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Front Plant Sci ; 12: 729161, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659295


Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is an important tree for afforestation with substantial economic and ecological value. Many metabolites with pharmacological activities are present in the tissues of P. taeda. However, the biosynthesis regulatory mechanisms of these metabolites are poorly understood. In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analyses were performed on five tissues of P. taeda. A total of 40.4 million clean reads were obtained and assembled into 108,663 unigenes. These were compared with five databases, revealing 39,576 annotated unigenes. A total of 13,491 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in 10 comparison groups. Of these, 487 unigenes exhibited significantly different expressions in specific tissues of P. taeda. The DEGs were explored using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathway analysis. We identified 343 and 173 candidate unigenes related to the biosynthesis of terpenoids and flavonoids, respectively. These included 62 R2R3-MYB, 30 MYB, 15 WRKY, seven bHLH, seven ERF, six ZIP, five AP2, and one WD40 genes that acted as regulators in flavonoid and/or terpenoid biosynthesis. Additionally, metabolomics analysis detected 528 metabolites, among which 168 were flavonoids. A total of 493 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were obtained in 10 comparison groups. The 3,7-Di-O-methyl quercetin was differentially accumulated in all the comparison groups. The combined transcriptome and metabolome analyses revealed 219 DEGs that were significantly correlated with 45 DAMs. Our study provides valuable genomic and metabolome information for understanding P. taeda at the molecular level, providing a foundation for the further development of P. taeda-related pharmaceutical industry.

Obstet Gynecol ; 138(1): 100-105, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259470


BACKGROUND: Dilation and curettage (D&C) is a basic, but important procedure with many applications in obstetrics and gynecology. Fractional D&C provides comprehensive sampling of the endocervix and subsequently the uterus. This study designs and validates a novel fractional D&C training simulator visualizing the intrauterine operation in real time and quantitatively assessing technical skills. METHOD: The fractional D&C training simulator, consisting of measurement hardware and visual software, can display the curette tip's trajectory and force in the uterus in real time. The simulator also presents assessment indices (the cervical coverage index, cervical overlap index, uterine coverage index, uterine overlap index) to indicate the completion degree and quality of surgical performance. EXPERIENCE: Seventy-five participants with three levels of D&C experience, including 26 novices, 24 intermediates, and 25 experts, were recruited to perform fractional D&C using the training simulator and asked to fill in a postprocedure questionnaire. All assessment indices of the novices were significantly lower than those of experienced surgeons (experts and intermediates) (P<.05). The simulator was highly regarded as a teaching tool and identified frequent areas of incomplete curettage even by experienced surgeons. CONCLUSION: The fractional D&C training simulator provides valuable visualized force-position feedback and quantitative evaluation and may be beneficial for surgical training.

Dilatação e Curetagem/educação , Avaliação Educacional , Feedback Formativo , Modelos Anatômicos , Treinamento por Simulação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112367, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052758


Zearalenone, which is ubiquitous in grains and animal feed, is a mycotoxin that can cause serious damage to animals and humans. Sertoli cells (SCs) can be used to study ZEA male reproductive toxicity in vitro. SCs provide energy for germ cells, where AMPK regulates intracellular energy. In order to explore the regulatory effect of AMPK on ZEA-induced lactate decline, we activated AMPK by AICAR and then inhibited AMPK by Compound C with ZEA-treated SCs for 24 h to detect intracellular lactate production-related indicators. Cell viability in the presence of 20 µmol/L ZEA and either 50 µmol/L AICAR or 5 µmol/L Compound C, respectively, did not damage SCs, and could effectively either activate or inhibit AMPK. Inhibition of AMPK promoted the production of pyruvate and lactate via increased expression of the glycolysis-related genes Pgam1 and the lactate production-related proteins GLUT1, LDHA, and MCT4. Activating AMPK inhibited the production of lactate and pyruvate by suppressing the expression of glycolysis-related genes HK1, Pgam1, and Gpi1 and that of lactate production-related proteins LDHA and MCT4. Zearalenone destroys the energy balance in SCs, activates P-AMPK, which inhibit the production of lactate and pyruvate in SCs. This also leads to the decrease of energy supply of SCs to spermatogenic cells, damages to reproductive system.

Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/genética , Masculino , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ratos , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo
RSC Adv ; 11(31): 19021-19028, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478625


Aliphatic polyesters are biocompatible materials that can be used in biomedical applications. We report here the use of tetrabutylammonium phthalimide-N-oxyl catalyst (TBAPINO), as a thermally stable organocatalyst for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic esters under mild conditions. In the solution ROP of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL), quantitative conversion and M n of ∼20 000 g mol-1 are achieved in a wide temperature range from -15 to 60 °C. Under bulk condition, the conversion of ε-CL reaches over 85% at 120 °C within 2 h. The living ROP character of l-lactide (l-LA) catalyzed over TBAPINO is proved by multiple additions of monomer in the bulk polymerization. The catalyst shows comparable selectivity towards the ring-opening polymerization of l-LA and ε-CL. Their copolymerization over TBAPINO is carried out in one-pot bulk condition in terms of the reaction time, monomer feed ratio, and sequence of addition. The colorless poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA) is obtained with considerable conversion of both monomers with the M n over 22 000 g mol-1.

Cell Discov ; 6: 74, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133634


It remains challenging to construct a complete cell lineage map of the origin of vascular endothelial cells in any vertebrate embryo. Here, we report the application of in toto light-sheet fluorescence imaging of embryos to trace the origin of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) at single-cell resolution in zebrafish. We first adapted a previously reported method to embryo mounting and light-sheet imaging, created an alignment, fusion, and extraction all-in-one software (AFEIO) for processing big data, and performed quantitative analysis of cell lineage relationships using commercially available Imaris software. Our data revealed that vascular ECs originated from broad regions of the gastrula along the dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior axes, of which the dorsal-anterior cells contributed to cerebral ECs, the dorsal-lateral cells to anterior trunk ECs, and the ventral-lateral cells to posterior trunk and tail ECs. Therefore, this work, to our knowledge, charts the first comprehensive map of the gastrula origin of vascular ECs in zebrafish, and has potential applications for studying the origin of any embryonic organs in zebrafish and other model organisms.

Chemosphere ; 255: 126999, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679628


Currently there are few reports on the combined immunotoxicity of zearaleone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Since the two coexist naturally, it is necessary to understand the immunotoxicity caused by the two mycotoxins alone and in combination. To examine T lymphocytes activation and immune effect during activation, we used mouse primary spleen T lymphocytes as the experimental material and concanavalin (Con A) as the stimulator. The effects of ZEA, DON, and their combined exposure on T lymphocytes immune related function and the relationship between the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and mycotoxin induced T lymphocytes apoptosis were studied in vitro. Specifically, T lymphocytes were isolated from primary mouse splenic lymphocytes, activated by Con A and then exposed to different concentrations of ZEA, DON, and their combinations. Our results showed that ZEA and DON alone and their combinations (20:1) can decrease the cell viability of T lymphocytes activated by Con A. The inhibitory effect of the combined groups was greater than that of the single mycotoxins, showing a synergistic effect. In addition, single or combined mycotoxins can lead to intracellular and surface ultrastructure damage of T lymphocytes, inhibit the expression of CD25 and CD278 and inhibit the synthesis of effect molecules poreforming protein (PFP), granzyme A (GZMA), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Meanwhile, the single mycotoxin or combined mycotoxins can promote the apoptosis of T lymphocytes which was accompanied by the overactivation of MAPK. After using the inhibitors of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the MAPK pathway, we found that the apoptosis of the cells induced by the ZEA was significantly decreased, and the apoptosis of the cells induced by DON had no significant changes. This suggests that the activation of MAPK induced by ZEA can promote the apoptosis of T lymphocytes, but the activation of MAPK induced by DON is not directly related to T cell apoptosis.

Imunotoxinas/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2 , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Camundongos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa