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1.
Mil Med ; 184(5-6): e298-e302, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low distal aortic flow via partial aortic occlusion (AO) may mitigate ischemia induced by resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). We compared endocrine effects of a novel simulated partial AO strategy, endovascular variable aortic control (EVAC), with simulated REBOA in a swine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aortic flow in 20 swine was routed from the supraceliac aorta through an automated extracorporeal circuit. Following liver injury-induced hemorrhagic shock, animals were randomized to control (unregulated distal flow), simulated REBOA (no flow, complete AO), or simulated EVAC (distal flow of 100-300 mL/min after 20 minutes of complete AO). After 90 minutes, damage control surgery, resuscitation, and full flow restoration ensued. Critical care was continued for 4.5 hours or until death. RESULTS: Serum angiotensin II concentration was higher in the simulated EVAC (4,769 ± 624 pg/mL) than the simulated REBOA group (2649 ± 429) (p = 0.01) at 180 minutes. There was no detectable difference in serum renin [simulated REBOA: 231.3 (227.9-261.4) pg/mL; simulated EVAC: 294.1 (231.2-390.7) pg/mL; p = 0.27], aldosterone [simulated EVAC: 629 (454-1098), simulated REBOA: 777 (575-1079) pg/mL, p = 0.53], or cortisol (simulated EVAC: 141 ± 12, simulated REBOA: 127 ± 9 ng/mL, p = 0.34) concentrations between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Simulated EVAC was associated with higher serum angiotensin II, which may have contributed to previously reported cardiovascular benefits. Future studies should evaluate the renal effects of EVAC and the concomitant therapeutic use of angiotensin II.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Sistema Endócrino/enzimologia , Aldosterona/análise , Aldosterona/sangue , Angiotensina II/análise , Angiotensina II/sangue , Animais , Aorta/enzimologia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistema Endócrino/irrigação sanguínea , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Renina/análise , Renina/sangue , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Suínos
2.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(4): 80-84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TXA) is an adjunct for resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock; however, IV access in these patients may be difficult or impossible. Intraosseous (IO) or intramuscular (IM) administration could be quickly performed with minimal training. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of TXA via IV, IO, and IM routes in a swine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Fifteen swine were anesthetized and bled of 35% of their blood volume before randomization to a single 1g/10mL dose of IV, IO, or IM TXA. Serial serum samples were obtained after TXA administration. These were analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine drug concentration at each time point and define the pharmacokinetics of each route. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in baseline hemodynamics or blood loss between the groups. Peak concentration (Cmax) was significantly higher in IV and IO routes compared with IM (p = .005); however, the half-life of TXA was similar across all routes (p = .275). CONCLUSION: TXA administration via IO and IM routes during hemorrhagic shock achieves serum concentrations necessary for inhibition of fibrinolysis and may be practical alternatives when IV access is not available.


Assuntos
Choque Hemorrágico/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tranexâmico/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Infusões Intraósseas , Injeções Intramusculares , Suínos
3.
Mil Med ; 183(suppl_1): 34-39, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635579

RESUMO

Background: Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is a common condition after traumatic injury and is known to be associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. ATC has been implicated as a causative factor in both early hemorrhage and late organ failure in this population, yet the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Additionally, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition among critically injured trauma patients. AKI has been associated with an elevated International Normalized Ratio (INR) and warfarin use, but its development has not been well studied in the setting of ATC. We hypothesized that the presence of ATC influences the development of AKI and may mediate mortality in combat casualties. Methods: Data were obtained from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry, Medical Data Store and Composite Healthcare System, and the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System. A retrospective review was conducted of US service members injured in Iraq or Afghanistan between February 1, 2002 and February 1, 2011, who required ICU level care and survived evacuation out of theater. Exclusions were made for missing data. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to determine the effect of ATC (a priori defined as first INR > 1.3) on the development of AKI. Further analysis was conducted to determine the influence of these variables on 30-d mortality, and multiple sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATC on both AKI and mortality. Results: A total of 1,288 patients were identified for analysis. ATC was a risk factor for subsequent AKI after adjustment (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.18; p < 0.001). However, ATC was not a risk factor for mortality after adjustment in the full model (HR 1.87, 95% CI 0.95-3.65; p = 0.069). On sensitivity analyses exploring alternate definitions of ATC, an INR of 1.2 remained associated with AKI (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.13-1.88; p = 0.004) and an INR of 1.5 became significant for mortality (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.32-2.35; p < 0.001). Conclusion: ATC is independently associated with the development of AKI. Although ATC is associated with mortality in the unadjusted model, it is not significant after adjustment for AKI. This implies that the kidneys may play a role in the adverse outcomes observed after ATC. Increased awareness and monitoring for coagulopathy and the subsequent development of AKI in combat casualty patients may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, possibly decreasing morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Rim/lesões , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/mortalidade , Creatinina/análise , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/métodos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Guerra/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Burns ; 44(2): 298-304, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effect of presenting hypertension is poorly studied in combat casualties. We hypothesized that elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) on presentation to combat hospitals would be associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: Data was obtained from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry and the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System. Variables analyzed included presenting vital signs to Role II-III military theater hospital, demographic variables, injury severity score (ISS), location and mechanism of injury, presence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), acute kidney injury (AKI), and mortality. Patients were stratified by decile of MAP and logistic regression analysis was employed to adjust for confounders. RESULTS: A total of 4072 subjects injured from February 2002 to February 2011 were identified. Compared to patients in the middle deciles of presenting MAP, patients in the highest and lowest MAP deciles were the only groups that demonstrated a higher mortality on univariate analysis (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.16-2.31 and OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.76-4.67, respectively), and this relationship persisted after adjustment for ISS, HR, temperature, presence of burn injury, TBI, and AKI. Burn injury was associated with mortality in the full multivariate analysis. However, further analysis limited to patients without burn injury did not demonstrate an association between high MAP and mortality (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.36-1.99; p=0.70). Conversely, when limited to patients with burn injury, high MAP was associated with mortality (OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.74-8.20; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: The relationship between mortality and presenting MAP appears to be U-shaped, demonstrating increased mortality in the lowest and highest deciles. However, mortality in the highest MAP decile appears to be limited to casualties with associated burn injury, even after adjustment for TBI, AKI, and ISS, which takes into account the severity of the burn injury. Physicians should recognize that burn patients presenting with an elevated MAP are at an increased risk for poor outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Militares , Guerra , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sinais Vitais , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Surg Res ; 218: 306-315, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A reproducible, lethal noncompressible torso hemorrhage model is important to civilian and military trauma research. Current large animal models balancing clinical applicability with standardization and internal validity. As such, large animal models of trauma vary widely in the surgical literature, limiting comparisons. Our aim was to create and validate a porcine model of uncontrolled hemorrhage that maximizes reproducibility and standardization. METHODS: Seven Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized, instrumented, and splenectomized. A simple liver tourniquet was applied before injury to prevent unregulated hemorrhage while creating a traumatic amputation of 30% of the liver. Release of the tourniquet and rapid abdominal closure following injury provided a standardized reference point for the onset and duration of uncontrolled hemorrhage. At the moment of death, the liver tourniquet was quickly reapplied to provide accurate quantification of intra-abdominal blood loss. Weight and volume of the resected and residual liver segments were measured. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded continuously throughout each experiment. RESULTS: This liver injury was rapidly and universally lethal (11.2 ± 4.9 min). The volume of hemorrhage (35.8% ± 6% of total blood volume) and severity of uncontrolled hemorrhage (100% of animals deteriorated to a sustained mean arterial pressure <35 mmHg for 5 min) were consistent across all animals. Use of the tourniquet effectively halted preprocedure and postprocedure blood loss allowing for accurate quantification of amount of hemorrhage over a defined period. In addition, the tourniquet facilitated the creation of a consistent liver resection weight (0.0043 ± 0.0003 liver resection weight: body weight) and as a percentage of total liver resection weight (27% ± 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: This novel tourniquet-assisted noncompressible torso hemorrhage model creates a standardized, reproducible, highly lethal, and clinically applicable injury in swine. Use of the tourniquet allowed for consistent liver injury and precise control over hemorrhage. Recorded blood loss was similar across all animals. Improving reproducibility and standardization has the potential to offer improvements in large animal translational models of hemorrhage. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemoperitônio/etiologia , Fígado/lesões , Animais , Feminino , Hemoperitônio/mortalidade , Masculino , Suínos
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 83(1): 61-70, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite clinical reports of poor outcomes, the degree to which resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) exacerbates traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not known. We hypothesized that combined effects of increased proximal mean arterial pressure (pMAP), carotid blood flow (Qcarotid), and intracranial pressure (ICP) from REBOA would lead to TBI progression compared with partial aortic occlusion (PAO) or no intervention. METHODS: Twenty-one swine underwent a standardized TBI via computer Controlled cortical impact followed by 25% total blood volume rapid hemorrhage. After 30 minutes of hypotension, animals were randomized to 60 minutes of continued hypotension (Control), REBOA, or PAO. REBOA and PAO animals were then weaned from occlusion. All animals were resuscitated with shed blood via a rapid blood infuser. Physiologic parameters were recorded continuously and brain computed tomography obtained at specified intervals. RESULTS: There were no differences in baseline physiology or during the initial 30 minutes of hypotension. During the 60-minute intervention period, REBOA resulted in higher maximal pMAP (REBOA, 105.3 ± 8.8; PAO, 92.7 ± 9.2; Control, 48.9 ± 7.7; p = 0.02) and higher Qcarotid (REBOA, 673.1 ± 57.9; PAO, 464.2 ± 53.0; Control, 170.3 ± 29.4; p < 0.01). Increases in ICP were greatest during blood resuscitation, with Control animals demonstrating the largest peak ICP (Control, 12.8 ± 1.2; REBOA, 5.1 ± 0.6; PAO, 9.4 ± 1.1; p < 0.01). There were no differences in the percentage of animals with hemorrhage progression on CT (Control, 14.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-57.9; REBOA, 28.6%; 95% CI, 3.7-71.0; and PAO, 28.6%; 95% CI, 3.7-71.0). CONCLUSION: In an animal model of TBI and shock, REBOA increased Qcarotid and pMAP, but did not exacerbate TBI progression. PAO resulted in physiology closer to baseline with smaller increases in ICP and pMAP. Rapid blood resuscitation, not REBOA, resulted in the largest increase in ICP after intervention, which occurred in Control animals. Continued studies of the cerebral hemodynamics of aortic occlusion and blood transfusion are required to determine optimal resuscitation strategies for multi-injured patients.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Transfusão de Sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Animais , Aorta Torácica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Hemodinâmica , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 83(1): 139-143, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632583

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To avoid potential cardiovascular collapse after resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), current guidelines recommend methodically deflating the balloon for 5 minutes to gradually reperfuse distal tissue beds. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that this approach may still result in unpredictable aortic flow rates and hemodynamic instability. We sought to characterize aortic flow dynamics following REBOA as the balloon is deflated in accordance with current practice guidelines. METHODS: Eight Yorkshire-cross swine were splenectomized, instrumented, and subjected to rapid 25% total blood volume hemorrhage. After 30 minutes of shock, animals received 60 minutes of Zone 1 REBOA with a low-profile REBOA catheter. During subsequent resuscitation with shed blood, the aortic occlusion balloon was gradually deflated in stepwise fashion at the rate of 0.5 mL every 30 seconds until completely deflated. Aortic flow rate and proximal mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured continuously over the period of balloon deflation. RESULTS: Graded balloon deflation resulted in variable initial return of aortic flow (median, 78 seconds; interquartile range [IQR], 68-105 seconds). A rapid increase in aortic flow during a single-balloon deflation step was observed in all animals (median, 819 mL/min; IQR, 664-1241 mL/min) and corresponded with an immediate decrease in proximal MAP (median, 30 mm Hg; IQR, 14.5-37 mm Hg). Total balloon volume and time to return of flow demonstrated no correlation (r = 0.016). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to characterize aortic flow during balloon deflation following REBOA. A steep inflection point occurs during balloon deflation that results in an abrupt increase in aortic flow and a concomitant decrease in MAP. Furthermore, the onset of distal aortic flow was inconsistent across study animals and did not correlate with initial balloon volume or relative deflation volume. Future studies to define the factors that affect aortic flow during balloon deflation are needed to facilitate controlled reperfusion following REBOA.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Aorta Torácica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Reperfusão , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Suínos
8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 82(6): 1106-1111, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transition from complete aortic occlusion during resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta can be associated with hemodynamic instability. Technique refinements and new technologies have been proposed to minimize this effect. In order to inform new techniques and technology, we examined the relationship between blood pressure and aortic flow during the restoration of systemic circulation following aortic occlusion at progressive levels of hemorrhage. METHODS: An automated supraceliac aortic clamp, capable of continuously variable degrees of occlusion, was applied in seven swine. The swine underwent stepwise removal of 40% of their total blood volume in four equal aliquots. After each aliquot, progressive luminal narrowing to the point of complete aortic occlusion was achieved over 5 minutes, sustained for 5 minutes, and then released over 5 minutes. Proximal and distal blood pressure and distal aortic flow were continuously recorded throughout the study. RESULTS: Upon release of the clamp, hyperemic aortic flow was observed following 10% and 20% hemorrhage (1,599 ± 785 mL/min, p < 0.01; and 1,070 ± 396 mL/min, p < 0.01, respectively). Proximal blood pressure exhibited a nonlinear relationship to aortic flow during clamp removal; however, distal blood pressure increased linearly with distal flow upon clamp opening across all hemorrhage volumes. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperemic blood flow following return of circulation may contribute to cardiovascular collapse. Reintroduction of systemic blood flow after aortic occlusion should be guided by distal blood pressure rather than proximal pressure. Awareness of hemodynamic physiology during aortic occlusion is of paramount importance to the clinical implementation of next-generation resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta techniques and technologies.


Assuntos
Aorta , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Hemodinâmica , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Feminino , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Suínos
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