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1.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 41(2): 214-228, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279292

RESUMO

This review provides an updated approach to the diagnosis and management of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). The importance of using a multidisciplinary discussion to increase diagnostic and treatment confidence is emphasized. The role of Bayesian reasoning is highlighted throughout, underscoring the importance of hypothesis generation (differential diagnosis) and diagnostic test interpretation based on the probability of HP. Probability estimates of diagnostic certainty (i.e., a confident versus a working diagnosis) and treatment thresholds are carefully examined.Therapeutically, beyond antigen avoidance and newly available antifibrotic therapy for patients with a progressive fibrosing phenotype; the role, timing, and expected response to anti-inflammatory therapy in individual patients are unanswered questions. Since the evidence and validation of testing generally performed during the diagnostic work-up and longitudinal monitoring of HP is feeble at best, the viewpoints discussed are not intended to resolve current controversies but rather to provide a conceptual framework for evaluating discordant information when evaluating and caring for patients with HP.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(1): 25-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted glycoprotein that has a central role in the process of fibrosis. This study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pamrevlumab (FG-3019), a fully recombinant human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The aim was to establish whether pamrevlumab could slow, stop, or reverse progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: The phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled PRAISE trial was done at 39 medical centres in seven countries (Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, and the USA). Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) of 55% or greater were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) by use of interactive responsive technology to intravenous infusion of pamrevlumab 30 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks over 48 weeks (16 infusions). The primary efficacy outcome was change from baseline in percentage of predicted FVC at week 48. Disease progression (defined as a decline from baseline in percentage of predicted FVC of ≥10%, or death) at week 48 was a key secondary efficacy outcome. All patients in the pamrevlumab group received at least one dose of the study drug and were analysed for safety. Two patients in the placebo group were excluded from the intention-to-treat population for the efficacy analyses because of enrolment error. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01890265. FINDINGS: Between Aug 17, 2013, and July 21, 2017, 103 patients were randomly assigned (50 to pamrevlumab and 53 to placebo). Pamrevlumab reduced the decline in percentage of predicted FVC by 60·3% at week 48 (mean change from baseline -2·9% with pamrevlumab vs -7·2% with placebo; between-group difference 4·3% [95% CI 0·4-8·3]; p=0·033). The proportion of patients with disease progression was lower in the pamrevlumab group than in the placebo group at week 48 (10·0% vs 31·4%; p=0·013). Pamrevlumab was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to that of placebo. Treatment-emergent serious adverse events were observed in 12 (24%) patients in the pamrevlumab group and eight (15%) in the placebo group, with three patients on pamrevlumab and seven on placebo discontinuing treatment. Of the three (6%) deaths in the pamrevlumab group and six (11%) in the placebo group, none was considered treatment related. INTERPRETATION: Pamrevlumab attenuated progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and was well tolerated. Now in phase 3 development, pamrevlumab shows promise as a novel, safe, and effective treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. FUNDING: FibroGen.

3.
Chest ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unknown. Because it shares genetic, histopathologic, and radiographic features with the fibrosing interstitial lung disease seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the goal of this study was to investigate RA-related autoantibodies in IPF. METHODS: The study included patients with IPF from two separate cohorts at National Jewish Health and Brigham Women's Hospital (n = 181), general population control subjects (n = 160), and control subjects with disease (n = 86 [40 with RA-usual interstitial pneumonia and 46 with hypersensitivity pneumonitis]). Serum was tested for RA-associated antibodies (including IgG and IgA) to citrullinated protein antigens (ACPA). Lung tissue in 11 patients with IPF was examined for ectopic lymphoid aggregates. RESULTS: An increased prevalence of ACPA positivity was found in two separate IPF cohorts. In particular, positivity for IgA-ACPA was increased in these two IPF cohorts compared with general population control subjects (21.3% and 24.8% vs 5.6%; P < .01). Patients with IPF were more likely to be IgA-ACPA-positive than IgG-ACPA-positive (23.2% vs 8.3%; P < .01), whereas patients with RA were more likely to be IgG-ACPA-positive than IgA-ACPA-positive (72.5% vs 52.5%; P = .04). There was a strong correlation between IgA-ACPA level and the number of ectopic lymphoid aggregates on lung histologic examination in IPF (r = 0.72; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, IgA-ACPA was elevated in patients with IPF and correlated with lymphoid aggregates in the lung, supporting the theory that IgA-ACPA may play a role in lung disease pathogenesis in a subset of individuals with IPF. Future studies are needed to determine whether this subset of ACPA-positive patients with IPF is distinct from patients with IPF but without antibodies.

10.
Eur Respir Rev ; 27(150)2018 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578336

RESUMO

The availability of epidemiological data relating to interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) has increased over recent years, but information on the prevalence and incidence of ILDs of different aetiologies remains limited. Despite global distribution, the proportion of patients who develop a progressive phenotype across different ILDs is not well known. Disease behaviour is well documented in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis but idiosyncratic in other ILDs that may present a progressive fibrosing phenotype. Possible reasons may include the heterogeneous nature of the aetiology, the complexity of diagnosis (and subsequent documentation of cases) and the methods employed to retrospectively analyse patient databases. This review presents a broad overview of the epidemiological data available for ILDs that may present a progressive-fibrosing phenotype, collectively and stratified according to clinical classification. We also note where further data are needed in comparison to the well-studied IPF indication.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Pulmão , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
12.
ERJ Open Res ; 4(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479538

RESUMO

A successful initiative to improve best care practice in IPF supported by electronic medical record changes http://ow.ly/ORxi30hBEmy.

13.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(4): 460-469, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236517

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a complex lung disease resulting from repeated inhalation of a variety of antigens. Limited data exist regarding its epidemiology. OBJECTIVES: To describe the trends in the annual incidence and prevalence of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the United States. METHODS: We developed novel claims-based coding algorithms to identify hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis cases using the 2004 to 2013 MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental healthcare claims databases. Algorithm validity and reliability were assessed with clinical data from National Jewish Health. We calculated yearly cumulative incidence and prevalence overall and by age. For the subgroup with vital status, Kaplan-Meier methods were used to analyze survival stratified by evidence of fibrosis. RESULTS: We identified 7,498 cases that met our hypersensitivity pneumonitis definition over the 10-year study period, including 3,902 with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and 1,852 with fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. On the basis of the clinical-radiological adjudication of the validation sample, 38 cases (95%) were confirmed as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The mean age was 52 years, and 58% were women. The 1-year prevalence rates for hypersensitivity pneumonitis ranged from 1.67 to 2.71 per 100,000 persons, and 1-year cumulative incidence rates ranged from 1.28 to 1.94 per 100,000 persons. The prevalence increased with age, ranging from 0.95 per 100,000 among 0- to 9-year-olds to 11.2 per 100,000 among those aged 65 years and older. Between 56 and 68% of hypersensitivity pneumonitis cases in each year were classified as chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (prevalence, 0.91-1.70 per 100,000 persons; cumulative incidence, 0.63-1.08 per 100,000 persons). Fewer had fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (prevalence, 0.41-0.80 per 100,000 persons; cumulative incidence: 0.29-0.43 per 100,000 persons). Most cases (74%) were classified as unspecified hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Older age, male sex, and fibrosis were associated with higher mortality rates in unadjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Using U.S. administrative claims-based data, we developed an algorithm with a high sensitivity and specificity for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Between 2004 and 2013, hypersensitivity pneumonitis was more common among women and those older than 65 years. Most cases were classified as chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Approximately one-fourth met our criteria for fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, which was associated with a higher mortality rate.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/classificação , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
ERJ Open Res ; 3(3)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845429

RESUMO

In chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP), lack of improvement or declining lung function may prompt use of immunosuppressive therapy. We hypothesised that use of azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil with prednisone reduces adverse events and lung function decline, and improves transplant-free survival. Patients with CHP were identified. Demographic features, pulmonary function tests, incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and transplant-free survival were characterised, compared and analysed between patients stratified by immunosuppressive therapy. A multicentre comparison was performed across four independent tertiary medical centres. Among 131 CHP patients at the University of Chicago medical centre (Chicago, IL, USA), 93 (71%) received immunosuppressive therapy, and had worse baseline forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity, and increased mortality compared with those who did not. Compared to patients treated with prednisone alone, TEAEs were 54% less frequent with azathioprine therapy (p=0.04) and 66% less frequent with mycophenolate mofetil (p=0.002). FVC decline and survival were similar between treatment groups. Analyses of datasets from four external tertiary medical centres confirmed these findings. CHP patients who did not receive immunosuppressive therapy had better survival than those who did. Use of mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine was associated with a decreased incidence of TEAEs, and no difference in lung function decline or survival when compared with prednisone alone. Early transition to mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine may be an appropriate therapeutic approach in CHP, but more studies are needed.

16.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 14(10): 1533-1538, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513215

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Significant heterogeneity of computed tomography (CT) presentation exists within chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). There are limited data aimed at delineating the prognostic value of specific CT features, distribution, and patterns in chronic HP. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the presence of CT mosaic attenuation (MA) and air trapping (AT), and the distribution or patterns of fibrosis impact survival in subjects with chronic HP. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 110 consecutively enrolled, well-characterized, biopsy-proven adult subjects with chronic HP between 1982 and 2015 from the National Jewish Health interstitial lung disease research database. The first available CT scan of diagnostic quality from each subject was formally evaluated for specific CT findings associated with chronic HP and for overall CT pattern. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent predictors in time-to-death analysis, and bootstrap analysis was performed for internal model validation. RESULTS: Fibrotic HP (65%; 72/110) was most often peripheral in the axial plane and lower lung preponderant. The distribution of lung disease in those without fibrosis was most often axially and zonally diffuse. There was no association between survival and CT distribution or CT pattern in the whole cohort or within the fibrotic subset of subjects. After multivariate adjustment, AT/MA was independently associated with survival in the whole cohort (HR = 0.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.07-0.97). Results were similar after restricting the analyses to fibrotic HP cases. CONCLUSIONS: Among subjects with chronic HP, the presence of CT AT/MA may identify subjects with better prognosis.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico por imagem , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/mortalidade , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Colorado/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Respir Med ; 126: 100-104, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28427540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Interstitial lung disease is a common extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA-ILD) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, limited data exist regarding predictors of mortality. We sought to examine the prognostic value of the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) patterns in patients with RA-ILD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RA-ILD patients with HRCT patterns of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) were identified among a longitudinal cohort of individuals evaluated at National Jewish Health. A total of 158 subjects were included in the study. For each subject, the earliest available HRCT was reviewed independently by two expert thoracic radiologists blinded to clinical data. HRCT patterns were classified as demonstrating definite UIP, possible UIP, or NSIP. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated and survival was compared among the three patterns using a log rank test for trend. RESULTS: One hundred subjects (63%) had HRCT findings classified as definite UIP, 23 (15%) as possible UIP and 35 (22%) as NSIP. No difference in survival was seen between subjects with definite UIP versus those with possible UIP. The combined group of subjects with either definite- or possible UIP had significantly worse survival than those with NSIP (log-rank p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with RA-ILD, patients with either definite UIP or possible UIP have equally poor survival when compared to those with an NSIP pattern.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Fator Reumatoide , Fumar/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Capacidade Vital
18.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 37(3): 441-56, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27231866

RESUMO

Eosinophils play a key role in orchestrating the complex clinicopathological pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease features in patients with eosinophilic syndromes. Eosinophilic pulmonary syndromes consist of a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the presence of peripheral blood eosinophilia and/or eosinophilic-related pulmonary impairment. These disorders can present with varying degrees of organ involvement, and while their presentation may be similar, it is important to define the disease state, as management and prognosis differ. In this article, we discuss acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonias, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and the hypereosinophilic syndromes. The mainstay of therapy for these disorders has been corticosteroids; however, recent and ongoing studies have provided strong grounds for optimism for specific targeted treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Granulomatose com Poliangiite/diagnóstico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/terapia , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/terapia , Eosinofilia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia Pulmonar/terapia , Humanos
19.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 13(7): 1042-9, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27064856

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). While GLILD is among the most serious noninfectious pulmonary complications of CVID, risk factors for this condition have not been reported. OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical, physiologic, and serologic risk factors for GLILD in adults with CVID. METHODS: Of 345 consecutive adult patients with CVID, we identified 34 in the National Jewish Health research database who had a radiographic-pathologic diagnosis of GLILD evaluated between 2002 and 2014. Each case was age and sex matched to 52 CVID control subjects. We used logistic regression to determine independent predictors of GLILD. A mixed effects model was used to estimate the longitudinal change in percent predicted FVC. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The mean time from CVID diagnosis to GLILD detection was 7.8 years. Compared with matched control subjects, cases were more likely to have a history of autoimmune cytopenia, hypersplenism, polyarthritis, lower marginal zone and switched memory B cells, and restrictive lung function. Multivariate analysis revealed that hypersplenism (odds ratio [OR], 24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5-179.1), polyarthritis (OR, 19; 95% CI, 2.3-206.8), and percent predicted FVC (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98) were independently associated with the development of GLILD. The rate of change of percent predicted FVC (slope, P = 0.48) did not vary significantly in patients with GLILD over a mean follow-up of 7 years after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Hypersplenism and polyarthritis are strong risk factors for GLILD in patients with CVID. Percent predicted FVC remained stable over time in patients with GLILD.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Granuloma/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Artrite/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperesplenismo/complicações , Leucopenia/complicações , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Radiografia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
20.
Eur Respir J ; 47(2): 588-96, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26585429

RESUMO

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common pulmonary manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. There is lack of clarity around predictors of mortality and disease behaviour over time in these patients.We identified rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients evaluated at National Jewish Health (Denver, CO, USA) from 1995 to 2013 whose baseline high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans showed either a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) or a "definite" or "possible" usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. We used univariate, multivariate and longitudinal analytical methods to identify clinical predictors of mortality and to model disease behaviour over time.The cohort included 137 subjects; 108 had UIP on HRCT (RA-UIP) and 29 had NSIP on HRCT (RA-NSIP). Those with RA-UIP had a shorter survival time than those with RA-NSIP (log rank p=0.02). In a model controlling for age, sex, smoking and HRCT pattern, a lower baseline % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC % pred) (HR 1.46; p<0.0001) and a 10% decline in FVC % pred from baseline to any time during follow up (HR 2.57; p<0.0001) were independently associated with an increased risk of death.Data from this study suggest that in RA-ILD, disease progression and survival differ between subgroups defined by HRCT pattern; however, when controlling for potentially influential variables, pulmonary physiology, but not HRCT pattern, independently predicts mortality.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Capacidade Vital
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