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1.
Food Chem ; 355: 129662, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799255

RESUMO

A facile in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) procedure was developed to enrich ractopamine before HPLC-UV analysis. This was achieved by employing amide groups modified polysaccharide-silica hybrid monolith as an efficient sorbent. The monolith was synthesized by a simple reaction with agarose oxide and tetramethoxylisane, followed by the modification of amide groups via subsequent ring opening, "thiol-ene" click and dehydration reactions. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the enrichment factors for ractopamine, dopamine, clenbuterol, para-methylphenol and phenol were determined to be 50.5, 32.2, 4.8, 2.1 and 1.8, respectively. The monolithic column has ideal selectivity for ractopamine. Coupled with HPLC-UV, this method demonstrated a linearity within 2.0-800 ng/g for ractopamine with spiking in pork muscles (R2 = 0.9958). The LOD was 0.64 ng/g (S/N = 3) and recoveries ranged from 85.2 to 108.1% (n = 3). This approach provides a feasible way for analysis of trace ractopamine in biological samples.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25593, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine preparation XPYEG combined with SBI and SBI alone in the treatment of REC, and to provide the reference in drugs for the clinical treatment of children with rotavirus enteritis. METHODS: Retrieving the English databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase; Chinese databases: CNKI, CBM and WANFANG Data. Retrieving a randomized controlled trial of XPYEG and SBI in the treatment of REC. The retrieval time is from the above database until September 2020. The retrieval strategy of combining free words and subject words is adopted, and the references included in the literature are searched manually in accordance with the literature studied in this paper and not included in the above database. Two researchers screen the literature according to the literature inclusion and exclusion criteria, extract valid data and evaluate the quality of the literature, and cross-check it. Using the RevMan 5.3 software to conduct the meta-analysis on the main outcome and secondary outcome indicators of the included literature, while assessing the evidence quality of included study. RESULTS: The effectiveness and safety of XPYEG and SBI in the treatment of REC are presented through the main and secondary outcome indicators. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/3QSZG. CONCLUSION: This study will conclude whether the combination of XPYEG and SBI is more effective than SBI alone in the treatment of REC, and whether the medication increases the risk of adverse reactions compared with single medication. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study does not involve the specific patients, and all research data comes from publicly available professional literature, so an ethics committee is not required to conduct an ethical review and approval of the study.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Enterite/terapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Rotavirus/terapia , Saccharomyces boulardii , Pré-Escolar , Enterite/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Blood Purif ; : 1-10, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between serum procalcitonin (PCT) and acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by bacterial septic shock. METHODS: A retrospective study was designed which included patients who were admitted to the ICU from January 2015 to October 2018. Multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) as well as smooth curve fitting analysis were used to assess the relationship between the PCT level and AKI. RESULTS: Of the 1,631 patients screened, 157 patients were included in the primary analysis in which 84 (53.5%) patients were with AKI. Multiple logistic regression results showed that PCT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.017, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.009-1.025, p < 0.001) was associated with AKI induced by septic shock. The ROC analysis showed that the cutoff point for PCT to predict AKI development was 14 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity 67%. Specifically, in multivariate piecewise linear regression, the occurrence of AKI decreased with the elevation of PCT when PCT was between 25 ng/mL and 120 ng/mL (OR 0.963, 95% CI 0.929-0.999; p = 0.042). The AKI increased with the elevation of PCT when PCT was either <25 ng/mL (OR 1.077, 95% CI 1.022-1.136; p = 0.006) or >120 ng/mL (OR 1.042, 95% CI 1.009-1.076; p = 0.013). Moreover, the PCT level was significantly higher in the AKI group only in female patients aged ≤75 years (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed a nonlinear relationship between PCT and AKI in septic shock patients, and PCT could be used as a potential biomarker of AKI in female patients younger than 75 years with bacterial septic shock.

4.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 182: 107567, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711317

RESUMO

Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1) is a new virus discovered in recent years that infects farmed shrimp. DIV1 is highly infectious and causes substantial economic loss to the aquaculture industry of China. To prevent and control the spread and outbreak of DIV1 in a timely manner, it is necessary to establish an efficient method for DIV1 diagnosis. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and quantitative real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP) detection methods were established based on the specific sequence of the viral ATPase gene. The results indicated that the minimum detection limits of qPCR and qLAMP were 1.9 × 101 copies/µL and 1.9 × 102 copies/µL, respectively; the designed primer had good specificity for DIV1 and did not react with 13 other viruses, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), etc. A total of 43 clinical samples suspected of DIV1 infection were diagnosed by qPCR and qLAMP. Our qPCR demonstrated results consistent with a qPCR assay published previously, and the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of qLAMP were 85.71% and 100%, respectively. This result indicates that qPCR and qLAMP have good accuracy in the detection of DIVI in clinical samples. As established in this study, qPCR and qLAMP combined with a comprehensive comparative analysis can provide effective new solutions for the detection of DIV1.

5.
Stem Cell Res ; 53: 102300, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774334

RESUMO

Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is a common autosomal dominant syndrome associated with hearing loss. Its clinical manifestations include hearing impairment and pigmentation anomalies. In this study, we generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from the Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes of a 6-year-old boy affected with WS type I, caused by a heterozygous splice site mutation in the PAIRED BOX GENE 3 (PAX3) (NM_181457.3: c.452-2A > G). The patient-specific iPSC line (CSUXHi004-A) carrying the same PAX3 mutation showed a normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent markers, and presented differentiation capacity in vitro. This method may be a useful tool for the in vitro modeling of WS.

6.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(3): 265-270, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between the bronchial dilation test (BDT) and asthma control level in children with asthma. METHODS: A total of 153 children with asthma, aged 5-14 years, who attended the outpatient service from March 2016 to March 2018 were enrolled. According to the presence or absence of atopic constitution, they were divided into an allergic group with 79 children and a non-allergic group with 74 children. The correlation between BDT and Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) scores was analyzed for both groups. RESULTS: All basic pulmonary function parameters were positively correlated with C-ACT scores in the non-allergic group (P < 0.05). Except the forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow and maximal expiratory flow at 25% vital capacity in percent predicted values, the other pulmonary function parameters were positively correlated with C-ACT scores in the allergic group (P < 0.05). The improvement rates of all BDT parameters (except maximal expiratory flow at 25% vital capacity in the allergic group and maximal expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity in the non-allergic group) were negatively correlated with C-ACT scores in the two groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The improvement rate of BDT is well correlated with C-ACT scores in children with asthma, suggesting that BDT can be used as an index for predicting asthma control level.


Assuntos
Asma , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dilatação , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Capacidade Vital
7.
ISA Trans ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762094

RESUMO

In the engineering practice, lacking of data especially labeled data typically hinders the wide application of deep learning in mechanical fault diagnosis. However, collecting and labeling data is often expensive and time-consuming. To address this problem, a kind of semi-supervised meta-learning networks (SSMN) with squeeze-and-excitation attention is proposed for few-shot fault diagnosis in this paper. SSMN consists of a parameterized encoder, a non-parameterized prototype refinement process and a distance function. Based on attention mechanism, the encoder is able to extract distinct features to generate prototypes and enhance the identification accuracy. With semi-supervised few-shot learning, SSMN utilizes unlabeled data to refine original prototypes for better fault recognition. A combinatorial learning optimizer is designed to optimize SSMN efficiently. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through three bearing vibration datasets and the results indicate the outstanding adaptability in different situations. Comparison with other approaches is also made under the same setup and the experimental results prove the superiority of the proposed method for few-shot fault diagnosis.

8.
Clin Genet ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624842

RESUMO

Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is a group of rare autosomal dominant entities characterized by branchiogenic malformations, hearing loss (HL) and renal anomalies. It comprises branchiootorenal syndrome and branchiootic syndrome, distinguished by the presence or absence of renal abnormalities. Pathogenic variants have been discovered in the following genes: EYA1, SIX5, SIX1 and SALL1. As the otological phenotype in BORSD is inconsistently reported, we performed a systematic review to provide an up-to-date overview, correlated with the genotype. Forty publications were included, describing 295 individual patients. HL was diagnosed in 95%, usually bilateral and mixed-type, and differed among the different genes involved. Mixed moderate-to-severe HL was the predominant finding in patients with EYA1 involvement, regardless of the presence of renal abnormalities. The sensorineural HL of profound severity was more prevalent in patients with SIX1 mutations. No significant differences among different mutation types or location within the genes could be observed. Structural otological manifestations, ranging from periauricular to inner ear anomalies, were common in both genes. Especially periauricular anomalies were more common and more severe in EYA1. In summary, otological differences among the different genes involved in BORSD are observed, so the molecular analysis is strongly advised.

10.
Gene Ther ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633356

RESUMO

Waardenburg syndrome (WS), also known as auditory-pigmentary syndrome, is the most common cause of syndromic hearing loss (HL), which accounts for approximately 2-5% of all patients with congenital hearing loss. WS is classified into four subtypes depending on the clinical phenotypes. Currently, pathogenic mutations of PAX3, MITF, SOX10, EDN3, EDNRB or SNAI2 are associated with different subtypes of WS. Although supportive techniques like hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive listening devices can alleviate the HL symptom, there is no cure for WS to date. Recently major progress has been achieved in preclinical studies of genetic HL in animal models, including gene delivery and stem cell replacement therapies. This review focuses on the current understandings of pathogenic mechanisms and potential biological therapeutic approaches for HL in WS, providing strategies and directions for implementing WS biological therapies, as well as possible problems to be faced, in the future.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544744

RESUMO

To investigate if the anxiety associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a promoting factor to tinnitus. A retrospective research design collected from 188 tinnitus patients, was used to compare the clinical characteristics of tinnitus between the patients in 2020 under pandemic pressure and those from the matching period in 2019. While anxiety was quantified using the Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), tinnitus severity was evaluated using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) questionnaire and the test of tinnitus loudness (TL). The assessments were repeated after the sound therapy plus educational counselling (STEC) for 38 patients in 2020 and 58 patients in 2019 and compared with EC alone therapy for 42 patients in 2020 and 17 patients in 2019. A large increase in anxiety was evident in 2020 in both case rate and SAS. The treatment of both methods was less effective in 2020. SAS, THI and TL were all deteriorated after the EC alone treatment in 2020, while an improvement was seen in 2019. This suggests that EC alone could not counteract the stress by COVID-19 at all, and the stress, if not managed well, can significantly increase the severity of tinnitus and associated anxiety. By using the EC subgroup in virtual control, we conclude that anxiety can serve as a promoting factor to tinnitus. We believe that this is the first study report that confirm the causative/promotive role of anxiety on tinnitus during COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/complicações , Zumbido/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Som , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zumbido/diagnóstico , Zumbido/terapia
12.
Stem Cell Res ; 51: 102157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454628

RESUMO

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by sensorineural deafness. It has a variable presentation of pigmentation defects. Here, we generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line using episomal plasmid vectors from the fibroblasts of a 4-year-old boy affected with WS type II, caused by a novel mutation in microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) (NM_000248.3: exon6:c.626A>T). The patient-specific iPSC line (CSUXHi003-A) carrying the same MITF mutation showed normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent markers, and presented differentiation capacity in vitro. It may be a useful tool for in vitro modeling of WS.

13.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(1): 89-97, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) carries a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is a key regulator of glucocorticoid resistance and inflammatory tumor microenvironment. This study aimed to investigate the role of FKBP51 in UC-CRC prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The FKBP51 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blot in control and tumor-containing tissues from UC-CRC patients. H&E staining was used to analyze the inflammatory status of each sample. The relationship between FKBP51 expression and UC-CRC prognosis was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves and Mann-Whitney U test, and receiver-operating characteristic curves were generated to clarify the role of FKBP51 in predicting survival period and recurrence of UC-CRC patients. RESULTS: The FKBP51 expression was significantly (p â€‹< â€‹0.01) increased by 36.3% in tumor-containing tissues compared to control tissues in UC-CRC patients. Nuclear enrichment of FKBP51 in tumor-containing tissues was significantly (p â€‹< â€‹0.001) increased by 78.5%. The UC-CRC patients with higher levels of FKBP51 expression ratio between tumor-containing tissues and control tissues had shorter survival periods, but greater neutrophil invasion and neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (NLR) in peripheral blood. Moreover, the FKBP51 expression ratio was more helpful in predicting the survival periods and recurrence in the UC-CRC patients than the NLR in peripheral blood. CONCLUSIONS: The FKBP51 expression ratio between tumor-containing tissue and control tissue may be an important biomarker of inflammatory tumor microenvironment and more helpful for the UC-CRC prognosis.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410708

RESUMO

Sufficient interfragmental movement is the key to successful fracture healing in the theory of secondary bone healing. The far-cortical locking technique enables both stiffness reduction and parallel motion for ideal callus formation and fracture healing, but the influence of plate-bone gap on the performance of far-cortical locking technique remains unclear. The current study conducted a series of finite element analyses with mechanical validation to clarify this issue. Plate-bone gaps were assigned by 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm in a simulated mid-shaft fracture model fixed with locking plate and six semi-rigid locking screws. Axial compressive load to 500 N was applied to the fixation structure to evaluate the structural stiffness, pattern of interfragmental movement (parallel motion), and stresses on the screws. Results revealed the increased plate-bone gaps reduced the structural in order (315.3, 288.8, 264.9, and 243.4 N/mm). Tilting angles for determining parallel interfragmental movement (1.58°-1.85°) and stresses on semi-rigid screws for evaluating implant safety were not severely altered. Greater stresses were found on the screws adjacent to the fracture site in all simulated models. The current study suggested that 1 mm gap between the locking plate and the bone shall be ideal in view of parallel motion achieved balanced callus formation in far-cortical locking technique. Issue of reducing structural stiffness with limited plate-bone gap distance should be further investigated.

15.
J Mol Graph Model ; 103: 107807, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338846

RESUMO

Abnormal activation of Ras/MAPK signaling pathway could trigger excessive cell division. Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) could promote Ras/MAPK activation by integrating growth factor signals. Thus, SHP2 inhibitors had become a hot topic in the treatment of cancer. SHP2F285S, mutation in SHP2, was detected in leukemia variants. The compound 2 (3-benzyl-8-chloro-2-hydroxy-4H-benzo[4,5]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one) had been reported that it was a potent allosteric inhibitor of both SHP2 wild type (SHP2WT) and the F285S mutant (SHP2F285S). However, the mechanism of inhibition remained to be further discovered. Herein, molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation were performed to explain the inhibition mechanism of compound 2 on SHP2WT and SHP2F285S. Overall, the molecular docking analysis revealed that compound 2 maintained the "close" structure of SHP2 protein probably by locking the C-SH2 and PTP domain. Next, post-analysis demonstrated that compound 2 might make TYR66-GLU76 of D'E-loop in N-SH2 and GLU258-LYS266 of B'C-loop, HIS458-ARG465 of P-loop, VAL497-THR507 of Q-loop in PTP domain regions tightly connect and much easier maintain "self-inhibited" conformation of SHP2F285S-compound2 than that of SHP2WT-compound2. Importantly, GLU76 of D'E-loop could play a vital role in inhibition of SHP2WT-compound2 and SHP2F285S-compound2. This work provided a reliable clue to develop novel inhibitors for leukemia related to SHP2F285S.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123691, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846261

RESUMO

The contribution of Cu(III) produced during heterogeneous peroxydisulfate (PDS) activation to pollutant removal is largely unknown. Herein, a composite catalyst is prepared with Cu-based metal organic framework (Cu-MOF) derived Cu nanoparticles decorated in a three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3D RGO) network. The 3D RGO network overcomes the aggregation of nanosized zero-valent copper and reduces the copper consumption during the PDS activation reaction. The Cu/RGO catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in a wide pH range of 3-9, with a low Cu dosage that is only 0.075 times that of previous reports with zero-valent copper. Moreover, a high mineralization ratio (69.2 %) of 2,4-DCP is achieved within 30 min, and the Cu/RGO catalyst shows high reactivity toward aromatic compounds with hydroxyl and chlorinated groups. Unlike normal sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation, alcohols show negligible impacts on the reaction, suggesting that Cu(III), rather than SO4- and OH, dominates the degradation process. We believe that PDS activation by 3D Cu/RGO, with Cu(III) as the main active species, provides new insights in selective organic pollutant removal in wastewater treatment.

17.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(2): e23668, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphocyte count (LYM) of peripheral blood and some indices of general biochemical analysis had diagnostic and prognostic value for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the value of other remaining indices is rare. METHODS: A total of 94 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. According to the severity of COVID-19, the patients were divided into three groups (moderate 49, severe 35, and critical 10), and 40 healthy cases were enrolled in the same period as healthy controls. The diagnostic and prognostic value of indices in peripheral blood cell count and general biochemical analysis was analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with healthy cases, the value differences in peripheral blood analysis in patients with COVID-19 were statistically significant (p < 0.01), the differences in LYM, neutrophil count (Neu), platelet count (PLT), and white blood cell count (WBC) were statistically significant among different severity of COVID-19 (p < 0.05). Compared with healthy cases, the differences in general biochemical results in patients with COVID-19 were statistically significant (p < 0.01), the value differences in direct bilirubin (DBIL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch), and nitrogen (urea) were statistically significant among different severity of COVID-19 (p < 0.05). Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) had higher sensitivity and specificity for COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Some indices of peripheral blood cell count and general biochemical analysis were valuable in discriminating COVID-19 and predicting severity and adverse outcome of patients with COVID-19. For clinician, it is better to use more economical and easy-to-get indices to diagnose and predict the prognosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Linfócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(6): 1952-1956, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect the relationship between CTGF in the bone marrow of MM patients and osteolytic lesion of myeloma, moreover, to investigate the clinical significance of CTGF in MM. METHODS: Fifity-four MM patients treated in our hospital from March 2019 to April 2020 were enrolled, and 28 healthy volunteers were selected as the control group. The plasma in bone marrow of the patients was collected, and the ELISA was used to detect the level of CTGF in bone marrow plasma and the relationship between its and clinical characteristics were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The CTGF level of MM patients was significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (P<0.001); the CTGF level in male patients was higher than that in female patients (P=0.007); the CTGF level in MM patients with osteolytic lesions was significantly higher than patients without osteolytic lesions and controls (P=0.007, P=0.001). The CTGF level in MM patients was positively correlated with the number of bone lesions (P<0.001, r=0.52). CTGF levels in patients with ≥3 bone lesions were significantly higher than those with <3 bone lesions and without bone lesions (P=0.014, P=0.002). ROC curve result showed that CTGF expression level shows a significant diagnostic value for MM bone disease (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The abnormally high expression of CTGF level in MM patients is related to the degree of myelomas osteolytic lesions and can reflect the progress of MM.

19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(12): 5668-5676, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374084

RESUMO

In order to explore the impacts of nitrogen fertilizer and straw returning methods on N2O emissions, a two-factor split-zone design was adopted for experimentation under the winter wheat-summer maize rotation model in the Guanzhong area of Shanxi, China. The main areas of interest were conventional nitrogen (G) and reduced nitrogen (70% G); the sub-areas were straw no return (N), straw return (S), and straw return + biochar (SB); we analyzed their impacts on N2O emissions and crop yield, and the relationships with related impact factors. The results showed that the N2O emissions peaks appeared in the wheat season and maize season treatments within 5-16 days after fertilization, and also appeared after rainfall. The N2O flux was significantly and positively correlated with soil temperature and NH4+-N content. Regardless of the wheat season, maize season, or annual total N2O emissions, the 70% GSB treatment was the lowest and the GS treatment was the highest. At the same level of nitrogen application, S treatment increased N2O emissions, SB treatment could reduce N2O emissions, both S and SB treatments could significantly increase crop yields, and SB production increased more; 70%G-level annual N2O emissions, when compared with the G level, had been reduced by 40% to 48%, while the yield has not decreased significantly. Through comprehensive consideration, a reduction of nitrogen by 30% was achieved through the combination of straw + biochar on the basis of conventional nitrogen application, while ensuring high crop yields and the best N2O emissions reduction.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Solo , Agricultura , China , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Triticum , Zea mays
20.
Virus Res ; 292: 198249, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253717

RESUMO

The channel catfish virus (CCV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic infection in channel catfish, resulting in significant economic losses in the fish industry. Effective drugs for the virus are still lacking. Acyclovir is known as a potent antiviral agent against human herpes viruses and some animal DNA viruses. The present study was undertaken to explore the antiviral response and mechanism of acyclovir against CCV in channel catfish ovary (CCO) cells. Acyclovir was able to significantly inhibit the expression of viral genes related to CCV viral DNA synthesis and suppress viral replication at a safe concentration. Furthermore, acyclovir blocked the cytopathic effects and apoptosis induced by CCV, thereby maintaining the normal cellular morphological structure, as shown by the protection of CCO cells from the formation of apoptotic bodies or nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, reverse transcript quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) demonstrated that acyclovir suppressed the expression of caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9, while there was no significant impact on the expression of the apoptosis-inhibiting gene bcl-2 in CCV-infected cells. In addition, acyclovir did not promote the expression of immune-related genes such as MyD88, Mx1, IRF3, IRF7, IFN-I, NF-kB and IL-1ß, suggesting that the antiviral activity of acyclovir to CCV infection is not achieved by facilitating the expression of immune-related genes in CCO cells. Taken together, the results from this study suggest that acyclovir could effectively regulate CCV-induced infection, and thus is a promising therapeutic agent against CCV. Our results will aid our understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of antiviral agents.

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