamic changes in SARS-CoV-2 viral load were more obvious in sputum and tracheal brushes than in nasal and throat swabs. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection in sputum and tracheal brushes was the least affected by infection route, disease progression, and individual differences. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection using lower respiratory tract samples alone is reliable for COVID-19 diagnosis and study.


Assuntos
/veterinária , /genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Faringe/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Manejo de Espécimes , Escarro/virologia
4.
Menopause ; 28(4): 413-422, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399319

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Isoflavones and lignans are phytoestrogens present in plant-based foods, which have a potential preventive effect on breast carcinogenesis. The effects of phytoestrogens on breast cancer may differ according to the hormonal environment. This case-control study aimed to investigate the association between serum phytoestrogens and odds of breast cancer among Chinese pre- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 792 cases and 813 age-matched controls were included. Serum isoflavone (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, equol, and formononetin) and lignan (enterodiol and enterolactone) concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. RESULTS: Significant inverse associations were found between serum total soy isoflavone precursors, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, total lignans, enterodiol, enterolactone, and the odds of breast cancer in premenopausal but not postmenopausal women. For premenopausal women, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest versus the lowest serum concentration groups were 0.60 (0.41-0.87) for total soy isoflavones precursors, 0.64 (0.44-0.93) for daidzein, 0.62 (0.43-0.90) for genistein, 0.49 (0.35-0.68) for formononetin, 0.38 (0.25-0.57) for total lignans, 0.49 (0.33-0.73) for enterodiol, and 0.49 (0.33-0.74) for enterolactone. However, the interaction between serum phytoestrogens and menopausal status on odds of breast cancer was statistically significant only for daidzein. No significant association was found between serum equol or gycitein and the odds of breast cancer among either pre- or postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of certain serum isoflavones and lignans were associated with reduced odds of breast cancer in premenopausal women, but the interaction was statistically significant only for daidzein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Isoflavonas , Lignanas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa
5.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266410

RESUMO

Polyamines (including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are small, cationic molecules that are necessary for cell proliferation and differentiation. Few studies have examined the association of dietary polyamines intake with colorectal cancer risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate total polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in China. In total, 2502 colorectal cancer cases and 2538 age-(5-year interval) and sex-matched controls were recruited from July 2010 to April 2019. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by multivariable unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for various potential confounding factors. Higher intake of total polyamine, putrescine and spermidine was significantly associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. The adjusted ORs for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of intake were 0.60 (95% CI 0.50, 0.72; Ptrend < 0.001) for total polyamines, 0.35 (95% CI 0.29, 0.43; Ptrend < 0.001) for putrescine and 0.79 (95% CI 0.66, 0.95; Ptrend = 0.001) for spermidine, respectively. However, higher intake of spermine was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer, with an adjusted OR of 1.58 (95% CI 1.29, 1.93; Ptrend < 0.001). This data indicate that higher intake of total polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, as well as lower intake of spermine, is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.

6.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-10, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777945

RESUMO

Zinc and selenium may protect against colorectal cancer (CRC) progression through their anti-oxidative effects. This study examined the independent and combined effect of dietary zinc and selenium intake, and polymorphisms of the oxidative stress-related genes (superoxide dismutase 1, superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) on CRC risk in a Chinese case-control study. A total of 493 cases and 498 sex and age-matched controls were randomly selected from an ongoing case-control study. Dietary information was assessed through face-to-face interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multiplex PCR-ligase detection reaction was used for genotyping the target SNPs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Intake of selenium was found to be inversely associated with CRC risk, while zinc was not associated with CRC risk. The ORs (95% CI) for the highest vs. the lowest quartile were 0.42 (95% CI 0.28, 0.64, P trend < 0.001) for selenium and 0.96 (95% CI 0.63, 1.47, P trend = 0.505) for zinc. Combined effect was observed between zinc and SOD1 rs4998557 on CRC risk (P interaction < 0.05). This study identified a novel diet-gene interaction in the oxidative stress pathway on CRC risk in Chinese population.

7.
Zool Res ; 41(5): 503-516, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772513

RESUMO

As of June 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has killed an estimated 440 000 people worldwide, 74% of whom were aged ≥65 years, making age the most significant risk factor for death caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To examine the effect of age on death, we established a SARS-CoV-2 infection model in Chinese rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) of varied ages. Results indicated that infected young macaques manifested impaired respiratory function, active viral replication, severe lung damage, and infiltration of CD11b + and CD8 + cells in lungs at one-week post infection (wpi), but also recovered rapidly at 2 wpi. In contrast, aged macaques demonstrated delayed immune responses with a more severe cytokine storm, increased infiltration of CD11b + cells, and persistent infiltration of CD8 + cells in the lungs at 2 wpi. In addition, peripheral blood T cells from aged macaques showed greater inflammation and chemotaxis, but weaker antiviral functions than that in cells from young macaques. Thus, the delayed but more severe cytokine storm and higher immune cell infiltration may explain the poorer prognosis of older aged patients suffering SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Macaca mulatta/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Inflamação/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Macaca mulatta/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Carga Viral/imunologia , Carga Viral/veterinária , Replicação Viral/imunologia
8.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has anticarcinogenic properties and acts through vitamin D receptor (VDR) to carry out its functions. AIMS: This study explored the independent and combined effects of dietary vitamin D and calcium, and VDR genetic polymorphisms on colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. METHODS: This ongoing case-control study recruited 488 cases with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer and 496 sex- and age-matched controls. Vitamin D and calcium intakes were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire, and VDR genotype was conducted for Fok I (rs2228570), Bsm I (rs1544410), Apa I (rs7975232), and Taq I (rs731236). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval after adjusting for various confounders. RESULTS: No significant association was found between Fok I, Bsm I, Apa I, Taq I, and colorectal cancer risk. Higher intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium were associated with 47% and 50% reduction in colorectal cancer risk. Significant interaction was observed between dietary vitamin D intake and Apa I polymorphisms in relation to colorectal cancer risk (Pinteraction = 0.006). Subjects with higher dietary vitamin D intake and mutant Apa I A allele had a substantially decreased risk of colorectal cancer compared to Apa I aa carriers with lower vitamin D intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports that Apa I may interact with dietary vitamin D intake on colorectal cancer risk. However, no interactions were found between dietary vitamin D or calcium intakes and Fok I, Bsm I, and Taq I in relation to colorectal cancer risk.

9.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683480

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that flavonols, flavones, flavanones and flavan-3-ols have preventive effects on breast carcinogenesis. Epidemiological evidence about the associations between these flavonoid biomarkers and breast cancer risk is limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum concentration of these flavonoids and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. METHODS: This hospital-based case-control study recruited 792 breast cancer cases and 813 age frequency-matched (5-year interval) controls who provided eligible blood samples in Guangdong Province, China. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure flavonoids. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence internal (CI). RESULTS: Higher concentrations of serum flavonols, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, flavanones and naringenin were significantly associated with lower breast cancer risk, with adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest group of 0.66 (0.49-0.89) for flavonols, 0.52 (0.38-0.70) for isorhamnetin, 0.60 (0.45-0.80) for kaempferol, 0.65 (0.49-0.87) for flavanones and 0.45 (0.34-0.60) for naringenin, respectively. Significant positive associations were observed between serum flavan-3-ols, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and breast cancer risk. No significant associations were observed for serum quercetin, flavones, apigenin, luteolin, hesperetin, catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin-3-gallate with overall breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that serum flavonols and flavanones were inversely associated with breast cancer risk and serum flavan-3-ols were positively associated with breast cancer risk. Serum flavones were not associated with overall breast cancer risk. These findings warrant further confirmation in prospective studies.

10.
Zool Res ; 41(5): 517-526, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701249

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to pose a global threat to the human population. Identifying animal species susceptible to infection with the SARS-CoV-2/ HCoV-19 pathogen is essential for controlling the outbreak and for testing valid prophylactics or therapeutics based on animal model studies. Here, different aged Chinese tree shrews (adult group, 1 year old; old group, 5-6 years old), which are close relatives to primates, were infected with SARS-CoV-2. X-ray, viral shedding, laboratory, and histological analyses were performed on different days post-inoculation (dpi). Results showed that Chinese tree shrews could be infected by SARS-CoV-2. Lung infiltrates were visible in X-ray radiographs in most infected animals. Viral RNA was consistently detected in lung tissues from infected animals at 3, 5, and 7 dpi, along with alterations in related parameters from routine blood tests and serum biochemistry, including increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Histological analysis of lung tissues from animals at 3 dpi (adult group) and 7 dpi (old group) showed thickened alveolar septa and interstitial hemorrhage. Several differences were found between the two different aged groups in regard to viral shedding peak. Our results indicate that Chinese tree shrews have the potential to be used as animal models for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tupaiidae/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tupaiidae/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia
11.
Br J Nutr ; 124(6): 548-557, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308174

RESUMO

Cruciferous vegetables contain high levels of glucosinolates (GSL) and isothiocyanates (ITC). ITC are known to induce glutathione S-transferases (GST) and thus exert their anticarcinogenic effects. This study explored the combined effects of cruciferous vegetable, GSL and ITC intake and GST polymorphisms on breast cancer risk. A total of 737 breast cancer cases and 756 controls were recruited into this case-control study. OR and 95 % CI were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Higher cruciferous vegetable, GSL and ITC intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, with adjusted OR of 0·48 (95 % CI 0·35, 0·65), 0·54 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·74) and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·84), respectively. Compared with women carrying the GSTP1 rs1695 wild AA genotype and high cruciferous vegetable, GSL or ITC intake, carriers of the AA genotype with low cruciferous vegetable, GSL and ITC intake had greater risk of breast cancer, with adjusted OR of 1·43 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·87), 1·34 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·75) and 1·37 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·80), respectively. Persons with the GSTM1-null genotype and lower intake of cruciferous vegetables, GSL and ITC had higher risk of breast cancer than those with the GSTM1-present genotype and higher intake, with OR of 1·42 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·95), 1·43 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·96) and 1·45 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·98), respectively. Among women possessing the GSTT1-present genotype, low intake of cruciferous vegetables, GSL or ITC was associated with higher risk of breast cancer. But these interactions were non-significant. This study indicated that there were no significant interactions between cruciferous vegetable, GSL or ITC intake and GST polymorphisms on breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dieta , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Isotiocianatos/análise , Polimorfismo Genético , Verduras , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Verduras/química
12.
Br J Nutr ; 123(11): 1277-1289, 2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054547

RESUMO

B vitamins (including folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12) and methionine are essential for methylation reactions, nucleotide synthesis, DNA stability and DNA repair. However, epidemiological evidence among Chinese populations is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate B vitamins and methionine in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from July 2010 to April 2019. A total of 2502 patients with colorectal cancer were recruited along with 2538 age- (5-year interval) and sex-matched controls. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess OR and 95 % CI. The intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. The multivariable OR for the highest quartile v. the lowest quartile were 0·62 (95 % CI 0·51, 0·74; Ptrend < 0·001) for folate, 0·46 (95 % CI 0·38, 0·55; Ptrend < 0·001) for vitamin B2, 0·55 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·76; Ptrend < 0·001) for vitamin B6 and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·86; Ptrend < 0·001) for vitamin B12. No statistically significant association was found between methionine intake and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the inverse associations between vitamin B12 and methionine intake and colorectal cancer risk were found only among women. This study indicated that higher intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 was associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.

13.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963221

RESUMO

Diet may modulate chronic inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from July 2010 to April 2019, in Guangzhou, China. A total of 2502 eligible cases were recruited along with 2538 age- (5-year interval) and sex-matched controls. Dietary data derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to calculate the energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer risk were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. In this study, E-DII scores ranged from -5.96 (the most anti-inflammatory score) to +6.01 (the most pro-inflammatory score). A positive association was found between the E-DII and colorectal cancer risk, with the OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.16, 1.68; Ptrend < 0.01) for the highest E-DII quartile compared with the lowest quartile after adjusting for potential confounders. When stratified based on cancer subsite, sex, body mass index, and smoking status, significant associations were not observed in women or underweight individuals. Results from this study confirmed that a higher E-DII score was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Incidência , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(6): 493-500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738218

RESUMO

Anti-tumor effect of dietary flavonoids has been sustained by laboratory experiments, but epidemiological studies with breast cancer risk remained inconsistent and insufficient. This study aimed to investigate the associations between total and subclasses of flavonoid and breast cancer risk among Chinese population. This case-control study recruited 1522 eligible breast cancer cases and 1547 frequency-matched control subjects from June 2007 to July 2018 in Guangdong, China. Dietary intake was obtained by face-to-face interview using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by multivariable logistic regression models. After adjusting for potential confounders, inverse associations were observed between total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, flavanones, flavones, flavonols and isoflavones and overall breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.66 (0.54-0.82) for total flavonoids, 0.61 (0.49-0.75) for anthocyanidins, 0.67 (0.54-0.83) for proanthocyanidins, 0.71 (0.57-0.88) for flavanones, 0.48 (0.39-0.60) for flavones, 0.51 (0.41-0.63) for flavonols and 0.67 (0.54-0.83) for isoflavones, respectively. No significant association was found between flavanols, flavan-3-ol monomers, theaflavins and breast cancer risk. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status showed that the associations of total flavonoids, most flavonoid subclasses with breast cancer risk were generally not modified by menopausal or estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status. This study indicates that total flavonoids and most flavonoid subclasses intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk.

15.
Br J Nutr ; 123(6): 699-711, 2020 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826765

RESUMO

The effects of dietary vitamin D, Ca and dairy products intakes on colorectal cancer risk remain controversial. The present study investigated the association between these dietary intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer in Guangdong, China. From July 2010 to December 2018, 2380 patients with colorectal cancer and 2389 sex- and age-matched controls were recruited. Dietary intake data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a validated FFQ. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate the OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for various confounders. Higher dietary vitamin D and Ca intakes were associated with 43 and 52 % reductions in colorectal cancer risk, with OR of 0·57 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·70) and 0·48 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·61), respectively, for the highest quartile (v. the lowest quartile) intakes. A statistically significant inverse association was observed between total dairy product intake and colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted OR of 0·32 (95 % CI 0·27, 0·39) for the highest v. the lowest tertile. Subjects who drank milk had a 48 % lower risk of colorectal cancer than those who did not (OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·59). The inverse associations of dietary vitamin D, Ca, total dairy products and milk intakes with the risk of colorectal cancer were independent of sex and cancer site. Our study supports the protective effects of high dietary vitamin D, Ca and dairy products intakes against colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.

16.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 8(24): e1901301, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763779

RESUMO

Due to their excellent size, designability, and outstanding targeted antibacterial effects, nanoparticles have become a potential option for controlling oral biofilm-related infections. However, the formation of an oral biofilm is a dynamic process, and factors affecting the performance of antibiofilm treatments are complex. As such, when examining the existing literature on the antibiofilm effects of nanoparticles, attention should be paid to the specific mechanisms of action at different stages of oral biofilm formation, as well as relevant influencing factors, in order to achieve an objective and comprehensive evaluation. This review is intended to detail the antibacterial mechanisms of nanoparticles during the four stages of the formation of oral biofilms: 1) acquired film formation; 2) bacterial adhesion; 3) early biofilm development; and 4) biofilm maturation. In addition, factors influencing the antibiofilm properties of nanoparticles are summarized from the aspects of nanoparticles themselves, biofilm models, and host factors. The limitations of current research and possible trends for future research are also discussed. In summary, nanoparticles are a promising antioral biofilm strategy. It is hoped that this review can serve as a reference and inspire ideas for further research on the application of nanoparticles for effectively targeting and treating oral biofilms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
17.
Zool Res ; 40(6): 583-586, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631590

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly known as depression, is a mental disease characterized by a core symptom of low mood. It lasts at least two weeks (Badamasi et al., 2019; Wang et al., 2019) and is frequently accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in routinely enjoyable activities, low energy, and unexplained pain (Huey et al., 2018; Park et al., 2012; Post & Warden, 2018; Rice et al., 2019; Xiao et al., 2018). Approximately 2%-8% of adults with MDD commit suicide (Richards & O'Hara, 2014; Strakowski & Nelson, 2015), and around half of suicidal individuals suffer depression or other mood disorders (Bachmann, 2018).


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Cabelo/efeitos da radiação , Hidrocortisona/química , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Animais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Br J Nutr ; 121(7): 735-747, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688185

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the association of various types of Fe with colorectal cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate different forms and sources of Fe in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A total of 2138 patients with colorectal cancer and 2144 sex- and age-matched (5-year interval) controls were recruited from July 2010 to November 2017. Dietary information was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI on models. Intake of Fe from plants and Fe from white meat were inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, while haem Fe and Fe from red meat were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. The multivariable OR for the highest quartile v. the lowest quartile were 0·72 (95 % CI 0·59, 0·87, P trend<0·001) for Fe from plants, 0·54 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·66, P trend<0·001) for Fe from white meat, 1·26 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·53, P trend=0·005) for haem Fe and 1·83 (95 % CI 1·49, 2·24, P trend<0·001) for Fe from red meat intake, respectively. However, no significant association was found between the consumption of total dietary Fe, non-haem Fe, Fe from meat and colorectal cancer risk. This study showed that lower intake of Fe from plants and white meat, as well as higher intake of haem Fe and Fe from red meat, were associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ferro na Dieta/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Comestíveis/química
19.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(12): 5290-5299, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030246

RESUMO

Background: Given low incidence and high heterogeneity, the treatment strategies of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs) are diverse based on pathology. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in transthoracic biopsy of malignant AMMs when compared with that of ultrasound (US) alone and to screen lesions that are more suitable for CEUS evaluation and guidance. Methods: We reviewed all the US- and CEUS-guided transthoracic core needle biopsy (CNB) of AMMs performed in National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College between July 2013 and April 2019. A total of 68 patients (mean age 36 years; male-female ration 1.6:1) who were suspected with malignant AMMs were enrolled in the study. Among them, 20 patients received pre-biopsy CEUS examination (CEUS group); 48 patients underwent conventional US examination and guidance (US group). Demographic, radiologic, pathologic, medical records, and biopsy procedure details were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the two groups. Results: The display of internal necrosis areas was significantly improved when compared with that of the conventional US (70%, 30%; P=0.008). Specifically, CEUS improved the diagnostic accuracy of US-guided transthoracic biopsy (95.0%, 79.2%; P=0.210) and especially for AMMs exceeding 10 cm (100%, 68.2%; P=0.040) and carcinoma (100%, 0%; P=0.048). The number of punctures in US group and CEUS group was 2.6 and 4.4 times, respectively (P<0.001). In case of similar number of punctures (1 to 3 times), CEUS improved diagnostic accuracy when compared to that of the conventional US (100%, 75%; P=0.486). The technical success rate was 100% (68/68). In both groups, patients did not exhibit symptomatic complications such as bleeding, pneumothorax, or hemoptysis after the biopsy. Conclusions: The application of CEUS in transthoracic biopsy of malignant AMMs improved diagnostic accuracy when compared with conventional US and especially played more important role in lesions exceeding 10 cm and presumptive clinical carcinoma.

20.
Environ Technol ; 39(18): 2382-2389, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707516

RESUMO

The ability of an electrochemically active bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, to decolorize azo dye cationic red X-GRL (X-GRL) was investigated. S. oneidensis MR-1 showed a high decolorization capability for X-GRL under anaerobic conditions. The Mtr respiratory pathway was proved to be involved in the extracellular decolorization of X-GRL. The decolorization efficiency of S. oneidensis MR-1 was significantly inhibited when the initial X-GRL concentration was over 200 mg L-1. Increasing the inoculum volume of S. oneidensis MR-1 could obviously promote the X-GRL decolorization. The 100 mg L-1 X-GRL and 6% (v/v) inoculum volume were chosen as the optimal parameter. Under such a condition, almost all of X-GRL (100 mg L-1) could be completely reduced after 12-h incubation at the pH range of 5.5-8.0 and temperature range of 30-40°C. Salinity in the medium also affected X-GRL decolorization. Lactate and citric acid were found to be the suitable electron donors for X-GRL decolorization. Although the genotoxicity increased slightly, the phytotoxicity of X-GRL in the decolorization process was significantly reduced by S. oneidensis MR-1.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo , Shewanella , Purificação da Água , Cátions
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