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1.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A maladaptive shift from fat to carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation during exercise is thought to underlie myopathy and exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with fatty acid oxidation (FAO) disorders. We hypothesized that ingestion of a ketone ester (KE) drink prior to exercise could serve as an alternative oxidative substrate supply to boost muscular ATP homeostasis. To establish a rational basis for therapeutic use of KE supplementation in FAO, we tested this hypothesis in patients deficient in Very Long-Chain acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD). METHODS: Five patients (range 17-45 y; 4M/1F) patients were included in an investigator-initiated, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-way cross-over study. Patients drank either a KE+CHO mix or an isocaloric CHO equivalent and performed 35 min upright cycling followed by 10 minutes supine cycling inside a Magnetic Resonance scanner at individual maximal FAO work rate (fatmax; ~40% VO2 max). The protocol was repeated after a one-week interval with the alternate drink. Primary outcome measures were quadriceps phosphocreatine (PCr), Pi and pH dynamics during exercise and recovery assayed by in vivo 31 P-MR spectroscopy. Secondary outcomes included plasma and muscle metabolites and respiratory gas exchange recordings. RESULTS: Ingestion of KE rapidly induced mild ketosis and increased muscle BHB content. During exercise at FATMAX, VLCADD-specific plasma acylcarnitine levels, quadriceps glycolytic intermediate levels and in vivo Pi/PCr ratio were all lower in KE+CHO than CHO. CONCLUSION: These results provide a rational basis for future clinical trials of synthetic ketone ester supplementation therapy in patients with FAO disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(1): 144-152, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912665

RESUMO

Genetic white matter disorders have heterogeneous etiologies and overlapping clinical presentations. We performed a study of the diagnostic efficacy of genome sequencing in 41 unsolved cases with prior exome sequencing, resolving an additional 14 from an historical cohort (n = 191). Reanalysis in the context of novel disease-associated genes and improved variant curation and annotation resolved 64% of cases. The remaining diagnoses were directly attributable to genome sequencing, including cases with small and large copy number variants (CNVs) and variants in deep intronic and technically difficult regions. Genome sequencing, in combination with other methodologies, achieved a diagnostic yield of 85% in this retrospective cohort.

3.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975215

RESUMO

Recurrent spontaneous vasospasm of the extracranial internal carotid artery (RSV-eICA) is a rarely recognized cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. However, its pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Through whole-exome sequencing of the ACOX3 gene of two dizygotic Korean twin brothers affected by RSV-eICA, we identified two compound heterozygous missense variants c.235 T > G (p.F79 V) and c.665G > A (p.G222E). In silico analysis indicated that both variants were classified as pathogenic. In vitro ACOX3 enzyme assay indicated practically no enzyme activity in both F79 V and G222E mutants. To determine the effect of the mutants on vasospasm, we used a collagen contraction assay on human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, induces contraction of HASMC. Knockdown of ACOX3 in HASMC, using siRNA, significantly repressed HASMC contraction triggered by carbachol. The carbachol-induced HASMC contraction was restored by transfection with plasmids encoding siRNA-resistant wild-type ACOX3, but not by transfection with ACOX3 G222E or by co-transfection with ACOX3 F79 V and ACOX3 G222E, indicating that the two ACOX3 mutants suppress carbachol-induced HASMC contraction. We propose that an ACOX3 dysfunction elicits a prolonged loss of the basal aortic myogenic tone. As a result, smooth muscles of the ICA's intermediate segment, in which the sympathetic innervation is especially rich, becomes hypersensitive to sympathomimetic stimuli (e.g., heavy exercise) leading to a recurrent vasospasm. Therefore, ACOX3 dysfunction would be a causal mechanism of RSV-eICA. For the first time, we report the possible involvement of ACOX3 in maintaining the basal myogenic tone of human arterial smooth muscle.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845337

RESUMO

Classical galactosemia (CG) patients frequently develop long-term complications despite early dietary treatment. The highly variable clinical outcome is poorly understood and a lack of prognostic biomarkers hampers individual prognostication and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between residual galactose oxidation capacity and clinical and biochemical outcomes in CG patients with varying geno- and phenotypes. The noninvasive 1-13 C galactose breath test was used to assess whole body galactose oxidation capacity. Participants received a 7 mg/kg oral dose of 1-13 C labelled galactose. The galactose oxidation capacity was determined by calculating the cumulative percentage dose of the administered galactose (CUMPCD) recovered as 13 CO2 in exhaled air. Forty-one CG patients (5-47 years) and four adult controls were included. The median galactose oxidation capacity after 120 minutes (CUMPCDT120) of 34 classical patients (0.29; 0.08-7.51) was significantly lower when compared to two homozygous p.Ser135Leu patients (9.44; 8.66-10.22), one heterozygous p.Ser135Leu patient 18.59, four NBS detected variant patients (13.79; 12.73-14.87) and four controls (9.29; 8.94-10.02). There was a clear correlation between Gal-1-P levels and CUMPCDT120 (P < .0005). In the classical patients, the differences in CUMPCDT120 were small and did not distinguish between patients with poor and normal clinical outcomes. The galactose breath test distinguished classical patients from homo- and heterozygous p.Ser135Leu and NBS detected variant patients, but was not able to predict clinical outcomes in classical patients. Future studies are warranted to enable individualised prognostication and treatment, especially in NBS variants with galactose oxidation capacities in the control range.

5.
J Appl Genet ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628608

RESUMO

Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSD) constitute a group of rare autosomal recessive disorders characterized by a defect in peroxisome biogenesis due to mutations in one of 13 PEX genes. The broad clinical heterogeneity especially in late-onset presenting patients and a mild phenotype complicates and delays the diagnostic process. Here, we report a case of mild ZSD, due to novel PEX1 variants. The patient presented with an early hearing loss, bilateral cataracts, and leukodystrophy on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Normal results of serum very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid were found. Molecular diagnostics were performed to uncover the etiology of the clinical phenotype. Using whole exome sequencing, there have been found two variants in the PEX1 gene-c.3450T>A (p.Cys1150*) and c.1769T>C (p.Leu590Pro). VLCFA measurement in skin fibroblasts and C26:0-lysoPC in dried blood spot therefore was performed. Both results were in line with the diagnosis of ZSD. To conclude, normal results of routine serum VLCFA and branched-chain fatty acid measurement do not exclude mild forms of ZSD. The investigation of C26:0-lysoPC should be included in the diagnostic work-up in patients with cataract, hearing loss, and leukodystrophy on MR images suspected to suffer from ZSD.

6.
Brain ; 142(11): 3382-3397, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637422

RESUMO

CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ET), encoded by PCYT2, is the rate-limiting enzyme for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. Phosphatidylethanolamine is one of the most abundant membrane lipids and is particularly enriched in the brain. We identified five individuals with biallelic PCYT2 variants clinically characterized by global developmental delay with regression, spastic para- or tetraparesis, epilepsy and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Using patient fibroblasts we demonstrated that these variants are hypomorphic, result in altered but residual ET protein levels and concomitant reduced enzyme activity without affecting mRNA levels. The significantly better survival of hypomorphic CRISPR-Cas9 generated pcyt2 zebrafish knockout compared to a complete knockout, in conjunction with previously described data on the Pcyt2 mouse model, indicates that complete loss of ET function may be incompatible with life in vertebrates. Lipidomic analysis revealed profound lipid abnormalities in patient fibroblasts impacting both neutral etherlipid and etherphospholipid metabolism. Plasma lipidomics studies also identified changes in etherlipids that have the potential to be used as biomarkers for ET deficiency. In conclusion, our data establish PCYT2 as a disease gene for a new complex hereditary spastic paraplegia and confirm that etherlipid homeostasis is important for the development and function of the brain.

7.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 878-889, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268564

RESUMO

Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is an ultra-rare inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and amino acid metabolism. Individual phenotypes and treatment response can vary markedly. We aimed to identify markers that predict MADD phenotypes. We performed a retrospective nationwide cohort study; then developed an MADD-disease severity scoring system (MADD-DS3) based on signs and symptoms with weighed expert opinions; and finally correlated phenotypes and MADD-DS3 scores to FAO flux (oleate and myristate oxidation rates) and acylcarnitine profiles after palmitate loading in fibroblasts. Eighteen patients, diagnosed between 1989 and 2014, were identified. The MADD-DS3 entails enumeration of eight domain scores, which are calculated by averaging the relevant symptom scores. Lifetime MADD-DS3 scores of patients in our cohort ranged from 0 to 29. FAO flux and [U-13 C]C2-, C5-, and [U-13 C]C16-acylcarnitines were identified as key variables that discriminated neonatal from later onset patients (all P < .05) and strongly correlated to MADD-DS3 scores (oleate: r = -.86; myristate: r = -.91; [U-13 C]C2-acylcarnitine: r = -.96; C5-acylcarnitine: r = .97; [U-13 C]C16-acylcarnitine: r = .98, all P < .01). Functional studies in fibroblasts were found to differentiate between neonatal and later onset MADD-patients and were correlated to MADD-DS3 scores. Our data may improve early prediction of disease severity in order to start (preventive) and follow-up treatment appropriately. This is especially relevant in view of the inclusion of MADD in population newborn screening programs.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1899-1904, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187905

RESUMO

Primary carnitine deficiency is caused by a defect in the active cellular uptake of carnitine by Na+ -dependent organic cation transporter novel 2 (OCTN2). Genetic diagnostic yield for this metabolic disorder has been relatively low, suggesting that disease-causing variants are missed. We Sanger sequenced the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of SLC22A5 in individuals with possible primary carnitine deficiency in whom no or only one mutant allele had been found. We identified a novel 5'-UTR c.-149G>A variant which we characterized by expression studies with reporter constructs in HeLa cells and by carnitine-transport measurements in fibroblasts using a newly developed sensitive assay based on tandem mass spectrometry. This variant, which we identified in 57 of 236 individuals of our cohort, introduces a functional upstream out-of-frame translation initiation codon. We show that the codon suppresses translation from the wild-type ATG of SLC22A5, resulting in reduced OCTN2 protein levels and concomitantly lower transport activity. With an allele frequency of 24.2% the c.-149G>A variant is the most frequent cause of primary carnitine deficiency in our cohort and may explain other reported cases with an incomplete genetic diagnosis. Individuals carrying this variant should be clinically re-evaluated and monitored to determine if this variant has clinical consequences.

9.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(3): 414-423, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761551

RESUMO

Most infants with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) identified by newborn screening (NBS) are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis and remain asymptomatic. If this outcome is due to prompt diagnosis and initiation of therapy, or because of identification of individuals with biochemical abnormalities who will never develop symptoms, is unclear. Therefore, a 10-year longitudinal national cohort study of genetically confirmed VLCADD patients born before and after introduction of NBS was conducted. Main outcome measures were clinical outcome parameters, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain gene analysis, VLCAD activity, and overall capacity of long-chain fatty acid oxidation (LC-FAO flux) in lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts. Median VLCAD activity in lymphocytes of 54 patients, 21 diagnosed pre-NBS and 33 by NBS was, respectively, 5.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-8.3) and 12.6% (95% CI: 10.7-17.7; P < 0.001) of the reference mean. The median LC-FAO flux was 33.2% (95% CI: 22.8-48.3) and 41% (95% CI: 40.8-68; P < 0.05) of the control mean, respectively. Clinical characteristics in 23 pre-NBS and 37 NBS patients revealed hypoglycemic events in 12 vs 2 patients, cardiomyopathy in 5 vs 4 patients and myopathy in 14 vs 3 patients. All patients with LC-FAO flux <10% developed symptoms. Of the patients with LC-FAO flux >10% 7 out of 12 diagnosed pre-NBS vs none by NBS experienced hypoglycemic events. NBS has a clear beneficial effect on the prevention of hypoglycemic events in patients with some residual enzyme activity, but does not prevent hypoglycemia nor cardiac complications in patients with very low residual enzyme activity. The effect of NBS on prevalence and prevention of myopathy-related complications remains unclear.

10.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(2): 197-208, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723938

RESUMO

The laboratory diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism has been revolutionized in recent years, thanks to the amazing developments in the field of DNA sequencing including whole exome and whole genome sequencing (WES and WGS). Interpretation of the results coming from WES and/or WGS analysis is definitely not trivial especially since the biological relevance of many of the variants identified by WES and/or WGS, have not been tested experimentally and prediction programs like POLYPHEN-2 and SIFT are far from perfect. Correct interpretation of WES and/or WGS results can only be achieved by performing functional studies at multiple levels (different metabolomics platforms, enzymology, in vitro and in vivo flux analysis), often requires studies in model organisms like zebra fish, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutant mice and others, and also requires the input of many different disciplines to make this Translational Metabolism approach effective.

11.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(2): 303-312, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793331

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently, no therapies are available for Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of genetic metabolic disorders characterised by a deficiency of functional peroxisomes. In a previous study, we showed that oral cholic acid (CA) treatment can suppress bile acid synthesis in ZSD patients and, thereby, decrease plasma levels of toxic C27 -bile acid intermediates, one of the biochemical abnormalities in these patients. However, no effect on clinically relevant outcome measures could be observed after 9 months of CA treatment. It was noted that, in patients with advanced liver disease, caution is needed because of possible hepatotoxicity. METHODS: An extension study of the previously conducted pretest-posttest design study was conducted including 17 patients with a ZSD. All patients received oral CA for an additional period of 12 months, encompassing a total of 21 months of treatment. Multiple clinically relevant parameters and markers for bile acid synthesis were assessed after 15 and 21 months of treatment. RESULTS: Bile acid synthesis was still suppressed after 21 months of CA treatment, accompanied with reduced levels of C27 -bile acid intermediates in plasma. These levels significantly increased again after discontinuation of CA. No significant changes were found in liver tests, liver elasticity, coagulation parameters, fat-soluble vitamin levels or body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Although CA treatment did lead to reduced levels of toxic C27 -bile acid intermediates in ZSD patients without severe liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, no improvement of clinically relevant parameters was observed after 21 months of treatment. We discuss the implications for CA therapy in ZSD based on these results.

12.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 159-168, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), a long chain fatty acid oxidation disorder, are traditionally treated with a long chain triglyceride (LCT) restricted and medium chain triglyceride (MCT) supplemented diet. Introduction of VLCADD in newborn screening (NBS) programs has led to the identification of asymptomatic newborns with VLCADD, who may have a more attenuated phenotype and may not need dietary adjustments. OBJECTIVE: To define dietary strategies for individuals with VLCADD based on the predicted phenotype. METHOD: We evaluated long-term dietary histories of a cohort of individuals diagnosed with VLCADD identified before the introduction of VLCADD in NBS and their beta-oxidation (LC-FAO) flux score (rate of oleate oxidation) in cultured skin fibroblasts in relation to the clinical outcome. Based on these results a dietary strategy is proposed. RESULTS: Sixteen individuals with VLCADD were included. One had an LC-FAO flux score >90%, was not on a restricted diet and is asymptomatic to date. Four patients had an LC-FAO flux score <10%, and significant VLCADD related symptoms despite the use of strict diets including LCT restriction, MCT supplementation and nocturnal gastric drip feeding. Patients with an LC-FAO flux score between 10 and 90% (n = 11) showed a more heterogeneous phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a strict diet cannot prevent poor clinical outcome in severely affected patients and that the LC-FAO flux is a good predictor of clinical outcome in individuals with VLCADD identified before its introduction in NBS. Hereby, we propose an individualized dietary strategy based on the LC-FAO flux score.

13.
JIMD Rep ; 43: 103-109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923089

RESUMO

Loss-of-function and hypomorphic ECHS1 variants are associated with mitochondrial short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase deficiency, an inborn error of valine metabolism. We report an 8-year-old boy with developmental delay, ataxia, hemiplegia, and hearing loss with abnormalities in the basal ganglia. Biochemical studies were essentially normal except for a persistent mildly elevated CSF alanine. This patient demonstrates an intermediate phenotype between a Leigh-like, early-onset presentation and paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia. Two novel ECHS1 variants (c.79T>G; p.Phe27Val and c.789_790del; p.Phe263fs) were identified via exome sequencing in the proband, and pathogenicity was confirmed by enzyme assay performed on patient fibroblasts. Neither of the ECHS1 variants detected in the child were present in the mother. However, due to nearby polymorphisms, it was possible to determine that p.Phe263fs occurred de novo on the maternal chromosome and that p.Phe27Val likely derived from the paternal chromosome. Nearby polymorphisms can help set phase of variants when only a single parent is available for testing or when an identified variant occurs de novo.

14.
Subcell Biochem ; 89: 345-365, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378031

RESUMO

Peroxisomes catalyze a number of essential metabolic functions and impairments in any of these are usually associated with major clinical signs and symptoms. In contrast to mitochondria which are autonomous organelles that can catalyze the degradation of fatty acids, certain amino acids and other compounds all by themselves, peroxisomes are non-autonomous organelles which are highly dependent on the interaction with other organelles and compartments to fulfill their role in metabolism. This includes mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and the cytosol. In this paper we will discuss the central role of peroxisomes in different metabolic interaction networks in humans, including fatty acid oxidation, ether phospholipid biosynthesis, bile acid synthesis, fatty acid alpha-oxidation and glyoxylate metabolism.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glioxilatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxirredução
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1864(11): 3650-3658, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251684

RESUMO

Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked disorder that is characterized by cardiac and skeletal myopathy, neutropenia and growth abnormalities. The disease is caused by mutations in the tafazzin (TAZ) gene encoding an enzyme involved in the acyl chain remodeling of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin (CL). Biochemically, this leads to decreased levels of mature CL and accumulation of the intermediate monolysocardiolipin (MLCL). At a cellular level, this causes mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced stability of the respiratory chain supercomplexes. However, the exact mechanism through which tafazzin deficiency leads to disease development remains unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate the pathways affected in BTHS cells by employing proteomic and metabolic profiling assays. Complexome profiling of patient skin fibroblasts revealed significant effects for about 200 different mitochondrial proteins. Prominently, we found a specific destabilization of higher order oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) supercomplexes, as well as changes in complexes involved in cristae organization and CL trafficking. Moreover, the key metabolic complexes 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) and branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were profoundly destabilized in BTHS patient samples. Surprisingly, metabolic flux distribution assays using stable isotope tracer-based metabolomics did not show reduced flux through the TCA cycle. Overall, insights from analyzing the impact of TAZ mutations on the mitochondrial complexome provided a better understanding of the resulting functional and structural consequences and thus the pathological mechanisms leading to Barth syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Barth/patologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Membranas Mitocondriais/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Síndrome de Barth/genética , Cardiolipinas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibroblastos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Metabolômica , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mutação , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteômica , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1752-1758, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089828

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with a prenatal onset. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified variants in the gene Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY) gene, an enzyme essential in CoA synthesis, in four individuals from two families with PCH, prenatal onset microcephaly, and arthrogryposis. In family 1, compound heterozygous variants were identified in COASY: c.[1549_1550delAG]; [1486-3 C>G]. In family 2, all three affected siblings were homozygous for the c.1486-3 C>G variant. In both families, the variants segregated with the phenotype. RNA analysis showed that the c.1486-3 C>G variant leads to skipping of exon 7 with partial retention of intron 7, disturbing the reading frame and resulting in a premature stop codon (p.(Ala496Ilefs*20)). No CoA synthase protein was detected in patient cells by immunoblot analysis and CoA synthase activity was virtually absent. Partial CoA synthase defects were previously described as a cause of COASY Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (CoPAN), a type of Neurodegeneration and Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). Here we demonstrate that near complete loss of function variants in COASY are associated with lethal PCH and arthrogryposis.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Microcefalia/genética , Transferases/genética , Feto Abortado/anormalidades , Artrogripose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Síndrome , Transferases/metabolismo
17.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 146, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcome of patients with a classical presentation of galactosemia (classical patients) varies substantially, even between patients with the same genotype. With current biomarkers, it is not possible to predict clinical outcome early in life. The aim of this study was to develop a method to provide more insight into galactose metabolism, which allows quantitative assessment of residual galactose metabolism in galactosemia patients. We therefore developed a method for galactose metabolite profiling (GMP) in fibroblasts using [U-13C]-labeled galactose. METHODS: GMP analysis was performed in fibroblasts of three classical patients, three variant patients and three healthy controls. The following metabolites were analyzed: [U13C]-galactose, [U13C]-galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1-P) and [13C6]- uridine diphosphate(UDP)-galactose. The ratio of [U13C]-Gal-1-P/ [13C6]-UDP-galactose was defined as the galactose index (GI). RESULTS: All patient cell lines could be distinguished from the control cell lines and there was a clear difference between variant and classical patients. Variant patients had lower levels of [U13C]-galactose and [U13C]-Gal-1-P than classical patients (though substantially higher than healthy controls) and higher levels of [13C6]-UDP-galactose than classical patients (though substantially lower than healthy controls) resulting in a different GI in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: GMP in fibroblasts is a sensitive method to determine residual galactose metabolism capacity, which can discriminate between patients with a classical presentation of galactosemia, patients with a variant presentation and healthy controls. GMP may be a useful method for early prognostication after further validation in a larger cohort of patients representing the full phenotypic spectrum of galactosemia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Galactosemias/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato Galactose/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Galactosefosfatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 19(1): 93-106, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926323

RESUMO

Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is an essential pathway for energy production, especially during prolonged fasting and sub-maximal exercise. Long-chain fatty acids are the most abundant fatty acids in the human diet and in body stores, and more than 15 enzymes are involved in long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Pathogenic mutations in genes encoding these enzymes result in a long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder in which the energy homeostasis is compromised and long-chain acylcarnitines accumulate. Symptoms arise or exacerbate during catabolic situations, such as fasting, illness and (endurance) exercise. The clinical spectrum is very heterogeneous, ranging from hypoketotic hypoglycemia, liver dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy and early demise. With the introduction of several of the long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (lcFAOD) in newborn screening panels, also asymptomatic individuals with a lcFAOD are identified. However, despite early diagnosis and dietary therapy, a significant number of patients still develop symptoms emphasizing the need for individualized treatment strategies. This review aims to function as a comprehensive reference for clinical and laboratory findings for clinicians who are confronted with pediatric and adult patients with a possible diagnosis of a lcFAOD.


Assuntos
Carnitina/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/terapia
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1115-1127, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575569

RESUMO

Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH or ECHS1) deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by biallelic mutations in the gene ECHS1 (OMIM 602292). Clinical presentation includes infantile-onset severe developmental delay, regression, seizures, elevated lactate, and brain MRI abnormalities consistent with Leigh syndrome (LS). Characteristic abnormal biochemical findings are secondary to dysfunction of valine metabolism. We describe four patients from two consanguineous families (one Pakistani and one Irish Traveler), who presented in infancy with LS. Urine organic acid analysis by GC/MS showed increased levels of erythro-2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutyrate and 3-methylglutaconate (3-MGC). Increased urine excretion of methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA related metabolites analyzed by LC-MS/MS, were suggestive of SCEH deficiency; this was confirmed in patient fibroblasts. Both families were shown to harbor homozygous pathogenic variants in the ECHS1 gene; a c.476A > G (p.Gln159Arg) ECHS1variant in the Pakistani family and a c.538A > G, p.(Thr180Ala) ECHS1 variant in the Irish Traveler family. The c.538A > G, p.(Thr180Ala) ECHS1 variant was postulated to represent a Canadian founder mutation, but we present SNP genotyping data to support Irish ancestry of this variant with a haplotype common to the previously reported Canadian patients and our Irish Traveler family. The presence of detectable erythro-2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutyrate is a nonspecific marker on urine organic acid analysis but this finding, together with increased excretion of 3-MGC, elevated plasma lactate, and normal acylcarnitine profile in patients with a Leigh-like presentation should prompt consideration of a diagnosis of SCEH deficiency and genetic analysis of ECHS1. ECHS1 deficiency can be added to the list of conditions with 3-MGA.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Enoil-CoA Hidratase/deficiência , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fenótipo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Enoil-CoA Hidratase/genética , Enoil-CoA Hidratase/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Linhagem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Valina/metabolismo
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(3): 692-698, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388319

RESUMO

Mitochondrial NAD kinase deficiency (NADK2D, OMIM #615787) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of NADPH biosynthesis that can cause hyperlysinemia and dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency (DECRD, OMIM #616034). NADK2 deficiency has been reported in only three unrelated patients. Two had severe, unremitting disease; one died at 4 months and the other at 5 years of age. The third was a 10 year old female with CNS anomalies, ataxia, and incoordination. In two cases mutations in NADK2 have been demonstrated. Here, we report the fourth known case, a 15 year old female with normal intelligence and a mild clinical and biochemical phenotype presumably without DECRD. Her clinical symptoms, which are now stable, became evident at the age of 9 with the onset of decreased visual acuity, bilateral optic atrophy, nystagmus, episodic lower extremity weakness, peripheral neuropathy, and gait abnormalities. Plasma amino acid levels were within normal limits except for mean lysine and proline levels that were 3.7 and 2.5 times the upper limits of normal. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed homozygosity for a g.36241900 A>G p. Met1Val start loss mutation in the primary NADK2 transcript (NM_001085411.1) encoding the 442 amino acid isoform. This presumed hypomorphic mutation has not been previously reported and is absent from the v1000GP, EVS, and ExAC databases. Our patient's normal intelligence and stable disease expands the clinical heterogeneity and the prognosis associated with NADK2 deficiency. Our findings also clarify the mechanism underlying NADK2 deficiency and suggest that this disease should be ruled out in cases of hyperlysinemia, especially those with visual loss, and neurological phenotypes.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/deficiência , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/deficiência , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/química , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo
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