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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noradrenaline (NA) has an important role as a neuromodulator of the central nervous system. Noradrenergic enhancement was recently shown to enhance glutamate-dependent cortical facilitation, and long term potentiation-like plasticity. As cortical excitability and plasticity are closely linked to various cognitive processes, here we aimed to explore whether these alterations are associated with respective cognitive performance changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of noradrenergic enhancement on motor learning (serial reaction time task), attentional processes (stroop interference task), and working memory performance (n-back letter task). METHODS: The study was conducted in a cross-over design. Twenty-five healthy humans performed the respective cognitive tasks after a single dose of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (RBX) or placebo (PLC) administration. RESULTS: The results show that motor learning, attentional processes, and working memory performance in healthy subjects were improved by RBX application, as compared to PLC. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study thus suggest that noradrenergic enhancement can improve memory formation and executive functions in healthy humans. The respective changes go in line with related effects of noradrenaline on cortical excitability and plasticity.

2.
Sci Adv ; 7(7)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568482

RESUMO

Accurate, real-time monitoring of intravascular oxygen levels is important in tracking the cardiopulmonary health of patients after cardiothoracic surgery. Existing technologies use intravascular placement of glass fiber-optic catheters that pose risks of blood vessel damage, thrombosis, and infection. In addition, physical tethers to power supply systems and data acquisition hardware limit freedom of movement and add clutter to the intensive care unit. This report introduces a wireless, miniaturized, implantable optoelectronic catheter system incorporating optical components on the probe, encapsulated by soft biocompatible materials, as alternative technology that avoids these disadvantages. The absence of physical tethers and the flexible, biocompatible construction of the probe represent key defining features, resulting in a high-performance, patient-friendly implantable oximeter that can monitor localized tissue oxygenation, heart rate, and respiratory activity with wireless, real-time, continuous operation. In vitro and in vivo testing shows that this platform offers measurement accuracy and precision equivalent to those of existing clinical standards.

3.
J Sep Sci ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586849

RESUMO

Heterocyclic aromatic amines, as a group of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds, have gained worldwide concern. In this study, an accurate, rapid and sensitive confirmation and quantification method of four major heterocyclic aromatic amines in roasted pork was developed based on Q-Orbitrap along with Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe extraction. The LODs and LOQs were found to be 0.2-1.2 µg/kg and 0.6-3.5 µg/kg, respectively, revealing high sensitivity of this method. Obtained results showed recoveries ranging from 78.1-97.4%, depending on the different heterocyclic aromatic amines and spiked levels. Precision was in the range of 2.6-4.5% for four heterocyclic aromatic amines at different levels. In addition, the developed method had been applied to investigate the inhibitory effects of astaxanthin on the above mentioned heterocyclic aromatic amines in roasted pork. The amount of astaxanthin with the best inhibitory effects was 7.5 mg (0.0375%), which led to significant reduction in heterocyclic aromatic amines levels over 50%. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595299

RESUMO

Removal of trace SO2 from an SO2-containing product is now receiving increasing attention. However, designing a robust porous adsorbent with high SO2 adsorption capacity and good SO2/CO2 selectivity, as well as validity under humid conditions, is still a challenging task. Herein, we report a porous cage-based metal-organic framework, namely ECUT-111, which contains two distinct cages with apertures of 5.4 and 10.2 Å, respectively, and shows high a BET of up to 1493 m2/g and a pore volume of 0.629 cm3/g. Impressively, ECUT-111 enables an ultrahigh SO2 uptake of up to 11.56 mmol/g, exceeding most reported top-performing adsorbents for such a use. More importantly, complete separation of trace SO2 from SO2/CO2 and SO2/CO2/N2 mixtures, especially under humid conditions, and excellent recycle use were observed for ECUT-111, suggesting its superior application in desulfurization of SO2-containing products.

5.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; : 1-26, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557608

RESUMO

Cannabinoids (CBDs) have been traditionally used as a folk medicine. Recently, they have been found to exhibit a high pharmacological potential. However, they are addicted and are often abused by drug users, thereby, becoming a threat to public safety. CBDs and their metabolites are usually found in trace levels in plants or in biological matrices and, are therefore not easy to be detected. Advances have been made toward accurately analyzing CBDs in plants or in biological matrices. This review aims at elucidating on the consumption of CBDs as well as its adverse effects and to provide a comprehensive overview of CBD pretreatment and detection methods. Moreover, novel pretreatment methods such as microextraction, Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe and online technology as well as novel analytic methods such as ion-mobility mass spectrometry, application of high resolution mass spectrometry in nontarget screening are summarized. In addition, we discuss and compare the strengths and weaknesses of different methods and suggest their future prospect.

6.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(1): 99-108, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398178

RESUMO

Detection of endogenous signals and precise control of genetic circuits in the natural context are essential to understand biological processes. However, the tools to process endogenous information are limited. Here we developed a generalizable endogenous transcription-gated switch that releases single-guide RNAs in the presence of an endogenous promoter. When the endogenous transcription-gated switch is coupled with the highly sensitive CRISPR-activator-associated reporter we developed, we can reliably detect the activity of endogenous genes, including genes with very low expression (<0.001 relative to Gapdh; quantitative-PCR analysis). Notably, we could also monitor the transcriptional activity of typically long non-coding RNAs expressed at low levels in living cells using this approach. Together, our method provides a powerful platform to sense the activity of endogenous genetic elements underlying cellular functions.

7.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507867

RESUMO

To better understand early brain development in health and disorder, it is critical to accurately segment infant brain magnetic resonance (MR) images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Deep learning-based methods have achieved state-of-the-art performance; however, one of the major limitations is that the learning-based methods may suffer from the multi-site issue, that is, the models trained on a dataset from one site may not be applicable to the datasets acquired from other sites with different imaging protocols/scanners. To promote methodological development in the community, the iSeg-2019 challenge (http://iseg2019.web.unc.edu) provides a set of 6-month infant subjects from multiple sites with different protocols/scanners for the participating methods. Training/validation subjects are from UNC (MAP) and testing subjects are from UNC/UMN (BCP), Stanford University, and Emory University. By the time of writing, there are 30 automatic segmentation methods participated in the iSeg-2019. In this article, 8 top-ranked methods were reviewed by detailing their pipelines/implementations, presenting experimental results, and evaluating performance across different sites in terms of whole brain, regions of interest, and gyral landmark curves. We further pointed out their limitations and possible directions for addressing the multi-site issue. We find that multi-site consistency is still an open issue. We hope that the multi-site dataset in the iSeg-2019 and this review article will attract more researchers to address the challenging and critical multi-site issue in practice.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 60(3): 1310-1314, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448853

RESUMO

Herein, we report a highly rare robust 4d-5f bimetal-organic framework that shows high porosity and thermal/chemical stability and thus is capable of removing trace SO2 from a SO2/CO2/N2 mixture even under humid conditions. This work not only shows a novel adsorbent for SO2 removal but also extends the function of actinium-based coordination compounds.

9.
Epilepsia ; 62(2): 517-528, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mutations of the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by intractable epilepsy, intellectual disability, and autism. Multiple mouse models generated for mechanistic studies have exhibited phenotypes similar to some human pathological features, but none of the models has developed one of the major symptoms affecting CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD) patients: intractable recurrent seizures. As disrupted neuronal excitation/inhibition balance is closely associated with the activity of glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons, our aim was to study the effect of the loss of CDKL5 in different types of neurons on epilepsy. METHODS: Using the Cre-LoxP system, we generated conditional knockout (cKO) mouse lines allowing CDKL5 deficiency in glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons. We employed noninvasive video recording and in vivo electrophysiological approaches to study seizure activity in these Cdkl5 cKO mice. Furthermore, we conducted Timm staining to confirm a morphological alteration, mossy fiber sprouting, which occurs with limbic epilepsy in both human and mouse brains. Finally, we performed whole-cell patch clamp in dentate granule cells to investigate cell-intrinsic properties and synaptic excitatory activity. RESULTS: We demonstrate that Emx1- or CamK2α-derived Cdkl5 cKO mice manifest high-frequency spontaneous seizure activities recapitulating the epilepsy of CDD patients, which ultimately led to sudden death in mice. However, Cdkl5 deficiency in GABAergic neurons does not generate such seizures. The seizures were accompanied by typical epileptic features including higher amplitude spikes for epileptiform discharges and abnormal hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting. We also found an increase in spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequencies but no change in amplitudes in the dentate granule cells of Emx1-cKO mice, indicating enhanced excitatory synaptic activity. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates that Cdkl5 cKO mice, serving as an animal model to study recurrent spontaneous seizures, have potential value for the pathological study of CDD-related seizures and for therapeutic innovation.

10.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e927624, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Traditional Chinese medicine has widely used Bolbostemma paniculatum to treat diseases, including cancer, but its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential pharmacological mechanisms of "Tu Bei Mu" (TBM), the Chinese name for Bolbostemmatis Rhizoma, the dry tuber of B. paniculatum, for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS The active components and putative therapeutic targets of TBM were explored using SwissTargetPrediction, Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals (STITCH). The HCC-related target database was built using DrugBank, DisGeNet, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). A protein-protein interaction network of the common targets was constructed, based on the matches between TBM potential targets and HCC-related targets, using Cytoscape software. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of the cluster networks were used to elucidate the biological functions of TBM. RESULTS Pharmacological network diagrams of the TBM compound-target network and HCC-related target network were successfully constructed. A total of 22 active components, 191 predicted biological targets of TBM, and 3775 HCC-related targets were identified. Through construction of an HCC-related target database and a protein-protein interaction network of the common targets, TBM was predicted to be effective in treating HCC mainly through the PI3K-Akt, HIF-1, p53, and PPAR signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS The PI3K/Akt, HIF1, p53, and PPAR pathways may play vital roles in TBM treatment of HCC. Also, the potential anti-cancer effect of TBM on HCC appears to stem from the synergetic effect of multiple targets and mechanisms.

11.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(2): 52, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496871

RESUMO

A low cost-effective and simple synthesis method was adopted to acquire three-dimensional flower-like structure Fe3O4/C that has large specific area, suitable pore structure and sufficient saturation magnetism. The obtained Fe3O4/C exhibits outstanding preconcentration ability and was applied to extracting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from complex environmental and biological samples. The parameters of magnetic solid-phase extraction were optimized by univariate and multivariate methods (Box-Behnken design). The high degree of linearity from 2.5 to 1000.0 ng mL-1 (R2 ≥ 0.9976), the limits of detection from 0.25 to 0.5 ng mL- 1 (S/N = 3), and the limits of quantitation from 1.0 to 2.0 ng mL- 1 (S/N = 10) were yielded by adopting this novel method after the optimization. Moreover, the recoveries of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from 89.6 to 107.0% were acquired in spiked plasma, urine and lake samples. In addition, the adsorption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on Fe3O4/C was explored by adsorption isotherms and kinetic studies. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by Fe3O4/C was proposed, which was hydrogen bonding and π-π interaction between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and Fe3O4/C. Graphical abstract.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123371, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763683

RESUMO

Aluminum (Al) stress in acid soils is one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters have numerous roles in plants, but the link between ABCB protein subfamily and plant Al tolerance is still elusive. Here, we identified and characterized a novel tonoplast HvABCB25 in barley root cells. HvABCB25 was up-regulated in the transcriptome of Al-tolerant wild barley XZ16 under Al treatment and was highly Al-inducible in root tips. ABCB25 is originated from Streptophyte algae and evolutionarily conserved in land plants. Moreover, silencing HvABCB25 in Al-tolerant XZ16 led to significant suppression of Al tolerance as indicated by significantly reduced root growth and enhanced Al accumulation in root cells. Conversely, HvABCB25-overexpressed plants and Golden Promise showed similar Al content in whole roots and in cell sap, but the overexpression lines exhibited significantly higher Al-induced relative root growth and dry weight. Al florescence in cytosol of root cells were significantly less in overexpression lines than that in GP. These results indicated that overexpressing HvABCB25 may be responsible for Al detoxification via vacuolar Al sequestration in barley roots, providing useful insight into the genetic basis for a new Al detoxification mechanism towards plant Al tolerance in acid soils.

13.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High agglomeration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in neuroblastoma (NB) impeded therapeutic effects. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of targeted inhibition of MDSCs by low-dose doxorubicin (DOX) to enhance immune efficacy in NB. METHODS: Bagg albino (BALB/c) mice were used as tumor-bearing mouse models by injecting Neuro-2a cells, and MDSCs were eliminated by DOX or dopamine (DA) administration. Tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 2.5 mg/kg DOX, 5.0 mg/kg DOX, 50.0 mg/kg DA, and control groups (n = 20). The optimal drug and its concentration for MDSC inhibition were selected according to tumor inhibition. NB antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) were prepared. Tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into DOX, CTL, anti-ganglioside (GD2), DOX+CTL, DOX+anti-GD2, and control groups. Following low-dose DOX administration, immunotherapy was applied. The levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-I, CD8, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ in peripheral blood, CTLs, T-helper 1 (Thl)/Th2 cytokines, perforin, granzyme and tumor growth were compared among the groups. The Wilcoxon two-sample test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to analyze results. RESULTS: The slowest tumor growth (F = 6.095, P = 0.018) and strongest MDSC inhibition (F = 14.632, P = 0.001) were observed in 2.5 mg/kg DOX group. Proliferation of T cells was increased (F = 448.721, P = 0.000) and then decreased (F = 2.047, P = 0.186). After low-dose DOX administration, HLA-I (F = 222.489), CD8 (F = 271.686), Thl/Th2 cytokines, CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, granzyme (F = 2376.475) and perforin (F = 488.531) in tumor, IL-2 (F = 62.951) and IFN-γ (F = 240.709) in peripheral blood of each immunotherapy group were all higher compared with the control group (all of P values < 0.05). The most significant increases in the aforementioned indexes and the most notable tumor growth inhibition were observed in DOX+anti-GD2 and DOX+CTL groups. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose DOX can be used as a potent immunomodulatory agent that selectively impairs MDSC-induced immunosuppression, thereby fostering immune efficacy in NB.

14.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289098

RESUMO

Mechanical stretch is known to promote osteoblast differentiation in vitro and accelerate bone regeneration in vivo, whereas the relevant mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies have shown the importance of reciprocal interactions between mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB; two downstream molecules of Akt) in the regulation of tumor cells. Thus, we hypothesize that mTOR and NF-κB as well as their interconnection play a critical role in mediating stretch-induced osteogenic differentiation in osteoblasts. We herein found that mechanical stretch (10% elongation at six cycles/min) significantly promoted the expression of osteoblast differentiation-related markers (including ALP, BMP2, Col1α, OCN, and Runx2) in osteoblast-like MG-63 cells, accompanied by increased mTOR phosphorylation and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Blockade of mTOR by antagonist or small interfering RNA suppressed osteogenesis-related gene expression in response to mechanical stretch, whereas inhibition of NF-κB further increased stretch-induced osteoblast differentiation. Moreover, inhibition of mTOR decreased the phosphorylation of NF-κB, and blockade of NF-κB reduced the mTOR activation in MG63 cells under mechanical stretch. Coinhibition of mTOR and NF-κB abolishes the alteration of osteogenic differentiation induced by single mTOR or NF-κB inhibition under mechanical stretch, which is equivalent to the noninhibition level for osteoblasts under mechanical stretch. The expression levels of osteogenic differentiation in osteoblasts after inhibition of Akt were similar to those after co-inhibition of mTOR and NF-κB under mechanical stretch. This study for the first time reveals the reciprocal interconnection between mTOR and NF-κB in osteoblasts under mechanical stretch and indicates that mTOR and NF-κB as well as their interactions play a key role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis of osteoblasts in response to mechanical stretch. These findings are helpful for enriching our basic knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of osteoblast mechanotransduction, and also providing insight into the clinical therapeutic modality associated with mechanical stretch (e.g., distraction osteogenesis).

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(23)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260847

RESUMO

Cu-Cr-based alloys exhibit excellent electrical conductivity and strength, but their poor thermal stability limits their application in industry. In this paper, Cu-0.2Cr (at. %) and Cu-0.2Cr-0.12Ag (at. %) alloys were prepared to study the effect of Ag on the properties, microstructure, and thermal stability of the Cu-Cr alloy. Microstructure and precipitation were observed by an optical microscope (OM) and a transmission-electron microscope (TEM). After cold-drawing by 99.9% and aging at 450 °C for 2 h, the peak hardness and electric conductivity of the Cu-Cr alloy were 120.3 HV and 99.5% IACS, respectively, and those of the Cu-Cr-Ag alloy were 135.8 HV and 98.3% IACS, respectively. The softening temperature of the Cu-Cr alloy was 500~525 °C, and that of the Cu-Cr-Ag alloy was about 550 °C. The creep strains of the Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Ag alloys at 40 MPa and 400 ℃ for 50 h were 0.18% and 0.05%, respectively. Ag elements improved the thermal stability of the Cu-Cr alloy. Recovery and recrystallization occurred before the coarsening of precipitates during the softening process. Ag atoms mainly improved the softening resistance of the alloy by delaying recrystallization, and mainly increased creep resistance by preventing the increase in mobile-dislocation density.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331771

RESUMO

Herein, we report a new metal-organic framework (MOF), namely, ECUT-77, which is built on rod-shaped secondary building units, showing a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 760.3 cm2/g, a pore volume of 0.4 cm3/g, and an aperture of about 1 nm. This MOF enables both high SO2 adsorption capacity up to 8.0 mmol/g at 0.92 bar and room temperature and a high SO2/CO2 selectivity of 44, resulting in excellent SO2 separation upon a ECUT-77 column from a SO2/CO2 mixture containing 2000 ppm of SO2.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372750

RESUMO

Transfer printing has emerged as a deterministic assembly technique for moving thin-film semiconductors into desired layouts by using rubber stamps; however, replicating transfer printing for different semiconductors fails to achieve high efficiency, hindering the fast development of flexible hybrid electronics. In this work, a novel transfer printing technique using droplet stamps is developed based on Laplace pressure and surface tension. The working principle is explained by liquid bridge analysis and demonstrated by a 100% yield of transfer printing a batch of thin-film semiconductors with different materials, sizes, and shapes. Besides, the droplet stamps are used in fabricating epidermal hybrid optoelectronics for accurate blood pressure monitoring to verify their high working efficiency. Thus, taking advantage of eliminating Poisson effects and solving the incompatibility with conventional fabrication technologies, this technique will play an enabling role in hybrid integration and high-fidelity fabrication.

18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 572570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330121

RESUMO

Cancerous tumors are severe diseases affecting human health that have a complicated etiology and pathogenesis. Microbes have been considered to be related to the development and progression of numerous tumors through various pathogenic mechanisms in recent studies. Bacteria, which have so far remained the most studied microbes worldwide, have four major possible special pathogenic mechanisms (modulation of inflammation, immunity, DNA damage, and metabolism) that are related to carcinogenesis. This review aims to macroscopically summarize and verify the relationships between microbes and tumoral in situ tissues from cancers of four major different systems (urinary, respiratory, digestive, and reproductive); the abovementioned four microbial pathogenic mechanisms, as well as some synergistic pathogenic mechanisms, are also discussed. Once the etiologic role of microbes and their precise pathogenic mechanisms in carcinogenesis are known, the early prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancers would progress significantly.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124495, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187800

RESUMO

Metalloids such as boron and silicon are key elements for plant growth and crop productivity. However, toxic metalloids such as arsenic are increasing in the environment due to inputs from natural sources and human activities. These hazardous metalloids can cause serious health risks to humans and animals if they enter the food chain. Plants have developed highly regulated mechanisms to alleviate the toxicity of metalloids during their 500 million years of evolution. A better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport and detoxification of toxic metalloids in plants will shed light on developing mitigation strategies. Key transporters and regulatory proteins responsive to toxic metalloids have been identified through evolutionary and molecular analyses. Moreover, knowledge of the regulatory proteins and their pathways can be used in the breeding of crops with lower accumulation of metalloids. These findings can also assist phytoremediation by the exploration of plants such as fern species that hyperaccumulate metalloids from soils and water, and can be used to engineer plants with elevated uptake and storage capacity of toxic metalloids. In summary, there are solutions to remediate contamination due to toxic metalloids by combining the research advances and industrial technologies with agricultural and environmental practices.

20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1634: 461662, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160200

RESUMO

Macrolides are versatile broad-spectrum antibiotics whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring. They are widely used in veterinary medicine to prevent and treat disease. However, because of their improper use and the absence of effective regulation, these compounds pose a threat to human health and the environment. Consequently, simple, quick, economical, and effective techniques are required to analyze macrolides in animal-derived foods, biological samples, and environmental samples. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the pretreatment and analytical methods used for macrolides in various sample matrices, focusing on the developments since 2010. Pretreatment methods mainly include liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and microextraction methods. Detection and quantification methods mainly include liquid chromatography (coupled to mass spectrometry or other detectors), electrochemical methods, capillary electrophoresis, and immunoassays. Furthermore, a comparison between the pros and cons of these methods and prospects for future developments are also discussed.

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