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1.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 11(2): 101353, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is a zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. The aim of this study is to understand the epidemiology and trends regarding the disease in Spain, based on notifications to the Spanish National Epidemiology Surveillance Network (RENAVE) and the National Hospital Discharge Database (CMBD) between 2005 and 2015. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study of the cases and the outbreaks reported to the RENAVE and of those found in the CMBD between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2015. We studied the characteristics of the cases and analyzed their spatio-temporal distribution. RESULTS: 1603 cases notified to the RENAVE and 1789 cases registered in the CMBD were analyzed. The most affected group were men between 45 and 64. There were 8 MSF outbreaks during the study period. RENAVE registered lower rates until 2012, when it was decided that MSF in Spain would become a notifiable disease. Across the temporal series we saw that there was seasonality with an increase in cases in summer, and an overall upward trend according to the RENAVE data and descending according to the CMBD. The geographic distribution was heterogeneous throughout the territory, with maximum rates in La Rioja at 1.87 cases and 2.01 cases per 100,000 inhabitants according to the RENAVE and the CMBD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is of great importance to continue monitoring the disease since it appears to be endemic throughout Spain. There is a need for a common strategy on monitoring and reporting, which would facilitate a more accurate picture on the MSF epidemiological scenario. Entomological information will be of added value.

2.
Malar J ; 18(1): 230, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria was eliminated in Spain in 1964. Since then, more than 10,000 cases of malaria have been reported, mostly in travellers and migrants, making it the most frequently imported disease into this country. In order to improve knowledge on imported malaria cases characteristics, the two main malaria data sources were assessed: the national surveillance system and the hospital discharge database (CMBD). METHODS: Observational study using prospectively gathered surveillance data and CMBD records between 2002 and 2015. The average number of hospitalizations per year was calculated to assess temporal patterns. Socio-demographic, clinical and travel background information were analysed. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to evaluate hospitalization risk, fatal outcome, continent of infection and chemoprophylaxis failure and their association with different factors. RESULTS: A total of 9513 malaria hospital discharges and 7421 reported malaria cases were identified. The number of reported cases was below the number of hospitalizations during the whole study period, with a steady increase trend in both databases since 2008. Males aged 25-44 were the most represented in both data sources. Most frequent related co-diagnoses were anaemia (20.2%) and thrombocytopaenia (15.4%). The risks of fatal outcome increased with age and were associated with the parasite species (Plasmodium falciparum). The main place of infection was Africa (88.9%), particularly Equatorial Guinea (33.2%). Most reported cases were visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) and immigrants (70.2%). A significant increased likelihood of hospitalization was observed for children under 10 years (aOR:2.7; 95% CI 1.9-3.9), those infected by Plasmodium vivax (4.3; 95% CI 2.1-8.7) and travellers VFRs (1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Only 4% of cases reported a correct regime of chemoprophylaxis. Being male, over 15 years, VFRs, migrant and born in an endemic country were associated to increased risk of failure in preventive chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The joint analysis of two data sources allowed for better characterization of imported malaria profile in Spain. Despite the availability of highly effective preventive measures, the preventable burden from malaria is high in Spain. Pre-travel advice and appropriately delivered preventive messages needs to be improved, particularly in migrants and VFRs.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Quimioprevenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 153(1): 6-12, jul. 2019. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183351

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: La enfermedad por virus Zika constituye un reto para la salud pública por su rápida expansión y sus potenciales complicaciones fetales. En España la enfermedad por virus Zika es importada, aunque la presencia de Aedes albopictus no descarta su transmisión autóctona. La enfermedad por virus Zika y los casos congénitos se vigilan desde 2016. El objetivo es conocer su epidemiología y el resultado de la gestación en las embarazadas. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de casos notificados a la Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (RENAVE) entre el 30/11/2015 y el 31/12/2017. La definición de caso y la encuesta se recogen en los protocolos de la RENAVE. Las variables fueron: fecha, comunidad autónoma (CC.AA.), clasificación, modo y lugar de infección, variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, microbiológicas, embarazo y su evolución. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los casos y su distribución según el resto de variables. Resultados: Diecisiete CC.AA. notificaron 512 casos, de los cuales 507 fueron no congénitos: 327 (64,5%) eran mujeres (52,5% en edad fértil); 403 casos (79,5%) correspondieron a 2016 y 193 (38,1%) residían en CC.AA. colonizadas por A. albopictus entre mayo y octubre. El 96,1% de casos importados se infectaron en América y el 51,7% en visitas familiares. Se detectaron 3 casos de infección congénita en 77 embarazadas. Conclusiones: La evolución de notificaciones mostró paralelismo con la de la epidemia en América. El grupo más numeroso de viajeros fue el de mujeres jóvenes que fueron a Latinoamérica en visitas familiares. El seguimiento de las embarazadas permitió identificar complicaciones fetales


Introduction and objective: Zika virus disease is a challenge for public health due to its rapid spread and potential foetal complications. Although it is imported in Spain, there is a risk of autochthonous transmission due to Aedes albopictus presence. Zika disease and congenital cases have been under surveillance since 2016. The objective of this study is to explore the epidemiology of disease and pregnancies result. Material and methods: A descriptive study was carried out into cases reported to the National Surveillance Network (RENAVE) during the 30/11/2015 to 31/12/2017 period. The case definition and the survey are included in the RENAVE protocol. The variables were: date; notifying region (Autonomous Community (AC)); pregnancy and its evolution; case classification; mode of transmission; country or region of infection; socio-demographical, clinical and microbiological data. A descriptive analysis of the cases and their distribution according to the other variables was carried out. Results: A total of 512 cases were reported by 17 ACs. 507 were non-congenital, of which 327 (64.5%) were women (52.5% of childbearing age). 403 cases (79.5%) corresponded to 2016 and 193 (38.1%) resided in regions with A. albopictus presence between May and October. 96.1% of imported cases were infected in America (51.7% while visiting relatives). Three cases (3.9%) of congenital Zika virus infection were detected among 77 pregnant women. Conclusions: The evolution of reported cases was in accordance with that of the epidemic in America. The largest group of travellers was young women who travelled to Latin America on family visits. Pregnancy monitoring resulted in the identification of Zika related foetal complications


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Intervalos de Confiança
4.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 153(1): 6-12, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797578

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Zika virus disease is a challenge for public health due to its rapid spread and potential foetal complications. Although it is imported in Spain, there is a risk of autochthonous transmission due to Aedes albopictus presence. Zika disease and congenital cases have been under surveillance since 2016. The objective of this study is to explore the epidemiology of disease and pregnancies result. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out into cases reported to the National Surveillance Network (RENAVE) during the 30/11/2015 to 31/12/2017 period. The case definition and the survey are included in the RENAVE protocol. The variables were: date; notifying region (Autonomous Community (AC)); pregnancy and its evolution; case classification; mode of transmission; country or region of infection; socio-demographical, clinical and microbiological data. A descriptive analysis of the cases and their distribution according to the other variables was carried out. RESULTS: A total of 512 cases were reported by 17 ACs. 507 were non-congenital, of which 327 (64.5%) were women (52.5% of childbearing age). 403 cases (79.5%) corresponded to 2016 and 193 (38.1%) resided in regions with A. albopictus presence between May and October. 96.1% of imported cases were infected in America (51.7% while visiting relatives). Three cases (3.9%) of congenital Zika virus infection were detected among 77 pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of reported cases was in accordance with that of the epidemic in America. The largest group of travellers was young women who travelled to Latin America on family visits. Pregnancy monitoring resulted in the identification of Zika related foetal complications.

5.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 922018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420591

RESUMO

By mid-2015, an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly among newborns and neurologic disorders was detected in the Northwest of Brazil, which was possibly associated with Zika virus infection. Later on, this phenomenon was also observed in several Latin-American countries. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) on this basis, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. From that moment on, several measures were adopted to achieve the epidemic control at both international and national levels. The WHO launched a strategic response plan based on case detection, infection control and treatment, as well as, the research and development of new vector control tools, diagnostic tests and vaccines. In Europe both surveillance and vector control systems were reinforced. The countries reporting most cases were France, Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain, due to the high probability of case importation based on the close relationships with Latin-America, numerous measures were adopted to achieve a rapid response and an optimal control. Those included: the implementation of an active surveillance in collaboration with several experts, institutions and scientific societies; entomologic surveillance enhancement; the development of communication activities and recommendations for both healthcare workers and general population.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Epidemias , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus , Adulto , Aedes , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , América Latina , Masculino , Microcefalia/etiologia , Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Espanha , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Euro Surveill ; 23(47)2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482263

RESUMO

Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is key for global polio eradication. It allows detecting poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study describes AFP surveillance in Spain from 1998 to 2015. During this time, 678 AFP cases were reported to the Spanish National Surveillance Network. The mean notification rate was 0.58 AFP cases/100,000 population under 15 years old (range: 0.45/100,000-0.78/100,000). Two periods (P) are described: P1 (1998-2006) with the AFP notification rate ranging from 0.66/100,000 to 0.78/100,000, peaking in 2001 (0.84/100,000); and P2 (2007-2015) when the AFP rate ranged from 0.43/100,000 to 0.57/100,000, with the lowest rate in 2009 (0.31/100,000). No poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, although two Sabin-like PVs and one imported vaccine-derived PV-2 were detected. Overall, 23 (3.4%) cases met the hot case definition. Most cases were clinically diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (76.9%; 504/655). The adequate stool collection rate ranged from 33.3% (7/21) to 72.5% (29/40). The annual proportion of AFP cases with non-polio enterovirus findings varied widely across the study period. AFP surveillance with laboratory testing for non-polio enteroviruses must be maintained and enhanced both to monitor polio eradication and to establish sensitive surveillance for prompt detection of other enteroviruses causing serious symptoms.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Erradicação de Doenças , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/virologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: 0-0, 2018. tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177575

RESUMO

A mediados del 2015 se detectó en el noroeste de Brasil un incremento en el número de casos de microcefalia en recién nacidos y de alteraciones neurológicas, que se asociaron con una posible infección por el virus Zika y que más adelante comenzaría a observarse en otros países de Latinoamérica. En febrero de 2016 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró esta situación como una Emergencia de Salud Pública de Importancia Internacional (ESPII) y desde ese momento se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas para el control de la epidemia tanto a nivel internacional, como nacional en los diferentes países. La OMS lanzó un Plan de respuesta estratégico basado en la detección de casos, control de la infección y tratamiento, así como en la investigación y desarrollo de herramientas para el control de mosquitos, test diagnósticos y vacunas. En Europa se reforzaron los sistemas de vigilancia así como de control de los vectores, siendo los países que más casos notificaron: Francia, España y el Reino Unido. En España debido a la alta probabilidad de importación de casos por la estrecha relación con Latinoamérica, se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas que permitieron una rápida respuesta y un óptimo control, que incluyeron: la puesta en marcha de una vigilancia activa en la que colaboraron diversos profesionales, organismos y sociedades científicas; el refuerzo de actividades de vigilancia entomológica; el desarrollo de actividades de comunicación y la elaboración de recomendaciones dirigidas a profesionales sanitarios y a la población general


By mid-2015, an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly among newborns and neurologic disorders was detected in the Northwest of Brazil, which was possibly associated with Zika virus infection. Later on, this phenomenon was also observed in several Latin-American countries. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) on this basis, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. From that moment on, several measures were adopted to achieve the epidemic control at both international and national levels. The WHO launched a strategic response plan based on case detection, infection control and treatment, as well as, the research and development of new vector control tools, diagnostic tests and vaccines. In Europe both surveillance and vector control systems were reinforced. The countries reporting most cases were France, Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain, due to the high probability of case importation based on the close relationships with Latin-America, numerous measures were adopted to achieve a rapid response and an optimal control. Those included: the implementation of an active surveillance in collaboration with several experts, institutions and scientific societies; entomologic surveillance enhancement; the development of communication activities and recommendations for both healthcare workers and general population


Assuntos
Humanos , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Aedes/patogenicidade , Saúde do Viajante , Complicações na Gravidez , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia
8.
Can Vet J ; 57(12): 1247-1250, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27928170

RESUMO

A vertebral mass in a dog with an acute onset paraparesis was identified by magnetic resonance imaging. A poorly differentiated hemangiosarcoma was diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase could be a new differential marker for poorly differentiated hemangiosarcoma in dogs. Immunohistochemical detection of p53 phosphorylated at Serine392, p53, CD117, and CD44 suggest targets for design of therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangiossarcoma/veterinária , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/veterinária , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Hemangiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Hemangiossarcoma/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Masculino , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/patologia
9.
Rev. saúde pública ; 46(2): 310-319, Apr. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-618479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess regional and sociodemographic differences in self-perceived health status among older adults. METHODS: A face-to-face quality of life survey was conducted in a representative sample of the Spanish population comprising 1,106 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 or more in 2008. Logistic regression models were used to explain self-perceived health status according to the EuroQol Group Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS). Independent variables included sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics level 1 (NUTS1: group of autonomous regions) and level 2 (NUTS 2: autonomous regions). RESULTS: Younger and better off respondents were more likely to have a positive self-perceived health status. Having no chronic conditions, independence in performing daily living activities and lower level of depression were also associated with positive self-perceived health status. People living in the south of Spain showed a more negative self-perceived health status than those living in other regions. CONCLUSION: The study results point to health inequality among Spanish older adults of lower socioeconomic condition and living in the south of Spain. The analysis by geographic units allows for international cross-regional comparisons.


OBJETIVO: Analisar as diferenças regionais e sociodemográficas no estado de saúde percebido por adultos mais velhos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um inquérito de qualidade de vida mediante entrevista pessoal com amostra representativa da população espanhola de 1.106 pessoas com 60 e mais anos não institucionalizadas, em 2008. Aplicaram-se modelos de regressão logística para explicar a saúde percebida segundo a escala visual analógica do EuroQol Group (EQ-VAS). As variáveis independentes incluíram características sociodemográficas e de saúde, assim como unidades territoriais estatísticas de nível 1 (grupo de comunidades autônomas) e nível 2 (comunidades autônomas). RESULTADOS: Os participantes dos grupos mais jovens e os que tinham uma melhor situação econômica mostraram maior probabilidade de ter uma percepção positiva da sua saúde. A ausência de problemas crônicos de saúde, a independência para realizar atividades da vida diária e menor nível de depressão também se associaram positivamente à saúde percebida como boa. Os idosos que viviam no sul mostraram uma percepção mais negativa da saúde do que as que vivem noutras regiões. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicam uma desigualdade relativa no estado de saúde dos adultos mais velhos de níveis socioeconômicos inferiores e dos habitantes do sul do país. A análise por unidades territoriais estatísticas permite estabelecer comparações entre regiões em nível internacional.


OBJETIVO: Analizar las diferencias regionales y sociodemográficas en el estado de salud percibido por ancianos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta de calidad de vida mediante entrevista personal en una muestra representativa de la población española de 1.106 personas con 60 y más años no institucionalizadas en 2008. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística para explicar la salud percibida de acuerdo con la escala visual analógica del EuroQol Group (EQ-VAS). Las variables independientes incluyeron características sociodemográficas y de salud, así como unidades territoriales estadísticas de nivel 1 (NUTS1: grupos de comunidades autónomas), y nivel 2 (NUTS2: comunidades autónomas). RESULTADOS: Los participantes de ambos grupos, el de los más jóvenes y los que tenían una mejor situación económica, mostraron mayor probabilidad de tener una percepción positiva de la salud. La ausencia de problemas crónicos de salud, la independencia para desarrollar actividades de la vida diaria y un menor nivel de depresión también se asociaron positivamente a la salud percibida como buena. Los ancianos que vivían en el sur mostraron una percepción más negativa de su salud que aquellos que vivían en otras regiones. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados muestran desigualdad relativa en el estado de salud de los ancianos de niveles socioeconómicos inferiores y en los habitantes del sur del país. El análisis estadístico por unidades territoriales permite establecer comparaciones entre regiones en nivel internacional.


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Saúde do Idoso , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Análise de Regressão , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 46(2): 310-9, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22437859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess regional and sociodemographic differences in self-perceived health status among older adults. METHODS: A face-to-face quality of life survey was conducted in a representative sample of the Spanish population comprising 1,106 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 or more in 2008. Logistic regression models were used to explain self-perceived health status according to the EuroQol Group Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS). Independent variables included sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics level 1 (NUTS1: group of autonomous regions) and level 2 (NUTS 2: autonomous regions). RESULTS: Younger and better off respondents were more likely to have a positive self-perceived health status. Having no chronic conditions, independence in performing daily living activities and lower level of depression were also associated with positive self-perceived health status. People living in the south of Spain showed a more negative self-perceived health status than those living in other regions. CONCLUSION: The study results point to health inequality among Spanish older adults of lower socioeconomic condition and living in the south of Spain. The analysis by geographic units allows for international cross-regional comparisons.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 79(5): 581-589, sept.-oct. 2005. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-041620

RESUMO

Fundamento: Nadie duda de la necesidad de acercar de formaefectiva a los adolescentes información sobre anticoncepción yenfermedades de transmisión sexual. El objetivo de este estudio esevaluar el resultado de una intervención educativa en este ámbito.Métodos: Estudio antes-después de una intervención educativa(basada en charlas y entrega de documentación) sin grupo control. Sepasó un cuestionario antes y después de la intervención para valorarcambios en conocimientos y actitudes a los alumnos de 4º EnseñanzaSecundaria Obligatoria de cinco centros educativos de Toledo.Resultados: Contestaron 238 alumnos (de un total de 268). Laedad media fue de 15,59. El 54,66% eran mujeres. El 24,03% ya habíanmantenido alguna relación sexual. El método anticonceptivo másutilizado fue el preservativo (98,24%). Las chicas rechazan una relaciónsin protección con más frecuencia que los chicos (76,5% vs48,6%; p<0,001) y tienen más facilidad para compartir clase con unenfermo de sida (80,47% vs 60,38%; p<0,001). A los seis meses delinicio de la intervención respondieron al segundo cuestionario 197alumnos. El uso correcto del preservativo pasó del 62,13% al 73,46%.Conclusiones: Tras la intervención se aprecia una mejora en elnivel de conocimientos sobre anticonceptivos y sobre transmisióndel sida y una actitud más positiva frente al VIH


Background: No-one doubts the need of effectively providingteenagers with information about birth control and sexually-transmitteddiseases. This study is aimed at evaluating the results of aneducational intervention related to these matters.Methods: Before-and-after study of an educational intervention(based on lectures and handing out documentation) without a controlgroup. A questionnaire was passed out before and after the interventionto assess changes in knowledge and attitudes of the 4th-yearCompulsory Secondary Education students at five schools in Toledo.Results: The questionnaire was answered by 238 of the 268 students.The average age was 15.59. A total of 54.66% were females.In all, 24.03% had had some sexual relation. The birth controlmethod used most often was the condom (98.24%). The girls morerefuse more unprotected relations (76.5% vs. 48.6%; p<0.001) andshare the same classroom with a student having AIDS (80.47% vs.60.38%; p<0.001). Six months following the start of the intervention,a total of 197 students answered the second questionnaire. Propercondom use rose from 62.13% to 73.46%.Conclusions: Following the intervention, an improvement hasbeen noted in the degree of knowledge related to birth controlmethods and AIDS transmission and a more positive attitude regardingHIV


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Humanos , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Espanha
12.
Rev. clín. med. fam ; 1(1): 14-19, jun. 2005. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-68958

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer el grado de conocimientos y la prevalencia del consumo de sustancias de abusoen adolescentes. Valorar los cambios antes y después de una intervención comunitaria.Diseño: Estudio descriptivo transversal (fase 1). Estudio «antes-después» (fase 2).Emplazamiento: Intervención comunitaria en el núcleo urbano de Toledo.Participantes: 357 alumnos de 2º de E.S.O. pre-intervención y 259 postintervención.Intervención: Educación para la salud mediante charlas educativas y entrega de material informativoen el contexto de un concurso de mensajes publicitarios durante un curso escolar.Resultados: Edad media 13,35 años (DE 0,65). 50,83% varones.Han fumado alguna vez el 37,22% (IC95% 32,1-42,3), sin diferencias por sexos. El 30,19% (IC95%25,5-35,2) ha consumido alguna vez alcohol, mientras el 30,81% (IC95% 26,1-35,9) afirma haber probado alguna droga. Tras la intervención se observa una mejoría general de los conocimientos sobre las consecuencias del consumo de tabaco, alcohol y drogas. La consideración de gravedad del consumo aumenta en el tabaco (6,95 a 7,21), el alcohol (6,77 a 7,10) y las drogas (9,22 a 9,49). El porcentaje de los que han probado el tabaco aumenta hasta el 45,17% (p<0,05); el de los que han consumido alcohol llega hasta el 50% (p<0,001). El consumo de marihuana en el último mes pasó del8,14% al 9,41% (p>0,05).Conclusiones: Alto grado de consumo de sustancias de abuso entre alumnos de 2º de E.S.O. Tras la intervención observamos un ligero aumento del grado de conocimientos y una mayor conciencia de la gravedad del consumo, no acompañada de una reducción del mismo, posiblemente por incidir en una etapa «de prueba» de su vida


Objective: To know the level of knowledge and the prevalence of abuse of substances in adolescents.To measure changes before and after intervention.Design: Transversal (phase 1) and descriptive study. Study before and after (phase 2) the intervention.Setting: Communitary actuation in the city of Toledo.Subjects: 357, 2 ESO students before actuation and 259 after actuation.Actuation: Health education throw public lectures and delivery of information matherial in the contextof a quiz of publicity messages during the school term.Results: Average age 13,25 (SD 0,65), 50,83 male. 37,22 % (CI 95 %: 32, 1-42,3) smoked any time,without differences by sex. 30,19 % (CI 95 %: 25,5 – 35,2) had consumed alcohol one time or moore,while 30,81 % (CI 95 %: 26,1 – 35,9) confirm consumption of another adictive substance after actuationit is possible to detect general improvement in knowledge about consequence involved in tobacco,alcohol and narcotics consumption. Perception of serious ill efects about the adiction increase in tobacco(6,95 – 7,21), alcohol (6,77 – 7,10) and narcotics (9,22 – 9,49). The percentage of patients who hadtaken tobacco increased to 45,17 % (p<0,05), alcohol 50 % (p<0,001). Consumption of marihuana inlast month increased from 8,14 % to 9,41 % (p<0,05)Conclusions: High level of adictive substances consumption in 2 ESO scholars. After intervention weobserv a slight increase of knowledhe, moore awareness about the depth of the problem but it is notacompaned with a reduction of the same possibly by effect of “the trial” stage of their life


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultado de Ações Preventivas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 79(5): 581-9, 2005.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16471137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No-one doubts the need of effectively providing teenagers with information about birth control and sexually-transmitted diseases. This study is aimed at evaluating the results of an educational intervention related to these matters. METHODS: Before-and-after study of an educational intervention (based on lectures and handing out documentation) without a control group. A questionnaire was passed out before and after the intervention to assess changes in knowledge and attitudes of the 4th-year Compulsory Secondary Education students at five schools in Toledo. RESULTS: The questionnaire was answered by 238 of the 268 students. The average age was 15.59. A total of 54.66% were females. In all, 24.03% had had some sexual relation. The birth control method used most often was the condom (98.24%). The girls more refuse more unprotected relations (76.5% vs. 48.6%; p<0.001) and share the same classroom with a student having AIDS (80.47% vs. 60.38%; p<0.001). Six months following the start of the intervention, a total of 197 students answered the second questionnaire. Proper condom use rose from 62.13% to 73.46%. CONCLUSIONS: Following the intervention, an improvement has been noted in the degree of knowledge related to birth control methods and AIDS transmission and a more positive attitude regarding HIV.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Gravidez não Desejada , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Adolescente , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Educação Sexual , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
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