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2.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218720, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impairments in social cognition have been described in several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Given the importance of the relationship between social cognition and functioning and quality of life in these disorders, there is a growing interest in social cognition remediation interventions. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic mapping review to describe the state of the art in social cognition training and remediation interventions. METHODS: Publications from 2006 to 2016 on social cognition interventions were reviewed in four databases: Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed and Embase. From the initial result set of 3229 publications, a final total of 241 publications were selected. RESULTS: The study revealed an increasing interest in social cognition remediation interventions, especially in the fields of psychiatry and psychology, with a gradual growth in the number of publications. These were frequently published in high impact factor journals and underpinned by robust scientific evidence. Most studies were conducted on schizophrenia, followed by autism spectrum disorders. Theory of mind and emotional processing were the focus of most interventions, whilst a limited number of studies addressed attributional bias and social perception. Targeted interventions in social cognition were the most frequent practice in the selected papers, followed by non-specific treatment interventions and broad-based interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Research in social cognition remediation interventions is growing. Further studies are needed on attributional bias and social perception remediation programs, while the comparative efficacy of different interventions also remains unclear.

3.
Front Neuroinform ; 13: 40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214006

RESUMO

Distress is a critical problem in developed societies given its long-term negative effects on physical and mental health. The interest in studying this emotion has notably increased during last years, being electroencephalography (EEG) signals preferred over other physiological variables in this research field. In addition, the non-stationary nature of brain dynamics has impulsed the use of non-linear metrics, such as symbolic entropies in brain signal analysis. Thus, the influence of time-lag on brain patterns assessment has not been tested. Hence, in the present study two permutation entropies denominated Delayed Permutation Entropy and Permutation Min-Entropy have been computed for the first time at different time-lags to discern between emotional states of calmness and distress from EEG signals. Moreover, a number of curve-related features were also calculated to assess brain dynamics across different temporal intervals. Complementary information among these variables was studied through sequential forward selection and 10-fold cross-validation approaches. According to the results obtained, the multi-lag entropy analysis has been able to reveal new significant insights so far undiscovered, thus notably improving the process of distress recognition from EEG recordings.

4.
Metas enferm ; 22(5): 14-20, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183566

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar los conocimientos, experiencias y necesidades formativas percibidas sobre la mutilación genital femenina (MGF) en el estudiantado de Enfermería y los profesionales de la salud, así como las posibles diferencias entre ambos grupos poblacionales. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal en profesionales sanitarios y estudiantes de Enfermería de cualquier ámbito de la salud en el territorio español. Se utilizó un cuestionario autoadministrado y semiestructurado que recogía variables sociodemográficas y de conocimientos, experiencias y necesidades formativas entorno a la MGF. Se administró entre marzo y junio de 2018. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y Chi cuadrado. Se calcularon intervalos de confianza al 95% de seguridad (IC95%). Resultados: se incluyeron 434 participantes. El 1,6% de la muestra ha presenciado algún caso de MGF durante su ejercicio profesional, existiendo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupos (p< 0,01), siendo otros profesionales sanitarios el grupo con valores más altos (14,8%, n= 4). En todos los grupos, más del 80% de los sujetos afirmó tener conocimientos sobre la MGF, aunque este porcentaje disminuyó cuando se preguntó por las diferentes prácticas que engloba, siendo a veces definida solo como el procedimiento de escisión de clítoris. Más del 80% de los participantes negaron conocer la existencia de protocolos y afirmaron tener pocos conocimientos sobre el tema (> 90%). No existen diferencias entre los diferentes grupos. Conclusiones: la formación y experiencias del estudiantado de Enfermería y diferentes profesionales sanitarios sobre la MGF son mínimas, y demandan más información/formación sobre este tema


Objective: to identify the awareness, experiences and training needs perceived about female genital mutilation (FGM) among Nursing students and healthcare professionals, as well as any potential differences between both population groups. Method: a cross-sectional descriptive study among healthcare professionals and Nursing students in any healthcare setting in the Spanish territory. A self-administered and semi-structured questionnaire was used, collecting sociodemographical variables, as well as awareness, experiences and training needs around FGM. This questionnaire was applied between March and June, 2018; descriptive statistics and Square chi were used. Confidence intervals were estimated at 95% (CI95%). Results: the study included 434 participants; 1.6% of the sample had witnessed some case of FGM during their professional activity, and there were statistically significant differences between groups (p< 0.01): other healthcare professionals were the group with the highest values (14.8%, n= 4). In all groups, >80% of participants stated that they had knowledge about FGM, though this proportion was reduced when asked about the different practices included, and it was sometimes defined only as the clitoris excision procedure. Over 80% of participants said that they were not aware of any existing protocols, and had limited knowledge about the matter (> 90%). There were no differences between the different groups. Conclusions: nursing students and different healthcare professionals have minimal training and experiences around FGM, and they demand more information / training on this matter


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Circuncisão Feminina , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Transversais
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(4): e11824, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital technology and social networks are part of everyday life in the current internet age, especially among young people. To date, few studies have been published worldwide on the pattern of use of digital technology devices and applications in patients with early-stage schizophrenia and even fewer comparing them with healthy participants (not using data from general population surveys) from the same demographic areas. In Spain, no such study has been carried out. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze how patients with early-stage schizophrenia use internet and social networks compared with healthy participants matched by age and gender and also to examine which devices are utilized to access internet resources. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multicentric study was carried out through a semistructured interview asking about the use of digital technology devices and internet. The sample comprised 90 patients and 90 healthy participants. The semistructured interview was conducted on 30 outpatients and 30 healthy subjects in each of the 3 different cities (Madrid, Alicante, and Cuenca). Student t test was used for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. In the case of ordinal variables, nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests for independent samples were performed to compare groups. RESULTS: The results indicated that a large proportion of patients with early-stage schizophrenia have access to different digital devices and use them frequently. In addition, both groups coincide in the order of preference and the purpose for which they use the devices. However, a lower frequency of use of most digital technology devices was detected in patients compared with healthy participants. In the case of some devices, this was due to the impossibility of access and not a lack of interest. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze patterns of internet access and use of digital technology devices and applications in Spanish patients with early-stage schizophrenia compared with healthy participants from the same demographic areas. The results on significant access and use of digital technology and internet shown in this cross-sectional study will allow enhanced and more efficient treatment strategies to be planned, utilizing digital technology devices, for patients with early-stage schizophrenia.

6.
Int J Neural Syst ; 29(2): 1850038, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375254

RESUMO

Automatic identification of negative stress is an unresolved challenge that has received great attention in the last few years. Many studies have analyzed electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings to gain new insights about how the brain reacts to both short- and long-term stressful stimuli. Although most of them have only considered linear methods, the heterogeneity and complexity of the brain has recently motivated an increasing use of nonlinear metrics. Nonetheless, brain dynamics reflected in EEG recordings often exhibit a multiscale nature and no study dealing with this aspect has been developed yet. Hence, in this work two nonlinear indices for quantifying regularity and predictability of time series from several time scales are studied for the first time to discern between visually elicited emotional states of calmness and negative stress. The obtained results have revealed the maximum discriminant ability of 86.35% for the second time scale, thus suggesting that brain dynamics triggered by negative stress can be more clearly assessed after removal of some fast temporal oscillations. Moreover, both metrics have also been able to report complementary information for some brain areas.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Entropia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Percepção Social
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 270: 57-67, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245378

RESUMO

Social cognition is an important research field in psychiatry due to its relevance in the functioning and quality of life of patients. The objective of this work is to conduct a systematic mapping review of pharmacological strategies for improving social cognition deficits. Publications from 2006 to 2016 were reviewed in Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Embase. From the initial 1059 publications obtained, a final number of 110 were selected. The results show an increasing interest in pharmacological approaches in different medical fields (especially psychiatry, pharmacology, and endocrinology, with schizophrenia and autism as the most studied disorders), as can be observed in the progressive increase in the number of publications, the high degree of scientific evidence, and the high impact factor of publications. However, it is also observed that most studies were conducted with oxytocin, psychostimulants, and antipsychotics (mainly risperidone and olanzapine), with few studies using other drugs. In the different social cognition domains, the majority of publications were focused on emotional processing or theory of mind, with few studies in other domains. Thus, this systematic mapping review shows that, even though there are increasing research activities, there are some important gaps to cover in future investigation.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Percepção Social , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/complicações
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(5)2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751584

RESUMO

Many researchers have explored the relationship between recurrent neural networks and finite state machines. Finite state machines constitute the best-characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The neurally-inspired lateral inhibition method, and its application to motion detection tasks, have been successfully implemented in recent years. In this paper, control knowledge of the algorithmic lateral inhibition (ALI) method is described and applied by means of finite state machines, in which the state space is constituted from the set of distinguishable cases of accumulated charge in a local memory. The article describes an ALI implementation for a motion detection task. For the implementation, we have chosen to use one of the members of the 16-nm Kintex UltraScale+ family of Xilinx FPGAs. FPGAs provide the necessary accuracy, resolution, and precision to run neural algorithms alongside current sensor technologies. The results offered in this paper demonstrate that this implementation provides accurate object tracking performance on several datasets, obtaining a high F-score value (0.86) for the most complex sequence used. Moreover, it outperforms implementations of a complete ALI algorithm and a simplified version of the ALI algorithm—named “accumulative computation”—which was run about ten years ago, now reaching real-time processing times that were simply not achievable at that time for ALI.

9.
Int J Neural Syst ; 28(5): 1750054, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298521

RESUMO

For the sake of establishing the neural correlates of phrase quadrature perception in harmonic rhythm, a musical experiment has been designed to induce music-evoked stimuli related to one important aspect of harmonic rhythm, namely the phrase quadrature. Brain activity is translated to action through electroencephalography (EEG) by using a brain-computer interface. The power spectral value of each EEG channel is estimated to obtain how power variance distributes as a function of frequency. The results of processing the acquired signals are in line with previous studies that use different musical parameters to induce emotions. Indeed, our experiment shows statistical differences in theta and alpha bands between the fulfillment and break of phrase quadrature, an important cue of harmonic rhythm, in two classical sonatas.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Música , Adulto , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Periodicidade , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
11.
Front Neuroinform ; 11: 64, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209193

RESUMO

This perspective paper faces the future of alternative treatments that take advantage of a social and cognitive approach with regards to pharmacological therapy of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia. AVH are the perception of voices in the absence of auditory stimulation and represents a severe mental health symptom. Virtual/augmented reality (VR/AR) and brain computer interfaces (BCI) are technologies that are growing more and more in different medical and psychological applications. Our position is that their combined use in computer-based therapies offers still unforeseen possibilities for the treatment of physical and mental disabilities. This is why, the paper expects that researchers and clinicians undergo a pathway toward human-avatar symbiosis for AVH by taking full advantage of new technologies. This outlook supposes to address challenging issues in the understanding of non-pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia-related disorders and the exploitation of VR/AR and BCI to achieve a real human-avatar symbiosis.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(10)2017 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023403

RESUMO

This article introduces a new and unobtrusive wearable monitoring device based on electrodermal activity (EDA) to be used in health-related computing systems. This paper introduces the description of the wearable device capable of acquiring the EDA of a subject in order to detect his/her calm/distress condition from the acquired physiological signals. The lightweight wearable device is placed in the wrist of the subject to allow continuous physiological measurements. With the aim of validating the correct operation of the wearable EDA device, pictures from the International Affective Picture System are used in a control experiment involving fifty participants. The collected signals are processed, features are extracted and a statistical analysis is performed on the calm/distress condition classification. The results show that the wearable device solely based on EDA signal processing reports around 89% accuracy when distinguishing calm condition from distress condition.


Assuntos
Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Emoções , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
13.
Front Neuroinform ; 11: 29, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28496406

RESUMO

This paper introduces the neural correlates of phrase rhythm. In short, phrase rhythm is the rhythmic aspect of phrase construction and the relationships between phrases. For the sake of establishing the neural correlates, a musical experiment has been designed to induce music-evoked stimuli related to phrase rhythm. Brain activity is monitored through electroencephalography (EEG) by using a brain-computer interface. The power spectral value of each EEG channel is estimated to obtain how power variance distributes as a function of frequency. Our experiment shows statistical differences in theta and alpha bands in the phrase rhythm variations of two classical sonatas, one in bipartite form and the other in rondo form.

14.
J Biomed Inform ; 64: 55-73, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27678301

RESUMO

This paper introduces an architecture as a proof-of-concept for emotion detection and regulation in smart health environments. The aim of the proposal is to detect the patient's emotional state by analysing his/her physiological signals, facial expression and behaviour. Then, the system provides the best-tailored actions in the environment to regulate these emotions towards a positive mood when possible. The current state-of-the-art in emotion regulation through music and colour/light is implemented with the final goal of enhancing the quality of life and care of the subject. The paper describes the three main parts of the architecture, namely "Emotion Detection", "Emotion Regulation" and "Emotion Feedback Control". "Emotion Detection" works with the data captured from the patient, whereas "Emotion Regulation" offers him/her different musical pieces and colour/light settings. "Emotion Feedback Control" performs as a feedback control loop to assess the effect of emotion regulation over emotion detection. We are currently testing the overall architecture and the intervention in real environments to achieve our final goal.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Computação , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Cor , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Música , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Front Comput Neurosci ; 10: 80, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536232

RESUMO

This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension" (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), "Expressiveness" (Expressionless to Expressive), "Amusement" (Boring to Amusing) and "Attractiveness" (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are "Happiness," "Surprise," and "Sadness." This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 16(8)2016 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472338

RESUMO

This article presents the design of a novel decentralized nonlinear multivariate control scheme for an underactuated, nonlinear and multivariate laboratory helicopter denominated the twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS). The TRMS is characterized by a coupling effect between rotor dynamics and the body of the model, which is due to the action-reaction principle originated in the acceleration and deceleration of the motor-propeller groups. The proposed controller is composed of two nested loops that are utilized to achieve stabilization and precise trajectory tracking tasks for the controlled position of the generalized coordinates of the TRMS. The nonlinear internal loop is used to control the electrical dynamics of the platform, and the nonlinear external loop allows the platform to be perfectly stabilized and positioned in space. Finally, we illustrate the theoretical control developments with a set of experiments in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear decentralized feedback controller, in which a comparative study with other controllers is performed, illustrating the excellent performance of the proposed robust decentralized control scheme in both stabilization and trajectory tracking tasks.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 14(4): 6666-76, 2014 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24727500

RESUMO

This paper investigates the robustness of a new thermal-infrared pedestrian detection system under different outdoor environmental conditions. In first place the algorithm for pedestrian ROI extraction in thermal-infrared video based on both thermal and motion information is introduced. Then, the evaluation of the proposal is detailed after describing the complete thermal and motion information fusion. In this sense, the environment chosen for evaluation is described, and the twelve test sequences are specified. For each of the sequences captured from a forward-looking infrared FLIR A-320 camera, the paper explains the weather and light conditions under which it was captured. The results allow us to draw firm conclusions about the conditions under which it can be affirmed that it is efficient to use our thermal-infrared proposal to robustly extract human ROIs.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Raios Infravermelhos , Movimento (Física) , Termografia/métodos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2013: 935026, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24294142

RESUMO

Fall detection is an emergent problem in pattern recognition. In this paper, a novel approach which enables to identify a type of a fall and reconstruct its characteristics is presented. The features detected include the position previous to a fall, the direction and velocity of a fall, and the postfall inactivity. Video sequences containing a possible fall are analysed image by image using the lateral inhibition in accumulative computation method. With this aim, the region of interest of human figures is examined in each image, and geometrical and kinematic characteristics for the sequence are calculated. The approach is valid in colour and in infrared video.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Cor , Lógica Fuzzy , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Postura
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 9(12): 10044-65, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22303161

RESUMO

The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

20.
Neural Netw ; 16(2): 205-22, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12628607

RESUMO

A neural network model called lateral interaction in accumulative computation for detection of non-rigid objects from motion of any of their parts in indefinite sequences of images is presented. Some biological evidences inspire the model. After introducing the model, the complete multi-layer neural architecture is offered in this paper. The architecture consists of four layers that perform segmentation by gray level bands, accumulative charge computation, charge redistribution by gray level bands and moving object fusion. The lateral interaction in accumulative computation associated learning algorithm is also introduced. Some examples that explain the usefulness of the system we propose are shown at the end of this article.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Retratos como Assunto
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