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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between volume and outcomes in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the Spanish National Health System. METHODS: We analyzed CABG episodes from 2013 to 2015. The selected outcome variables were in-hospital mortality in the index episode, 30-day cardiac-related readmissions, and mortality during readmission. Risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital mortality (RAMR) and 30-day readmissions (RARR) were calculated using multilevel logistic regression. High- and low-volume hospitals for CABG were identified by a nonconditioned analysis (k-means) and by compliance with the volume recommendation of clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 17 335 CABG index episodes were included, with a crude in-hospital mortality rate of 5.0%. Episodes attended in low-volume centers for CABG (< 155 CABG per year) showed 17% higher RAMR (5.81%±2.07% vs 4.96%±1.76%; P <.001) and a negative linear correlation between volume and RARR (r=-0.318; P=.029), as well as a higher percentage of complications during the episode. The same association between volume and more favorable outcomes was found in isolated CABG. CONCLUSIONS: The mean CABG volume is low in Spanish National Health System hospitals. Higher volume was associated with better outcomes in CABG, both total and isolated. The findings of this study indicate the need for a higher concentration of CABG programs, as well as the publication of risk-adjusted outcomes of coronary intervention.

2.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839414

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There are few data on the safety of length of stay in uncomplicated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We studied trends in hospital stay and the safety of short (≤ 3 days) vs long hospital stay in Spain. METHODS: Using data from the Minimum Basic Data Set, we identified patients with uncomplicated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and who were discharged alive between 2003 and 2015. The mean length of stay was adjusted by multilevel Poisson regression with mixed effects. The effect of short length of stay on 30-day readmission for cardiac diseases was evaluated in episodes from 2012 to 2014 by propensity score matching and multilevel logistic regression. We also compared risk-standardized readmissions for cardiac diseases and mortality rates. RESULTS: The adjusted length of stay decreased significantly (incidence rate ratio <1; P <.001) for each year after 2003. Short length of stay was not an independent predictor of 30-day readmission (OR, 1.10; 95%CI, 0.92-1.32) or mortality (OR, 1.94; 95%CI, 0.93-14.03). After propensity score matching, no significant differences were observed between short and long hospital stay (OR, 1.26; 95%CI, 0.98-1.62; and OR, 1.50; 95%CI, 0.48-5.13), respectively. These results were confirmed by comparisons between risk-standardized readmissions for cardiac disease and mortality rates, except for the 30-day mortality rate, which was significantly higher, although probably without clinical significance, in short hospital stays (0.103% vs 0.109%; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: In Spain, hospital stay ≤ 3 days significantly increased from 2003 to 2015 and seems a safe option in patients with uncomplicated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

3.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(6): 1261-1266, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2785

RESUMO

Objective: the treatment for gestational diabetes is based on diet, and this may modify maternal weight gain. The limited maternal weight gain is related to newborns with small weight for their gestational age (SGA), and many studies have found an increase of SGA in women with gestational diabetes (GD), but the reason for this is not clear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of gestational diabetes treatment on maternal weight gain and neonatal weight. Methods: a retrospective cohort study of 1,765 patients with GD, according to the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) criteria. We assessed: pre-pregnancy BMI, total maternal weight gain (MWG), weight gain during the third trimester, gestational week of starting the treatment, and treatment modality (diet or diet plus insulin). Birth weight was adjusted by gestational age and gender: SGA (= 10th) and large for gestational age (LGA) ( > 90th). Results: the percentage of newborns with weight percentile = 10 was 14.8%. The diet and the time of initiation of the treatment were related to maternal weight gain (MWG) in the third trimester. For every 1 kcal/kg of variation in the diet (increase or decrease), a MWG variation of 0.03 (0.001-0.06) kg occurred (p < 0.01). For each week before the beginning of treatment, the mother did not gain 0.13 ± [(-0.15) - (-0.11)] kg in the third trimester (p < 0.01). The SGA was related to the lowest MWG in total gestation: 7.0 (IQR 3.0-10.4) kg vs. 8.4 (IQR 5.0-11.6) kg (p < 0.01), and in the third trimester: 0.3 (IQR -0.9-1.5) kg vs. 0.9 (IQR -0.3-2.2) kg (p < 0.01). Conclusion: the dietary treatment for gestational diabetes leads to a lower maternal weight gain and induces an impact on neonatal weight


Objetivo: el tratamiento para la diabetes gestacional se basa en la dieta y esto puede modificar el aumento de peso materno. Un aumento de peso materno limitado está relacionado con recién nacidos con bajo peso para su edad gestacional (SGA). Muchos estudios han encontrado un aumento de niños con bajo peso en mujeres con diabetes gestacional, pero la razón de esto no está clara. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los efectos del tratamiento de la diabetes gestacional sobre el aumento de peso materno y el peso neonatal. Métodos: estudio de cohortes retrospectivo en 1765 pacientes con diabetes gestacional, según los criterios de los National Diabetes Data Groups (NDDG). Evaluamos: IMC antes del embarazo, aumento de peso materno total (MWG), aumento de peso durante el tercer trimestre, semana gestacional de inicio del tratamiento y modalidad de tratamiento (dieta o dieta más insulina). El peso al nacer se ajustó por edad gestacional y género: SGA (percentil de = 10) y grande para la edad gestacional (LGA) (percentil de > 90). Resultados: el porcentaje de recién nacidos con peso percentil de = 10 fue del 14,8%. La dieta y el momento de inicio del tratamiento se relacionaron con el aumento de peso materno en el tercer trimestre. Por cada 1 kcal/kg de variación en la dieta (aumento o disminución) se produjo una variación de aumento del peso materno de 0,03 (0,001-0.06) kg (p < 0,01). Por cada semana antes de inicio del tratamiento, la madre dejó de ganar 0,13 ± [(- 0,15) - (- 0,11)] kg en el tercer trimestre (p < 0,01). El SGA se relacionó con un aumento de peso materno más bajo en el total de la gestación: 7,0 (IQR 3,0-10,4) kg vs. 8,4 (IQR 5,0-11,6) kg (p < 0,01), y en el tercer trimestre: 0,3 (IQR -0,9-1,5) kg vs. 0,9 (IQR -0,3-2,2) kg (p < 0,01). Conclusión: el tratamiento dietético para la diabetes gestacional puede conducir a un menor aumento de peso materno y a su vez inducir un impacto en el peso neonatal

4.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717933

RESUMO

Postnatal steroids, often used to prevent and treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia, may influence the growth of preterm infants, although data are scarce in the literature. This is a multicenter cohort study including surviving preterm infants <32 weeks at birth (n = 17,621) from the Spanish Neonatal Network SEN1500 database, without major congenital malformations. Linear regression models were adjusted for postnatal steroids, respiratory severity course (invasive mechanical ventilation at 28 days), progression to moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (O2 at 36 weeks), length of stay, sex, gestational age and z-scores at birth. A subgroup analysis depending on the timing of administration, ventilation status at 28 days and moderate-severe BPD diagnosis was also performed. Overall, systemic postnatal steroids were not independently associated with poorer weight gain (0.1; 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.2 g/kg/day), linear growth (0; 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.01 cm/week) or head circumference growth (-0.01; 95% CI: -0.02 to 0 cm/week). Patients who received steroids after 28 days or who were not O2 dependent at 36 weeks after having received steroids gained more weight (0.22; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.4 and 0.2; 95% CI: 0.004 to 0.5 g/kg/day, respectively). Globally, systemic postnatal steroids had no significant adjusted effect on postnatal growth.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(9): ofz325, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660404

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplant recipients may be reduced by antiviral prophylaxis, but this strategy may lead to delayed-onset CMV infection. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 plays a major role in viral host defense responses. This study examines the impacts of 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the IL-18 gene, -607C/A (rs1946518) and -137G/C (rs187238), on the incidence of delayed-onset CMV infection in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 2 IL-18 SNPs in consecutive adult kidney transplant recipients using real-time polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan probes. Participants were enrolled over the period 2005-2013 and stratified according to their IL-18 SNP genotype. The concordance index (Harrell's c-index) was used as a measure of the discriminatory power of the predictive models constructed with bootstrapping to correct for optimistic bias. Results: Seven hundred nine patients received transplants in the study period, and 498 met selection criteria. Cytomegalovirus infection and disease incidence were 38% and 7.5%, respectively. In multivariate competing risk regression models, carriers of the -607C/-137G haplotype who received prophylaxis showed a higher incidence of CMV replication after antiviral agent discontinuation (hazard ratio = 2.42 [95% confidence interval, 1.11-5.26]; P = .026), whereas CMV disease was not observed in those given prophylaxis who were noncarriers of this polymorphism (P = .009). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the -607C/-137G IL-18 haplotype is associated with a higher incidence of postprophylaxis CMV replication. The prior identification of this polymorphism could help select alternative measures to prevent delayed-onset CMV infection in these patients.

6.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(6): 1261-1266, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610676

RESUMO

Introduction: Objective: the treatment for gestational diabetes is based on diet, and this may modify maternal weight gain. The limited maternal weight gain is related to newborns with small weight for their gestational age (SGA), and many studies have found an increase of SGA in women with gestational diabetes (GD), but the reason for this is not clear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of gestational diabetes treatment on maternal weight gain and neonatal weight. Methods: a retrospective cohort study of 1,765 patients with GD, according to the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) criteria. We assessed: pre-pregnancy BMI, total maternal weight gain (MWG), weight gain during the third trimester, gestational week of starting the treatment, and treatment modality (diet or diet plus insulin). Birth weight was adjusted by gestational age and gender: SGA (≤ 10th) and large for gestational age (LGA) (> 90th). Results: the percentage of newborns with weight ≤ 10 was 14.8 %. The diet and the time of initiation of the treatment were related to maternal weight gain (MWG) in the third trimester. For every 1 kcal/kg of variation in the diet (increase or decrease), a MWG variation of 0.03 (0.001-0.06) kg occurred (p < 0.01). For each week before the beginning of treatment, the mother did not gain 0.13 ± [(-0.15) - (-0.11)] kg in the third trimester (p < 0.01). The SGA was related to the lowest MWG in total gestation: 7.0 (IQR 3.0-10.4) kg vs 8.4 (IQR 5.0-11.6) kg (p < 0.01), and in the third trimester: 0.3 (IQR -0.9-1.5) kg vs. 0.9 (IQR -0.3-2.2) kg (p < 0.01). Conclusion: the dietary treatment for gestational diabetes leads to a lower maternal weight gain and induces an impact on neonatal weight.

7.
Maturitas ; 129: 50-56, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine functional changes and factors affecting 180-day functional prognosis among older patients attending a hospital emergency department (ED) after a fall. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis from a prospective cohort study (FALL-ER Registry) spanning one year that included individuals aged ≥65 years attending four Spanish EDs after a fall. We collected 9 baseline and 6 fall-related factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Barthel Index (BI) was measured at baseline, discharge and 30, 90 and 180 days after the index fall. Absolute and relative BI changes were calculated. Absolute difference of ≥10 points between BI at baseline and at 180 days was considered a clinically significant functional decline. RESULTS: 452 patients (mean age 80 ±â€¯8 years; 70.8% women) were included. Baseline BI was 79.3 ±â€¯23.1 points. Compared with baseline, functional status was significantly lower at the 4 follow-up time points (-8.7% at discharge; and -6.9%, -7.9% and -9.5% at 30, 90 and 180 days; p < 0.001 for all comparisons in relation to baseline; p = 0.001 for change over time). One hundred and thirty-three (29.6%) patients had a clinically significant functional decline at 180 days. Age ≥85 years (OR = 2.24, 95%CI 1.23-4.08; p = 0.008), fall-related fracture (OR = 2.45, 95%CI 1.43-4.28; p = 0.001), hospitalization (OR = 1.91; 95%CI 1.11-3.29; p = 0.019) and post-fall syndrome (OR = 1.77, 95%CI 1.13-2.77; p = 0.013) were independently associated with 180-day clinically significant functional decline. CONCLUSION: Patients ≥65 years attending EDs after a fall experience a consistent and persistent negative impact on their functional status. Several factors may help identify patients at increased risk of functional impairment.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Atividades Cotidianas , Nível de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(7): 425-433, ago.-sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182862

RESUMO

Objetivos: Elaborar un registro de situación de los Servicios y Unidades de Endocrinología y Nutrición (S°EyN) del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) y valorar sus recursos asistenciales para desarrollar, a partir de los resultados obtenidos, propuestas de políticas de mejora en los S°EyN. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de los pacientes atendidos en los S°EyN en hospitales generales de agudos del SNS en 2016. Se utilizaron datos obtenidos mediante RECALSEEN 2017, una encuesta «ad hoc» diseñada específicamente para este fin y de las altas dadas por los S°EyN registradas en el CMBD del SNS (2015). Resultados: De un total de 125 hospitales generales de agudos de más de 200 camas instaladas del SNS español, se han obtenido 88 respuestas de los S°EyN, que representan el 70%. El 47% de los S°EyN que respondieron eran servicios y el 31% secciones. El promedio de endocrinólogos por S°EyN era de 7,4±4,4, siendo la tasa media de endocrinólogos por cada 100.000 habitantes de 2,3±1. Las actividades asistenciales más relevantes eran la consulta (promedio de 12,3 primeras consultas por mil habitantes y año), hospital de día (mediana de 2.000 sesiones/año) e interconsulta hospitalaria (mediana de 900 interconsultas/año). El 83% de los S°EyN incorporaban una Unidad de Nutrición Clínica. La dotación de dietistas, técnicos en nutrición y bromatólogos en las Unidades de Nutrición Clínica era baja. En relación con la gestión de la calidad se detectó un amplio margen de mejora; solamente un 35% de los S°EyN tenían responsable de calidad y el 38% había implantado una gestión por procesos para aquellos más frecuentemente atendidos por la unidad. Existen notables diferencias en estructura, recursos y actividad de los S°EyN entre Comunidades Autónomas. Conclusiones: La encuesta RECALSEEN 2017 es útil para el análisis de los S°EyN. La notable variabilidad hallada en los indicadores de estructura, actividad y gestión probablemente indica relevantes diferencias y, por tanto, un amplio margen de mejora


Objectives: To elaborate a diagnosis of the situation regarding the assistance in the Services and Units of Endocrinology and Nutrition (S°EyN) of the National Health System of Spain (SNHS) and to develop, based on the results obtained, proposals for improvement policies in the S°EyN. Material and methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of the patients treated in the S°EyN departments of acute general hospitals of the SNHS in 2016. Data were obtained through RECALSEEN 2017, an "ad hoc" survey designed specifically for this purpose, and the Minimum Basic Data Set of discharges given by the S°EN of the SNHS (2015). Results: 88 responses of S°EyN have been obtained forma total of 125 acute general hospitals of more than 200 beds installed in the SNHS (70% answers). 47% of the S°EyN respondents were services and 31% sections. The average of endocrinologists by S°EyN was 7.4±4.4, and the average rate of endocrinologists per 100,000 inhabitants was 2.3±1. The most relevant care activities were the consultation (average of 12.3 first consultations per thousand inhabitants and year), day hospital (median of 2,000 sessions/year) and in-hospital consultations (median of 900 in-hospital consultations/year). 83% of S°EyNhad a Clinical Nutrition Unit. The number of dietitians, nutrition technicians and nutritionists in the Clinical Nutrition Unit was low. In relation to quality management, a large margin for improvement was detected; only 35% of S°EyN had a responsible of quality and 38% had implemented process management for those most frequent processes in the unit. There were notable differences in structure, resources and activity of S°EyN between Autonomous Communities. Conclusions: RECALSEEN 2017 survey is a useful tool for the analysis of S°EyN. The remarkable variability found in the structure, activity and management indicators probably indicates significant differences and, therefore, a wide margin for improvement


Assuntos
Humanos , Unidades Hospitalares , Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Sistema de Registros/normas , Endocrinologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Gestão da Qualidade , Análise Estatística , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição/normas , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologistas/provisão & distribução
9.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 156: 107824, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446112

RESUMO

AIMS: To analyze the trends on diabetes mellitus (DM) healthcare management in Spain. METHODS: Retrospective observational study between January 1st 2007 and 31th December 2015 with DM as the principal diagnosis. The main clinical outcome measures were all-cause, in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmissions. We also analyze three Prevention Quality Indicators (PQI) for DM. RESULTS: The number of hospitalization episodes decreased significantly as well as the frequentation rate and average length of stay (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] = 0.963, p < 0.001; 0.91, p < 0.001 and 0.986, p < 0.001, respectively). Crude in-hospital mortality and readmissions rates and risk-standardized in-hospital mortality rates (RSMR), however, remained stable (IRR = 0.988, p = 0.073; IRR = 1.003, p = 0.334 and IRR = 0.997, p = 0.116, respectively). A relevant variability in RSMR, both at hospital (Median Odds Ratio 1.49) and regional level, was found. High volume hospitals (≥105 DM discharges at year) showed better outcomes. High variability was also found in PQI indicators al regional level. CONCLUSION: The present analysis shows an improvement in hospitalizations related to DM in Spain in the period 2007-2015. There was also a decrease in the frequentation rate and in the average length of stay. These findings are probably explained by quality improvements in the healthcare management of the DM at the ambulatory level. However, there were important differences in the management of diabetic inpatients both at the hospital and the regional level.

12.
Brain Connect ; 9(8): 594-603, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244329

RESUMO

The prognostic capacity of the diffusion tensor imaging measures fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) was assessed in 135 MCI patients and 72 healthy subjects over a median follow-up of 40 months. Forty-nine MCI patients (36.3%) developed AD. The factors MD left hippocampus, FA left cingulate, and FA left hippocampus emerged as predictors of progression. Age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21), delayed text recall (HR 0.89), FA left uncinate (HR 1.90), FA left hippocampus (HR 2.21), and carrying at least one ApoE4 allele (HR 2.86) were associated with a high conversion rate. FA measures revealed the greatest discriminative capacity (Harrell's C = 0.73 versus 0.65 without FA; p = 0.034). The inclusion of FA structural connectivity data in our model improved discrimination between subjects with MCI progressing or not to dementia.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216877, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120940

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtr) and Body Shape Index (ABSI) with high cardiovascular risk (CVR), as well as to determine whether how strong are these relationships. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Spanish Caucasian adults. 3,456 subjects completed the study, 45.78% males, aged < 65 years and non-diabetic subjects. Anthropometric/biochemical variables were measured. We determined ABSI based on WC adjusted for height and weight. High CVR was defined as ≥ 20% according to the Framingham chart, ≥ 5% with the SCORE chart, and ≥ 7.5% with the ACC/AHA guide. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were estimated for each anthropometric measure. RESULTS: Most significant AUCs in males were: WHtr and ABSI for Framingham ≥ 20% and SCORE ≥ 5%. Also significant were WHtr, WC and ABSI for ACCA/AHA ≥ 7.5%. On the other hand, most significant AUCs in females were: WHtr and WC for Framingham ≥ 20%; and WHtr and WHR for SCORE ≥ 5%, WHtr, and WC for ACC/AHA guide ≥ 7.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the best anthropometric index identifying Spanish males and females who are at high risk for CV events is WHtr. ABSI was also found to be a good anthropometric index to predict high CVR in Spanish males according to FR, SCORE and ACC/AHA charts. For Spanish females, WC is a good anthropometric index according to FR and ACC/AHA guide, while WHR is better according to SCORE.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
14.
Adv Nutr ; 10(suppl_2): S105-S119, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089731

RESUMO

Nutrition is a modifiable factor potentially related to aging. Milk and other dairy products may contribute to the prevention of physical and cognitive impairment. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of dairy product intake for preventing cognitive decline, sarcopenia, and frailty in the elderly population. A systematic search for publications in electronic databases [MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews] from 2009 to 2018 identified observational and interventional studies in English and Spanish that tested the relation between dairy product consumption and cognitive decline, sarcopenia, and frailty in community-dwelling older people. We assessed the participants, the type of exposure or intervention, the outcomes, and the quality of evidence. We screened a total of 661 records and included 6 studies (5 observational prospective cohort studies and 1 randomized controlled trial). Regarding cognitive impairment, the relation cannot be firmly established. Consumption of milk at midlife may be negatively associated with verbal memory performance. In older women, high intakes of dairy desserts and ice cream were associated with cognitive decline. On the other hand, 1 study demonstrated a significant inverse relation between dairy intake and development of Alzheimer disease among older Japanese subjects. The consumption of dairy products by older people may reduce the risk of frailty, especially with high consumption of low-fat milk and yogurt, and may also reduce the risk of sarcopenia by improving skeletal muscle mass through the addition of nutrient-rich dairy proteins (ricotta cheese) to the habitual diet. Despite the scarcity of evidence on the topic, our systematic review shows that there are some positive effects of dairy products on frailty and sarcopenia, whereas studies concerning cognitive decline have contradictory findings.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Laticínios , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Animais , Demência/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Leite , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/metabolismo
15.
Adv Nutr ; 10(suppl_2): S120-S143, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089740

RESUMO

Nutrition plays an important role in bone health. The aim of our study was to update the evidence regarding dairy intake, osteoporotic fracture (OF) risk, and prospective bone mass density (BMD) evolution assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Europeans and non-Hispanic whites from North America. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus for papers published from 1 January, 2000 to 30 April, 2018. The eligibility criteria were as follows: healthy adults; measurable dairy exposure; hip, vertebral, wrist or OF as outcomes; and cohort or case-control studies. Two independent investigators conducted the search and the data extraction. A pooled analysis was conducted with random-effects models. Publication bias and meta-regression were considered. Ten cohort studies relating to OF risk were selected for meta-analysis. Three papers reporting BMD changes associated with dairy intake could not be aggregated in the meta-analysis. The pooled HRs of the highest compared with the lowest levels of dairy intake were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.03; I2 = 82.9%; P-heterogeneity < 0.001) for OF at any site; 0.87 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.01; I2 = 86.7%; P-heterogeneity < 0.001) for hip fractures; and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.99; I2 = 0.0%; P-heterogeneity = 0.512) for vertebral fractures. Concerning BMD, the selected studies described a 1.7-3% lower hip BMD in young and postmenopausal women with poor intake of milk in their youth, a positive relationship between baseline milk ingestion and the percentage of trochanter BMD change in elderly people, and a positive correlation between milk consumption and BMD change at the radius in women aged >65 y. In conclusion, in the studied population, the highest consumption of dairy products did not show a clear association with the total OF or hip fracture risks; however, a diminished risk of vertebral fracture could be described. The results regarding BMD change were heterogeneous and did not allow for a definitive conclusion.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Laticínios , Dieta , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Comportamento Alimentar , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/lesões , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , América do Norte , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Intern Med ; 65: 69-77, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence and impact of risk of malnutrition on short-term mortality among seniors presenting with acute heart failure (AHF) in emergency setting. The objective was to determine the impact of risk of malnutrition on 30-day mortality risk among older patients who attended in Emergency Departments (EDs) for AHF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the OAK-3 Registry including all consecutive patients ≥65 years attending in 16 Spanish EDs for AHF. Risk of malnutrition was defined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) < 12 points. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 749 patients (mean age: 85 (SD 6); 55.8% females). Risk of malnutrition was observed in 594 (79.3%) patients. The rate of 30-day mortality was 8.8%. After adjusting for MEESSI-AHF risk score clinical categories (model 1) and after adding all variables showing a significantly different distribution among groups (model 2), the risk of malnutrition was an independent factor associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted OR by model 1 = 3.4; 95%CI 1.2-9.7; p = .020 and adjusted OR by model 2 = 3.1; 95%CI 1.1-9.0; p = .033) compared to normal nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of malnutrition assessed by the MNA-SF is associated with 30-day mortality in older patients with AHF who were attended in EDs. Routine screening of risk of malnutrition may help emergency physicians in decision-making and establishing a care plan.

17.
Acta Paediatr ; 108(10): 1793-1800, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002411

RESUMO

AIM: We describe the postnatal weight gain, linear and head growth trends of surviving preterm infants from 2005 to 2017. METHODS: Multicentre cohort study, including surviving preterm infants <32 weeks (n = 21 084), from the Spanish Neonatal Network database, without major congenital malformations who were less than 50 weeks postmenstrual age at discharge. Outcomes were weight gain (g/kg/day), linear and head growth (cm/week) and changes in weight, length and head circumference z-scores from birth to discharge. The study period was divided into 2005-8, 2009-11, 2012-14 and 2015-17. RESULTS: Weight gain, linear growth and head growth were slightly higher in 2015-2017 than in 2005-2008: 12.2 ± 2.6 to 13.1 ± 2.5 g/kg/day, 0.98 ± 0.6 to 1.03 ± 0.6 cm/week and 0.76 ± 0.2 to 0.77 ± 0.3 cm/week, respectively. It was associated with a decreased fall in weigh, length and head circumference z-scores from birth to discharge (-1.32 ± 0.9 to -1.01 ± 0.84, -1.38 ± 1.2 to -1.18 ± 1.2 and -0.41 ± 1.2 to -0.33 ± 1.3, respectively). CONCLUSION: Postnatal growth restriction remained a common complication of prematurity despite some increment over the last years. Growth disproportionality seemed to be worsening as weight gain was increased more than linear growth.

18.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 72(12): 998-1004, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930253

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Heart failure (HF) is a major health care problem in Spain. Epidemiological data from hospitalized patients are scarce and the association between hospital characteristics and patient outcomes is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with in-hospital mortality and readmissions and to analyze the relationship between hospital characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of discharges with HF as the principal diagnosis at hospitals of the Spanish National Health System in 2012 was performed using the Minimum Basic Data Set. We calculated risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMR) at the index episode and risk-standardized cardiac diseases readmissions rates (RSRR) and in-hospital mortality at 30 days and 1 year after discharge by using a multivariate mixed model. RESULTS: We included 77 652 HF patients. Mean age was 79.2±9.9 years and 55.3% were women. In-hospital mortality during the index episode was 9.2%, rising to 14.5% throughout the year of follow-up. The 1-year cardiovascular readmissions rate was 32.6%. RSMR were lower among patients discharged from high-volume hospitals (> 340 HF discharges) (in-hospital RSMR, 10.3±5.6%; 8.6±2.2%); P <.001). High-volume hospitals had higher 1-year RSRR (32.3±3.7%; 33.7±4.5%; P=.006). The availability of a cardiology department at the hospital was associated with better outcomes (in-hospital RSMR, 9.9±3.8%; 9.2±2.4%; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: High-volume hospitals and the availability of a cardiology department were associated with lower in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
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