Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 94
Filtrar
1.
Cornea ; 41(2): 206-210, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) caused by contact lens (CL) use on vision-related quality of life (VRQOL) and the sociodemographic factors and disease outcome associated with VRQOL. METHODS: Sixty-one CL-associated AK cases and 59 asymptomatic CL wearers (mean age ±SD 39.4 ± 16.5 vs. 45.5 ± 15.2 yrs, P = 0.04) were recruited from Moorfields Eye Hospital and Institute for Optometry, London. AK cases were surveyed during active disease and were stratified into "poor" and "good" outcomes based on clinical features. VRQOL was measured using Rasch-transformed scores from the Emotional, Mobility, and Reading domains of the 32-item Impact of Visual Impairment questionnaire. AK cases were compared with controls and "poor" outcomes compared with "good" with multivariable linear regression. Multivariable linear regression models were also used to identify the sociodemographic factors and disease outcome associated with VRQOL. RESULTS: AK was associated with significant and substantial reductions in all 3 evaluated domains of VRQOL (Reading -59.6%, Mobility -59.8%, and Emotional -66.2%) compared with controls, independent of sociodemographic factors. Patients with AK who experienced poor outcomes, those who were of British White race (compared with all other races) and female, had lower VRQOL scores across all domains. Patients with AK with lower incomes scored worse on Reading and Mobility domains, whereas those with lower education had poorer Emotional scores. CONCLUSIONS: AK has a considerable detrimental impact on VRQOL. Clinicians should consider the importance of referring patients with AK for rehabilitative support and counseling as part of active disease management.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several countries have implemented 'lockdown' measures to curb the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIMS: To examine the psychological, physical activity (PA), and financial impact of a 2-month COVID-19 lockdown on older adults aged ≥60 years in Singapore, and to identify factors associated with adverse lockdown-related outcomes. METHOD: We interviewed 496 community-dwelling adults (mean age [standard deviation]: 73.8 [7.6] years; 54.8% female) during the lockdown who had previously participated in a population-based epidemiological study. Validated questionnaires were utilised to assess loneliness and depressive symptoms at both timepoints, while inhouse questionnaires were used to assess PA and financial difficulty during lockdown. Multivariable regression models determined the lockdown-related change in loneliness and depression scores, and the factors associated with adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Loneliness increased significantly during the lockdown period (p < 0.001) while depressive symptoms decreased (p = 0.022). Decreased PA, greater financial problems, male gender, Indian ethnicity, living alone, having a greater body mass index and perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 were all associated with worsening loneliness scores. A total of 36.9% and 19.6% participants reported decreased PA and had financial problems during the lockdown, respectively. Unemployment was associated with decreased PA, while self-employed individuals, cleaners, retail workers and smokers had greater odds of experiencing financial difficulty. CONCLUSION: Despite a decrease in depressive symptoms, our population of older Asians reported a significant increase in loneliness and decreased PA, with one-fifth experiencing financial problems during lockdown. Our data suggest that more targeted public health efforts are needed to reduce repercussions of future lockdowns.

3.
Singapore Med J ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628802

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) about COVID-19 and related preventive measures in Singaporeans aged ≥ 60 years. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional, mixed-methods study (13 May 2020-9 June 2020) of participants aged ≥60 years. Self-reported KAP about ten COVID-19 symptoms and six government-endorsed preventive measures were evaluated. Multivariable regression models identified sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices in our sample. Associations between knowledge/attitude scores, and practice categories were determined using logistic regression. 78 participants were interviewed qualitatively about practice of additional preventive measures and data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Mean awareness score of the symptoms was 7.2/10. Fever (93.0%) and diarrhoea (33.5%) were the most- and least-known symptoms, respectively. Most knew all six preventive measures (90.4%), perceived them as effective (78.7%), and practiced 'wear a mask' (97.2%). Indians, Malays, and those in smaller housing had poorer mean knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms scores. Older participants had poorer attitudes towards preventive measures. Compared to Chinese, Indians had lower odds of practicing 3/6 recommendations. A one-point increase in knowledge of and attitudes towards preventive measures score had higher odds of always practicing 3/6 and 2/6 measures, respectively. Qualitative interviews revealed use of other preventive measures, e.g. maintaining a healthy lifestyle. CONCLUSION: Elderly Singaporeans displayed high levels of KAP about COVID-19 and related preventive measures, with a positive association between levels of knowledge/attitude, and practice. However, important ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were evident, suggesting key vulnerabilities remain, requiring immediate attention.

4.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656985

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the relationship between vision impairment (VI) and employment outcomes in a multiethnic Asian population. METHODS: We included 7608 Asian individuals aged ≥40 years (mean (SD) age: 58.4 (10.3) years; 64.8% male) from the Singapore Epidemiology Eye Disease Study (response rate: 78.8%), a population-based cohort study (mean follow-up period: 6.2 years). Presenting visual acuity (VA) was assessed using a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart, with VI defined as mild (VA >0.3 to <0.6 logMAR) and moderate to severe (VA ≥0.6 logMAR). Self-reported employment statuses at both baseline and follow-up were used as outcomes. Underemployment was defined as a decline in occupational skill level, categorised by International Standard Classification of Occupations, at follow-up compared with baseline. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine independent associations between VI and various employment outcomes, adjusted for variables that were found to significantly differ across employment statuses. RESULTS: Presenting VI was prevalent in 20.2% (N=1536) of participants. Compared with those without VI, participants with mild and moderate to severe VI were more likely to be unemployed at baseline (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.87, p=0.002 and 2.74, 95% CI 1.94 to 3.89, p<0.001, respectively). At follow-up, participants with any VI at baseline were more likely to be underemployed (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.05, p=0.033). CONCLUSION: VI, even when mild, is associated with unemployment and underemployment. Future studies should investigate whether visual interventions could be used as part of a multipronged strategy to improve employment outcomes for the population.

5.
Qual Life Res ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562188

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We are developing an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) item bank, applicable to Western and Asian populations. We report primarily on content generation and refinement, but also compare the HRQoL issues reported in our study with Western studies and current AMD-HRQoL questionnaires. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, qualitative study of AMD patients attending the Singapore National Eye Centre (May-December 2019), items/domains were generated from: (1) AMD-specific questionnaires; (2) published articles; (3) focus groups/semi-structured interviews with AMD patients (n = 27); and (4) written feedback from retinal experts. Following thematic analysis, items were systematically refined to a minimally representative set and pre-tested using cognitive interviews with 16 AMD patients. RESULTS: Of the 27 patients (mean ± standard deviation age 67.9 ± 7.0; 59.2% male), 18 (66.7%), two (7.4%), and seven (25.9%) had no, early-intermediate, and late/advanced AMD (better eye), respectively. Whilst some HRQoL issues, e.g. activity limitation, mobility, lighting, and concerns were similarly reported by Western patients and covered by other questionnaires, others like anxiety about intravitreal injections, work tasks, and financial dependency were novel. Overall, 462 items within seven independent HRQoL domains were identified: Activity limitation, Lighting, Mobility, Emotional, Concerns, AMD management, and Work. Following item refinement, items were reduced to 219, with 31 items undergoing amendment. CONCLUSION: Our 7-domain, 219-item AMD-specific HRQoL instrument will undergo psychometric testing and calibration for computerized adaptive testing. The future instrument will enable users to precisely, rapidly, and comprehensively quantify the HRQoL impact of AMD and associated treatments, with item coverage relevant across several populations.

7.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(8): 866-874, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165504

RESUMO

Importance: A glaucoma-specific instrument for estimating utilities across the spectrum of glaucoma severity is currently lacking, hindering the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of glaucoma treatments. Objective: To develop and validate the preference-based Glaucoma Utility Instrument (Glau-U) and to ascertain the association between Glau-U utilities and severity of glaucoma and vision impairment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 stages at the Singapore National Eye Centre glaucoma clinics. Stage 1 focused on the identification and pretesting of the Glau-U attributes and was carried out between June 2009 and May 2016. Stage 2 involved the development and administration of the discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey and tasks and was conducted between May 7, 2018, and December 11, 2019. Stage 2 participants were English- or Mandarin-speaking Singaporean citizens or permanent residents of Chinese, Malay, or Indian ethnicity who were 40 years or older and had a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma in at least 1 eye. Exposures: Glau-U comprised 6 quality-of-life attributes: activities of daily living, lighting and glare, movement, eye discomfort, other effects of glaucoma, and social and emotional effects. The descriptions or response options for these attributes were no difficulty or never, some difficulty or sometimes, or severe difficulty or often. Main Outcomes and Measures: Utility weights for Glau-U were developed using a DCE questionnaire, which was interviewer administered to participants. Mixed logit regression determined utility weights for each health state. Glau-U utility weights across better- or worse-eye glaucoma and vision impairment severity were calculated using 1-way analysis of variance. Correlations between Glau-U utilities and better- or worse-eye visual fields and EuroQol 5-Dimension utilities were ascertained to assess convergent and divergent validity. Results: Of the 304 participants (mean [SD] age, 68.3 [8.7] years; 182 men [59.9%]), 281 (92.4%) had no vision impairment in the better eye, 13 (4.3%) had mild impairment, and 10 (3.3%) had moderate to severe vision impairment. Mean (SD) Glau-U utilities decreased as better-eye glaucoma severity increased (none: 0.73 [0.21]; mild: 0.66 [0.21]; moderate: 0.66 [0.20]; severe: 0.60 [0.28]; and advanced or end-stage: 0.22 [0.38]; P < .001), representing reductions of 20.7% to 76.1% in quality-adjusted life-years compared with a health state that included preperimetric glaucoma. Mean (SD) Glau-U utilities also decreased as better-eye vision impairment worsened from 0.67 (0.23) for none to 0.58 (0.32) for mild to 0.46 (0.29) for moderate to severe vision impairment. Glau-U utilities demonstrated moderate correlations with better-eye (r = 0.34; P < .001) and worse-eye (r = 0.33; P < .001) mean deviation scores and low correlations with EuroQol 5-Dimension utilities (r = 0.22; P < .001), supporting convergent and divergent validity. Conclusions and Relevance: Use of Glau-U revealed large decrements in utility that were associated with late-stage glaucoma, suggesting that this new instrument may be useful for cost-effectiveness analyses of interventions and informing resource allocation policies for glaucoma and vision loss.

9.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-9, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993832

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of dual sensory impairment (DSI), its associated factors and relationship with health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in residential care facilities (RCF) in Singapore.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 123 residents aged ≥40 years from six RCFs, conducted between 2016 and 2018. DSI was defined as concomitant presenting visual acuity (better-eye) >0.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution and a pure-tone air conduction threshold (better-ear) >40 dB HL in any of the four tested frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz). HR-QoL was quantified using the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to determine the associated factors of DSI. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between DSI and HR-QoL adjusted for traditional confounders.Results: Of the 123 residents (age [mean±standard deviation] 75.3 ± 10.8 years; 56.9% male), 97 (78.9%[95% confidence interval(CI):71.6%, 86.1%]) had DSI, with 110 (98.2%) not on follow-up care for their sensory disabilities. In multivariable models, male gender (prevalence ratio(PR) [95%CI] = 1.3[1.1, 1.6]), older age (per 10-year increase (1.2[1.1, 1.3])), education ≤6 years (1.3[1.1, 1.7]) and the presence of cataract (1.3[1.0, 1.7]) were independently associated with DSI. DSI was independently associated with a substantial worsening in HR-QoL (ß = -0.61; 95%CI: -0.76, -0.45; p < .001).Conclusions: DSI affects four in five residential care residents and is substantially associated with reductions in HR-QoL in these residents. Our finding highlights an urgent need for the implementation of routine vision and hearing screening and follow-up care for residents living in these facilities.

10.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 41(3): 591-602, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650713

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of refractive error-specific quality of life (QoL) item banks and assess their performance using computerised adaptive testing (CAT) simulations. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study a 392-item questionnaire, grouped under 11 QoL domains, was interviewer-administered to 305 people with refractive error [mean age ± S.D., 30.5 ± 14.1 (range (18 to 83) years; male, 50.5%; mean ± S.D. spherical equivalent refractive error -2.4 ± 2.9 (range: -15.0 to +11.0) Dioptres; spectacles (n = 257), contact lens (n = 37), refractive surgery (n = 25), uncorrected refractive error (n = 57)]. Rasch analysis was conducted on each QoL domain using the Andrich rating scale model to investigate parameters including response category functioning, person- and item-reliability, infit and outfit statistics, unidimensionality, targeting, differential item functioning and local item dependency. The resulting item banks underwent CAT simulations in 1,000 cases with 'high' and 'moderate' precision stopping rules. RESULTS: Rasch analysis iterations resulted in 13 refractive error-specific item banks (Convenience, Health concerns, Economic, Activity limitation, Mobility, Emotional, Social, Visual symptoms frequency, Visual symptoms severity, Visual symptoms bothersome, Comfort symptoms frequency, Comfort symptoms severity and Comfort symptoms bothersome), containing a total of 366 items. The item banks had good psychometric properties including satisfactory measurement precision, infit and outfit statistics and unidimensionality. In CAT simulations, the mean number of items required to achieve high and moderate measurement precision was 9.4 and 4.7, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, refractive error-specific QoL item banks show promise in their ability to comprehensively and precisely evaluate a range of quality of life parameters. These items banks when administered using a CAT system offer unique outcome tools for implementation in clinical trials, healthcare and research.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Lentes de Contato , Óculos , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Erros de Refração/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Erros de Refração/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
11.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between the 6-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL), and the contribution of presenting visual acuity (VA), in an Asian population. METHODS: Fundus images from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based cohort study (baseline: 2009-2011; follow-up: 2015-2017), were graded using a modified Wisconsin age-related maculopathy grading system. Incident AMD was defined as no baseline AMD in both eyes and early/late AMD in the worse eye at follow-up. Presenting VA was assessed using the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution chart at 4 m under standard lighting conditions with habitual correction. Multiple linear regression models determined the associations between AMD incidence with changes in the Rasch-transformed scores of the Reading, Mobility and Emotional VRQoL domains of the 32-item Impact of Visual Impairment (IVI-32) questionnaire, adjusted for traditional confounders. The contribution of presenting VA to changes in VRQoL was also estimated. RESULTS: Of the 2251 participants without AMD at baseline (mean age (SD): 57.7 (9) years, 51.4% women), 101 (4.5%) and 11 (0.5%) developed incident early and late AMD at follow-up, respectively. Incident late AMD was associated with significant 30.3%, 32.5% and 30.9% decrements in Reading, Mobility and Emotional IVI scores, respectively. The contribution of presenting VA ranged between 1.62% and 4.35% of the observed decrements. No significant associations were noted with incident early AMD. CONCLUSION: Incident late AMD had a substantial impact on all aspects of VRQoL, with presenting VA contributing only minimally to this longitudinal relationship.

12.
Age Ageing ; 50(4): 1236-1242, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between self-reported visual disability and cognitive impairment in older individuals is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of vision-specific functioning (VSF), vision-specific mobility (VSM) and visual acuity (VA) with clinically assessed cognitive impairment in the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Population-based. SUBJECTS: Eight hundred and seventy-four adults aged ≥60 years at higher risk of possible cognitive impairment by the Abbreviated Mental Test and progressive forgetfulness question. METHODS: VSF and VSM were measured using Rasch-transformed continuous scores of two Impact of Vision Impairment questionnaire domains. Cognitive impairment was objectively determined using detailed neuropsychological testing and defined as no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), moderate CIND only and moderate CIND or dementia. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the 874 participants (49.0% males, mean age (SD) 65.5 (7.0) years), 277, 281 and 316 had NCI, mild CIND and moderate CIND or dementia, respectively. Compared to NCI, the odds of moderate CIND, and moderate CIND or dementia increased for every SD worsening in VSF (OR: 1.44, 95% CI 1.14-1.82, and OR: 1.52, 95%CI 1.19-1.94, respectively) and VSM (OR: 1.42, 95%CI 1.11-1.81, and OR: 1.50, 95%CI 1.15-1.95). Similarly, the odds of mild CIND (OR: 1.62, 95%CI 1.19-2.22), moderate CIND (OR: 1.93, 95%CI 1.45-2.58), and moderate CIND or dementia (OR: 2.25, 95%CI 1.62-3.11) increased significantly with every SD worsening of VA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results emphasise the importance of interventions to prevent vision loss and improve quality of life to reduce likelihood of age-related cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Singapura/epidemiologia
13.
Ophthalmology ; 128(3): 354-363, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738259

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Visual impairment (VI) can have a detrimental impact on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL), but it is still unclear how this relationship varies with age across the VI spectrum. We determined the age-stratified, cross-sectional, and longitudinal associations between VI severity and VRQoL. DESIGN: The baseline and follow-up Singapore Chinese Eye Studies (SCES-1/-2; 2009-2011 and 2015-2017). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3068 SCES-1 participants (mean age [standard deviation {SD}]: 59.5 [9.8] years; 50.2% female) and 1919 SCES-2 participants (mean age [SD]: 56.8 [8.3] years; 49.9% female). METHODS: Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity (VA) of > 0.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units; VI severity as mild-moderate (logMAR scores less than the median of all individuals with VI) and severe (logMAR scores median or greater); and VI incidence as VI absence at baseline, but evident at follow-up. Age was stratified into 40 to 49 years, 50 to 64 years, and ≥65 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rasch-transformed scores from the 32-item Impact of Visual Impairment (IVI) questionnaire were used to measure the "Reading," "Mobility," and "Emotional" domains of VRQoL. Multiple linear regression models determined the age-stratified associations of prevalent and incident VI with all 3 VRQoL outcomes, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 807 persons with prevalent VI, 55.9% had mild-moderate and 44.1% had severe VI. Compared with no VI, age-stratified analyses showed that VRQoL decrements were significant only in the older age groups (mild-moderate VI: 6.2% and 8.1% reduction in Mobility and Reading scores in those aged ≥ 65 years; severe VI: 8.5% to 13.4% reductions in the 3 VRQoL scores in those aged ≥ 50 years). This interaction with older age became more pronounced with incident VI (N = 168), where decrements in all 3 VRQoL domains were evident only in those aged ≥65 years compared with persons without incident VI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the VI-VRQoL associations are driven mainly by older individuals aged ≥65 years, highlighting the need for effective regular screening and early intervention modalities to prevent the presence and onset of VI, and subsequent VRQoL declines, in these individuals.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Singapura/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
14.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 28(5): 444-452, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This exploratory qualitative research was conducted to understand the quality of life (QoL) impacts of adult uveitis to develop a uveitis QoL item bank, and we present here the results of qualitative analysis of uveitis patient experience.METHODS: A qualitative approach with phenomenological study design was employed to explore the common QoL domains in uveitis. Data were collected using focus groups and face-to-face interviews. The sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically. NViVo software was used to perform qualitative analysis.RESULTS: Eight focus groups and 10 interviews were conducted with 41 patients with uveitis. Seven QoL domains were identified, namely symptoms, emotional, activity limitation, health concerns, convenience, social, and economic impact. Although these QoL domains have been previously identified in other eye diseases, the sub-themes within each QoL domain were unique to uveitis. Participants described a variety of symptoms including increased light sensitivity, blurred vision, pain, redness, and tearing. Participants repeatedly described feeling frustrated due to prognostic uncertainty and associated discomfort. Participants were concerned about the frequent relapses of inflammation, as well as side-effects from long-term systemic medications. Uveitis affected their ability to perform daily tasks such as using computers, driving, and reading books. Direct financial impacts included reduced work hours and the costs of treatment and specialist care.CONCLUSION: Participants with uveitis experience many symptoms in addition to medication-related inconveniences and activity limitations. The QoL issues identified will be used to develop a uveitis-specific QoL item bank.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Uveíte , Adulto , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Visão
15.
Ophthalmology ; 128(7): 981-992, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333104

RESUMO

TOPIC: Visual impairment (VI) and cognitive impairment (CIM) are prevalent age-related conditions that impose substantial burden on the society. Findings on the hypothesized bidirectional association of VI and CIM remains equivocal. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine this bidirectional relationship. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Sixty percent risk of CIM has not been well elucidated in the literature. A bidirectional relationship between VI and CIM may support the development of strategies for early detection and management of risk factors for both conditions in older people. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central registers were searched systematically for observational studies, published from inception until April 6, 2020, in adults 40 years of age or older reporting objectively measured VI and CIM assessment using clinically validated cognitive screening tests or diagnostic evaluation. Meta-analyses on cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between VI and CIM outcomes (any CIM assessed using screening tests and clinically diagnosed dementia) were examined. Random effect models were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also examined study quality, publication bias, and heterogeneity. RESULTS: Forty studies were included (n = 47 913 570). Meta-analyses confirmed that persons with VI were more likely to have CIM, with significantly higher odds of: (1) any CIM (cross-sectional: OR, 2.38 [95% CI, 1.84-3.07]; longitudinal: OR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.46-1.89]) and (2) clinically diagnosed dementia (cross-sectional: OR, 2.43 [95% CI, 1.48-4.01]; longitudinal: OR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.37-3.21]) compared with persons without VI. Significant heterogeneity was explained partially by differences in age, sex, and follow-up duration. Also, some evidence suggested that individuals with CIM, relative to cognitively intact persons, were more likely to have VI, with most articles (8/9 [89%]) reporting significantly positive associations; however, meta-analyses on this association could not be conducted because of insufficient data. DISCUSSION: Overall, our work suggests that VI is a risk factor of CIM, although further work is needed to confirm the association of CIM as a risk factor for VI. Strategies for early detection and management of both conditions in older people may minimize individual clinical and public health consequences.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia
16.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 105(4): 538-542, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447326

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined the longitudinal association of baseline alcohol intake and frequency with the 6-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a population-based cohort of Singaporean Indians. METHODS: We included 656 participants with diabetes mellitus, gradable retinal photographs from baseline (2007-2009) and follow-up (2013-2015) examinations, information on alcohol intake and other relevant data from the Singapore Indian Eye Study were included. Incident DR was defined using the Modified Airlie House Classification as no DR at baseline and at least minimal non-proliferative DR at follow-up; and DR progression as at least a one-step worsening in DR at follow-up from minimal or worse status at baseline, excluding those with proliferative DR. RESULTS: The mean age (SD) of our participants (n=656) was 58.8 (9.2) years, and 54.4% were male. At follow-up, 82 of 510 (16%) participants developed DR, and 45 of 146 (30.8%) had DR progression. 65 (12.7%) and 28 (19.1%) participants consumed alcohol in incident DR and progression categories, respectively. In multivariable analyses, those who consumed alcohol had nearly two-thirds reduced odds of incident DR (OR (95% CI): 0.36 (0.13 to 0.98)) compared with those who did not. Participants with infrequent consumption of alcohol also had a reduction in odds of incident DR (0.17 (0.04 to 0.69)), compared with non-drinkers. No association was found between alcohol consumption and DR progression. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In our longitudinal population of Singapore Indians, baseline alcohol intake, particularly infrequent consumption, was associated with lower risk of developing DR, compared with non-drinkers, in line with previous cross-sectional findings.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
17.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 105(3): 420-425, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the longitudinal associations between person-level and area-level socioeconomic status (PLSES and ALSES, respectively) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and visual impairment (VI) in Asians with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we included 468 (39.4%) Malays and 721 (60.6%) Indians with DM, with a mean age (SD) of 58.9 (9.1) years; 50.6% were female and the mean follow-up duration was 6.2 (0.9) years. Individual PLSES parameters (education, monthly income and housing type) were quantified using questionnaires. ALSES was assessed using the Socioeconomic Disadvantage Index derived from Singapore's 2010 areal census (higher scores indicate greater disadvantage). Incident DR and VI were defined as absent at baseline but present at follow-up, while DR and VI progression were defined as a ≥1 step increase in severity category at follow-up. Modified Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations of PLSES and ALSES with incidence and progression of DR and VI, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable models, per SD increase in ALSES score was associated with greater DR incidence (risk ratio (95% CI) 1.27 (1.13 to 1.44)), DR progression (1.10 (1.00 to 1.20)) and VI incidence (1.10 (1.04 to 1.16)), while lower PLSES variables were associated with increased DR (low income: 1.68 (1.21 to 2.34)) and VI (low income: 1.44 (1.13 to 1.83); ≤4 room housing: 2.00 (1.57 to 2.54)) incidence. CONCLUSIONS: We found that both PLSES and ALSES variables were independently associated with DR incidence, progression and associated vision loss in Asians. Novel intervention strategies targeted at low socioeconomic status communities to decrease rates of DR and VI are warranted.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/economia , Acuidade Visual , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/economia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia
18.
Aging Dis ; 11(6): 1444-1458, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269099

RESUMO

To describe the rationale, design and methodology of a geographically-representative and population-based study investigating the epidemiology, impact, personal and economic burden of age-related eye diseases, declining visual and other sensory systems in Asians aged >60 years in Singapore.PIONEER (The PopulatION HEalth and Eye Disease PRofilE in Elderly Singaporeans Study) is currently a cross-sectional study targeting 3152 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults who are Singapore citizens or permanent residents aged 60 years and older living across Singapore. The study is intended to be longitudinal, with several waves of data planned to be collected in the future. The sampling frame consisted of 7000 names derived from age, gender and ethnicity-stratified random sampling of individuals >60 years. Selected individuals were invited via letters, home visits, and telephone calls for a clinical assessment at the Singapore Eye Research Institute. Individuals with limited mobility were examined in a custom-designed mobile eye clinic. Questionnaires were subsequently administered at participants' homes by trained interviewers in their preferred language. A total of 3,299 participants (from East, West, North and South Singapore) were approached from December 2017 to November 2019. Of these, 953 (28.5%) were deemed ineligible. Out of 2,346 eligible participants, 904 (38.5%) refused, and 1,442 (61.5%) attended our clinical testing protocol, giving an initial response rate of 61.5%. Of these, 1,170 (81%) were cognitively able to complete the questionnaire assessment. The mean age±SD of our participants was 73.8±8.6 years; n=798 (55.3%) were female; and 828 (57.4%) were of Chinese ethnicity. The findings from this study will allow a deeper understanding of the risk factors and impact of aging in Asian populations, particularly in relation to the visual function and other functional system.

19.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 9(10): 32, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062395

RESUMO

Purpose: A validated questionnaire assessing diabetic retinopathy (DR)- and diabetic macular edema (DME)-related knowledge (K) and attitudes (A) is lacking. We developed and validated the Diabetic Retinopathy Knowledge and Attitudes (DRKA) questionnaire and explored the association between K and A and the self-reported difficulty accessing DR-related information (hereafter referred to as Access). Methods: In this mixed-methods study, eight focus groups with 36 people with DR or DME (mean age, 60.1 ± 8.0 years; 53% male) were conducted to develop content (phase 1). In phase 2, we conducted 10 cognitive interviews to refine item phrasing. In phase 3, we administered 28-item K and nine-item A pilot questionnaires to 200 purposively recruited DR/DME patients (mean age, 59.0 ± 10.6 years; 59% male). The psychometric properties of DRKA were assessed using Rasch and classical methods. The association between K and A and DR-related Access was assessed using univariable linear regression of mean K/A scores against Access. Results: Following Rasch-guided amendments, the final 22-item K and nine-item A scales demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, although precision remained borderline. The scales displayed excellent discriminant validity, with K/A scores increasing as education level increased. Compared to those with low scores, those with high K/A scores were more likely to report better access to DR-related information, with K scores of 0.99 ± 0.86 for no difficulty; 0.79 ± 1.05 for a little difficulty; and 0.24 ± 0.85 for moderate or worse difficulty (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The psychometrically robust 31-item DRKA questionnaire can measure DR- and DME-related knowledge and attitudes. Translational Relevance: The DRKA questionnaire may be useful for interventions to improve DR-related knowledge and attitudes and, in turn, optimize health behaviors and health literacy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Idoso , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(12): 2461-2470, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related sensory loss and frailty are common conditions among older adults, but epidemiologic research on their possible links has been inconclusive. Clarifying this relationship is important because sensory loss may be a clinically relevant risk factor for frailty. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched 3 databases for observational studies investigating 4 sensory impairments-vision (VI), hearing (HI), smell (SI), and taste (TI)-and their relationships with frailty. We meta-analyzed the cross-sectional associations of VI/HI each with pre-frailty and frailty, investigated sources of heterogeneity using meta-regression and subgroup analyses, and assessed publication bias using Egger's test. RESULTS: We included 17 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies in our review (N = 34,085) from 766 records. Our cross-sectional meta-analyses found that HI and VI were, respectively, associated with 1.5- to 2-fold greater odds of pre-frailty and 2.5- to 3-fold greater odds of frailty. Our results remained largely unchanged after subgroup analyses and meta-regression, though the association between HI and pre-frailty was no longer significant in 2 subgroups which lacked sufficient studies. We did not detect publication bias. Longitudinal studies largely found positive associations between VI/HI and frailty progression from baseline robustness, though they were inconclusive about frailty progression from baseline pre-frailty. Sparse literature and heterogenous methods precluded meta-analyses and conclusions on the SI/TI-frailty relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analyses demonstrate significant cross-sectional associations between VI/HI with pre-frailty and frailty. Our review also highlights knowledge gaps on the directionality and modifiability of these relationships and the impact of SI/TI and multiple sensory impairments on frailty.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/etiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...