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2.
Int J Parasitol ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715087

RESUMO

The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia are significant causes of diarrhoea worldwide and are responsible for numerous waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diseases. Over the last 50 years, the development of improved detection and typing tools has facilitated the expanding range of named species. Currently at least 44 Cryptosporidium spp. and >120 genotypes, and nine Giardia spp., are recognised. Many of these Cryptosporidium genotypes will likely be described as species in the future. The phylogenetic placement of Cryptosporidium at the genus level is still unclear and further research is required to better understand its evolutionary origins. Zoonotic transmission has long been known to play an important role in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, and the development and application of next generation sequencing tools is providing evidence for this. Comparative whole genome sequencing is also providing key information on the genetic mechanisms for host specificity and human infectivity, and will enable One Health management of these zoonotic parasites in the future.

3.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 4199-4218, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623485

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in various hosts, with the disease giardiasis being a zoonosis. The use of molecular typing tools has improved our understanding of the distribution and zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis genotypes in different animals. The present review summarizes recent data on the distribution of G. duodenalis genotypes in humans and animals in different areas. The dominance of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B in humans and common occurrence of host-adapted assemblages in most domesticated animals suggests that zoonotic giardiasis is probably less common than believed and could be attributed mainly to contact with or contamination from just a few species of animals such as nonhuman primates, equines, rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, and beavers. Future studies should be directed to advanced genetic characterization of isolates from well-designed epidemiological investigations, especially comparative analyses of isolates from humans and animals living in the same household or community. This will likely lead to better understanding of zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis in different environmental and socioeconomic settings.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Cobaias , Cavalos , Tipagem Molecular , Coelhos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
4.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683387

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium bovis is a common enteric pathogen in bovine animals. The research on transmission characteristics of the pathogen is hampered by the lack of subtyping tools. In this study, we retrieve the nucleotide sequence of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) from the whole genome sequences of C. bovis we obtained previously and analyze its sequence characteristics. Despite a typical structure of the GP60 protein, the GP60 of C. bovis had only 19.3-45.3% sequence identity to those of other Cryptosporidium species. On the basis of the gene sequence, a subtype typing tool was developed for C. bovis and used in the analysis of 486 C. bovis samples from dairy cattle, yaks, beef cattle, and water buffalos from China. Sixty-eight sequence types were identified from 260 subtyped samples, forming six subtype families, namely XXVIa to XXVIf. The mosaic sequence patterns among subtype families and the 121 potential recombination events identified among the sequences both suggest the occurrence of genetic recombination at the locus. No obvious host adaptation and geographic differences in the distribution of subtype families were observed. Most farms with more extensive sampling had more than one subtype family, and the dominant subtype families on a farm appeared to differ between pre- and post-weaned calves, indicating the likely occurrence of multiple episodes of C. bovis infections. There was an association between XXVId infection and occurrence of moderate diarrhea in dairy cattle. The subtyping tool developed and the data generated in the study might improve our knowledge of the genetic diversity and transmission of C. bovis.

5.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029620967108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583575

RESUMO

To explore the possible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sites in the promoter region of fibrinogen B ß (FGB), and construct logistic regression model and haplotype model, so as to reveal the influence of FGB promoter SNPs on susceptibility, hemodynamics and coagulation function of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LEDVT) in the genetic background. LEDVT patients (120) and healthy people (120) were taken as case and control objects, respectively. SNPs and their genotypes of FGB promoter were detected by promoter sequencing and PCR-RFLP. The parameters of coagulation system were evaluated. There were 6 SNPs in FGB promoter, which were ß-148C/T, ß-249C/T, ß-455G/A, ß-854G/A, ß-993C/T and ß-1420G/A. The genotype and allele frequency of ß-1420 G/A, ß-455G/A, ß-249c/T and ß-148C/T were significantly different between the LEDVT group and the control group, but not ß-993C/T and ß-854G/A. In addition, we found that the higher the content of Fibrinogen (FG), the higher the risk of LEDVT. The risk of LEDVT increased by 4.579 times for every unit increase of fibrinogen. We also found that FG, PT and APTT in LEDVT group were higher than those in control group, while TT was lower than those in control group; Furthermore, there was no significant difference in all coagulation indexes among 6 SNP genotypes in LEDVT group, while a significant difference was found between the 2 genotypes of ß-993C/T in the control group. ß-993C/T may indirectly affect the susceptibility of LEDVT by improving the basic level of plasma FG.

6.
Trends Parasitol ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474945
7.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 178, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nematodes are a widespread and diverse group comprising free-living and parasitic species, some of which have major detrimental effects on crops, animals, and human health. Genomic comparisons of nematodes may help reveal the genetic bases for the evolution of parasitic lifestyles. Fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) are thought to be unique to nematodes and play essential roles in their development, reproduction, infection, and possibly parasitism through promoting the uptake, transport, and distribution of lipid and retinol. However, the evolution of FAR family proteins across the phylum Nematoda remains elusive. RESULTS: We report here the evolutionary relationship of the FAR gene family across nematodes. No FAR was found in Trichocephalida species and Romanomermis culicivorax from Clade I, and FAR could be found in species from Clades III, IV, and V. FAR proteins are conserved in Clade III species and separated into three clusters. Tandem duplications and high divergence events lead to variable richness and low homology of FARs in Steinernema of Clade IVa, Strongyloides of Clade IVb, and intestinal parasitic nematodes from Clades Vc and Ve. Moreover, different richness and sequence variations of FARs in pine wood, root-knot, stem, and cyst nematodes might be determined by reproduction mode or parasitism. However, murine lungworm Angiostrongylus and bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus from Clade Vd have only 3-4 orthologs of FAR. RNA-seq data showed that far genes, especially far-1 and far-2, were highly expressed in most nematodes. Angiostrongylus cantonensis FAR-1 and FAR-3 have low sequence homology and distinct ligand-binding properties, leading to differences in the cavity volume of proteins. These data indicate that FAR proteins diverged early and experienced low selective pressure to form genus-level diversity. The far genes are present in endophyte or root-colonized bacteria of Streptomyces, Kitasatospora sp., Bacillus subtilis, and Lysobacter, suggesting that bacterial far genes might be derived from plant-parasitic nematodes by horizontal gene transfer. CONCLUSIONS: Data from these comparative analyses have provided insights into genus-level diversity of FAR proteins in the phylum Nematoda. FAR diversification provides a glimpse into the complicated evolution history across free-living and parasitic nematodes.

8.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2887-2895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331137

RESUMO

Few data are available on the genetic identity of enteric protists Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans in Thailand. In this study, 254 stool samples were collected from primary school children from Ratchaburi Province at the Thai-Myanmar border and examined for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cyclospora cayetanensis using PCR techniques. The genotype identity of the pathogens was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products. Cryptosporidium felis was found in 1 stool sample, G. duodenalis in 19 stool samples, and E. bieneusi in 4 stool samples. For G. duodenalis, sub-assemblage AII was the dominant genotype, but one infection with assemblage F was found. The E. bieneusi genotypes found included known genotypes D and J, and one novel genotype (HPTM1). Cyclospora cayetanensis was not detected in any samples. Results of the preliminary study indicate that children at the Thai-Myanmar border from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand are infected with diverse zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Microsporidiose , Criança , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Mianmar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia
9.
Pathogens ; 10(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202513

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrhea in sheep and goats. Among the over 40 established species of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium xiaoi is one of the dominant species infecting ovine and caprine animals. The lack of subtyping tools makes it impossible to examine the transmission of this pathogen. In the present study, we identified and characterized the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene by sequencing the genome of C. xiaoi. The GP60 protein of C. xiaoi had a signal peptide, a furin cleavage site of RSRR, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, and over 100 O-glycosylation sites. Based on the gp60 sequence, a subtyping tool was developed and used in characterizing C. xiaoi in 355 positive samples from sheep and goats in China. A high sequence heterogeneity was observed in the gp60 gene, with 94 sequence types in 12 subtype families, namely XXIIIa to XXIIIl. Co-infections with multiple subtypes were common in these animals, suggesting that genetic recombination might be responsible for the high diversity within C. xiaoi. This was supported by the mosaic sequence patterns among the subtype families. In addition, a potential host adaptation was identified within this species, reflected by the exclusive occurrence of XXIIIa, XXIIIc, XXIIIg, and XXIIIj in goats. This subtyping tool should be useful in studies of the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of C. xiaoi.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 651512, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093467

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in humans and animals. Its compact genome contains 22 genes encoding divergent insulinase-like proteases (INS), which are poorly characterized. In this study, two small members of this family, INS-21 encoded by cgd7_2080 and INS-23 encoded by cgd5_3400, were cloned, expressed, and characterized to understand their functions. Recombinant INS-21 and INS-23 were expressed in Escherichia coli and polyclonal antibodies against these two proteins were prepared. The cgd7_2080 gene had a high transcription level during 0-2 h of in vitro C. parvum culture, while cgd5_3400 was highly transcribed at 0-6 h. INS-21 was mostly located in the apical region of sporozoites and merozoites whereas INS-23 was found as spots in sporozoites and merozoites. The immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the expression of INS-21 in the apical region of sporozoites while INS-23 appeared to be expressed in the dense granules of sporozoites. The neutralization efficiency was approximately 35%, when the cultures were treated with anti-INS23 antibodies. These results suggest that INS-21 and INS-23 are expressed in different organelles and might have different functions in the development of C. parvum.

11.
One Health ; 13: 100269, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113708

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. are common protozoan pathogens in mammals. With pet rodents being integrated into modern life, the potential roles of them in transmitting parasites to humans need assessments. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet rodents in Guangdong, south China. A total of 697 fecal samples were collected from 11 species of rodents in seven pet shops, one pet market and one farm. Cryptosporidium spp. were identified by PCR analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. An overall infection rate of 36.9% (257/697) was obtained, with infection rates varying from 9.3% in chinchillas, 52.3% in guinea pigs, 57.1% in squirrels, to 68.4% in cricetid animals. Nine Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were identified, including C. wrairi (in 129 guinea pigs), C. andersoni (in 34 hamsters), C. homai (in 32 guinea pigs), Cryptosporidium hamster genotype (in 30 hamsters), C. ubiquitum (in 24 chinchillas and squirrels), C. parvum (in 2 chinchillas), Cryptosporidium ferret genotype (in 2 chipmunks), C. muris (in 1 hamster and 1 guinea pig), and Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype V (in 1 chinchilla and 1 chipmunk). Sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene identified three subtype families of C. ubiquitum, including family XIId in 15 chinchillas, XIIa in 5 chinchillas, and a new subtype family (XIIi) in 1 squirrel. The identification of C. parvum and C. ubiquitum in pet rodents suggests that these animals, especially chinchillas, could serve as reservoirs of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium spp. Hygiene should be practiced in the rear and care of these animals, and One Health measures should be developed to reduce the occurrence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium infections due to contact with pet rodents.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 666782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981294

RESUMO

Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 generally confers low-level resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of mcr-1 on the development of high-level colistin resistance (HLCR) in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. In this study, mcr-1-negative K. pneumoniae and E. coli strains and their corresponding mcr-1-positive transformants were used to generate HLCR mutants via multiple passages in the presence of increasing concentrations of colistin. We found that for K. pneumoniae, HLCR mutants with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of colistin from 64 to 1,024 mg/L were generated. Colistin MICs increased 256- to 4,096-fold for mcr-1-negative K. pneumoniae strains but only 16- to 256-fold for the mcr-1-harboring transformants. For E. coli, colistin MICs increased 4- to 64-folds, but only 2- to 16-fold for their mcr-1-harboring transformants. Notably, mcr-1 improved the survival rates of both E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains when challenged with relatively high concentrations of colistin. In HLCR K. pneumoniae mutants, amino acid alterations predominately occurred in crrB, followed by phoQ, crrA, pmrB, mgrB, and phoP, while in E. coli mutants, genetic alterations were mostly occurred in pmrB and phoQ. Additionally, growth rate analyses showed that the coexistence of mcr-1 and chromosomal mutations imposed a fitness burden on HLCR mutants of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, HLCR was more likely to occur in K. pneumoniae strains than E. coli strains when exposed to colistin. The mcr-1 gene could improve the survival rates of strains of both bacterial species but could not facilitate the evolution of high-level colistin resistance.

13.
Int J Parasitol ; 51(10): 787-795, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848499

RESUMO

The use of molecular tools has led to the identification of several zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs and cats. Among them, Cryptosporidium canis and Cryptosporidium felis are dominant species causing canine and feline cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Some Cryptosporidium parvum infections have also been identified in both groups of animals. The identification of C. canis, C. felis and C. parvum in both pets and owners suggests the possible occurrence of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. between humans and pets. However, few cases of such concurrent infections have been reported. Thus, the cross-species transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. between dogs or cats and humans has long been a controversial issue. Recently developed subtyping tools for C. canis and C. felis should be very useful in identification of zoonotic transmission of both Cryptosporidium spp. Data generated using these tools have confirmed the occurrence of zoonotic transmission of these two Cryptosporidium spp. between owners and their pets, but have also shown the potential presence of host-adapted subtypes. Extensive usage of these subtyping tools in epidemiological studies of human cryptosporidiosis is needed for improved understanding of the importance of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. from pets.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes , Genótipo , Epidemiologia Molecular , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104859, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848684

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an important protozoan parasite and due to its resistance to chlorine is a major cause of swimming pool-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks. The present study combined contact tracing and molecular techniques to analyse cryptosporidiosis cases and outbreaks in Western Australia in 2019 and 2020. In the 2019 outbreak, subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene identified 89.0% (16/18) of samples were caused by the C. hominis IdA15G1 subtype. Amplicon next generation sequencing (NGS) at the gp60 locus identified five C. hominis IdA15G1 subtype samples that also had C. hominis IdA14 subtype DNA, while multi locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis on a subset (n = 14) of C. hominis samples identified three IdA15G1 samples with a 6 bp insertion at the end of the trinucleotide repeat region of the cp47 gene. In 2020, 88.0% (73/83) of samples typed were caused by the relatively rare C. hominis subtype IbA12G3. Four mixed infections were observed by NGS with three IdA15G1/ IdA14 mixtures and one C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 sample mixed with IIaA16G3R1. No genetic diversity using MLST was detected. Epidemiological and molecular data indicates that the outbreaks in 2019 and 2020 were each potentially from swimming pool point sources and a new C. hominis subtype IbA12G3 is emerging in Australia. The findings of the present study are important for understanding the introduction and transmission of rare Cryptosporidium subtypes to vulnerable populations.

15.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 14: 241-247, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898224

RESUMO

Several species of wild mammals are farmed in China as part of the rural development and poverty alleviation, including fur animals, bamboo rats, and macaque monkeys. Concerns have been raised on the potential dispersal of pathogens to humans and other farm animals brought in from native habitats. Numerous studies have been conducted on the genetic identity and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in these newly farmed exotic animals. The data generated have shown a high prevalence of the pathogens in farmed wildlife, probably due to the stress from the short captivity and congregation of large numbers of susceptible animals. Host adaptation at species/genotype and subtype levels has reduced the potential for cross-species and zoonotic transmission of pathogens, but the farm environment appears to favor the transmission of some species, genotypes, and subtypes, with reduced pathogen diversity compared with their wild relatives. Most genotypes and subtypes of the pathogens detected appear to be brought in from their native habitats. A few of the subtypes have emerged as human pathogens. One Health measures should be developed to slow the dispersal of indigenous pathogens among farmed exotic animals and prevent their spillover to other farm animals and humans.

16.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921541

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp., common parasites of vertebrates, remain poorly studied in wildlife. This study describes the novel Cryptosporidium species adapted to nutrias (Myocastor coypus). A total of 150 faecal samples of feral nutria were collected from locations in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and examined for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and specific DNA at the SSU, actin, HSP70, and gp60 loci. Molecular analyses revealed the presence of C. parvum (n = 1), C. ubiquitum subtype family XIId (n = 5) and Cryptosporidium myocastoris n. sp. XXIIa (n = 2), and XXIIb (n = 3). Only nutrias positive for C. myocastoris shed microscopically detectable oocysts, which measured 4.8-5.2 × 4.7-5.0 µm, and oocysts were infectious for experimentally infected nutrias with a prepatent period of 5-6 days, although not for mice, gerbils, or chickens. The infection was localised in jejunum and ileum without observable macroscopic changes. The microvilli adjacent to attached stages responded by elongating. Clinical signs were not observed in naturally or experimentally infected nutrias. Phylogenetic analyses at SSU, actin, and HSP70 loci demonstrated that C. myocastoris n. sp. is distinct from other valid Cryptosporidium species.

17.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923793

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiumparvum is a common protozoan pathogen responsible for moderate-to-severe diarrhea in humans and animals. The small genome of C. parvum has 22 genes encoding insulinlike proteases (INS) with diverse sequences, suggesting that members of the protein family may have different biological functions in the life cycle. In this study, two members of the INS family, CpINS-4 and CpINS-6 with the Zn2+-binding motif "HXXEH" but different numbers of function domains, were expressed in Escherichia coli and used in the generation of polyclonal antibodies. In both recombinant and native proteins, CpINS-4 and CpINS-6 were spliced into multiple fragments. The antibodies generated recognized their respective recombinant and native proteins and the spliced products, but had minimum cross-reactivity with each other. Anti-CpINS-4 antibodies reacted with the middle region of sporozoites and merozoites, while CpINS-6 had the highest reactivity to the apical region. Polyclonal anti-CpINS-4 antibodies produced 36% reduction in parasite load in HCT-8 cultures at 24 h, while those against CpINS-6, which has one of the function domains missing, failed in doing so. The genes encoding both CpINS-4 and CpINS-6 had the highest expression in the invasion phase of in vitro C. parvum culture. These data suggest that CpINS-4 and CpINS-6 might be expressed in different organelles and play different biological functions in the life cycle of C. parvum.

18.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 4189-4198, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712929

RESUMO

Sheep and goats are commonly infected with three Cryptosporidium species, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, and Cryptosporidium xiaoi, which differ from each in prevalence, geographic distribution, and public health importance. While C. parvum appears to be a dominant species in small ruminants in European countries, its occurrence in most African, Asian, and American countries appear to be limited. As a result, zoonotic infections due to contact with lambs and goat kids are common in European countries, leading to frequent reports of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis on petting farms. In contrast, C. xiaoi is the dominant species elsewhere, and mostly does not infect humans. While C. ubiquitum is another zoonotic species, it occurs in sheep and goats at much lower frequency. Host adaptation appears to be present in both C. parvum and C. ubiquitum, consisting of several subtype families with different host preference. The host-adapted nature of C. parvum and C. ubiquitum has allowed the use of subtyping tools in tracking infection sources. This has led to the identification of geographic differences in the importance of small ruminants in epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis. These tools have also been used effectively in linking zoonotic transmission of C. parvum between outbreak cases and the suspected animals. Further studies should be directly elucidating the reasons for differences in the distribution and public health importance of major Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Fezes , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
19.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688009

RESUMO

The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum contains an expanded family of 22 insulinase-like proteases (INS), a feature that contrasts with their otherwise streamlined genome. Here, we examined the function of INS1, which is most similar to the human insulinase protease that cleaves a variety of small peptide substrates. INS1 is an M16A clan member and contains a signal peptide, an N-terminal domain with the HXXEH active site, followed by three inactive domains. Unlike previously studied C. parvum INS proteins that are expressed in sporozoites and during merogony, INS1 was expressed exclusively in macrogamonts, where it was localized in small cytoplasmic vesicles. Although INS1 did not colocalize with the oocyst wall protein recognized by the antibody OW50, immune-electron microscopy indicated that INS1 resides in small vesicles in the secretory system. Notably, these small INS1-positive vesicles were often in close proximity to large OW50-positive vacuoles resembling wall-forming bodies, which contain precursors for oocyst wall formation. Genetic deletion of INS1, or replacement with an active-site mutant, resulted in lower formation of macrogamonts in vitro and reduced oocyst shedding in vivo Our findings reveal that INS1 functions in the formation or maturation of macrogamonts and that its loss results in attenuated virulence in immunocompromised mice.IMPORTANCE Cryptosporidiosis is a debilitating diarrheal disease in young children in developing countries. The absence of effective treatments or vaccines makes this infection very difficult to manage in susceptible populations. Although the oral dose of oocysts needed to cause infection is low, infected individuals shed very high numbers of oocysts, readily contaminating the environment. Our studies demonstrate that the protease INS1 is important for formation of female sexual stages and that in its absence, parasites produce fewer oocysts and are attenuated in immunocompromised mice. These findings suggest that mutants lacking INS1, or related proteases, are useful for further characterizing the pathway that leads to macrogamont maturation and oocyst wall formation.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium parvum/enzimologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/fisiologia , Insulisina/genética , Insulisina/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptosporidium parvum/ultraestrutura , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Microscopia Eletrônica , Oocistos/fisiologia , Oocistos/ultraestrutura , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Vacúolos/parasitologia , Vacúolos/ultraestrutura
20.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(2)2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627442

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important causes of moderate to severe diarrhea and diarrhea-related mortality in children under 2 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. In recent decades, genotyping and subtyping tools have been used in epidemiological studies of human cryptosporidiosis. Results of these studies suggest that higher genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. is present in humans in these countries at both species and subtype levels and that anthroponotic transmission plays a major role in human cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium hominis is the most common Cryptosporidium species in humans in almost all the low- and middle-income countries examined, with five subtype families (namely, Ia, Ib, Id, Ie, and If) being commonly found in most regions. In addition, most Cryptosporidium parvum infections in these areas are caused by the anthroponotic IIc subtype family rather than the zoonotic IIa subtype family. There is geographic segregation in Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes, as revealed by multilocus subtyping. Concurrent and sequential infections with different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes are common, as immunity against reinfection and cross protection against different Cryptosporidium species are partial. Differences in clinical presentations have been observed among Cryptosporidium species and C. hominis subtypes. These observations suggest that WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene)-based interventions should be implemented to prevent and control human cryptosporidiosis in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criança , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Países em Desenvolvimento , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Epidemiologia Molecular
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