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Harmful Algae ; 51: 1-9, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003057


The allelopathic effect of the raphidophyte Chattonella marina var. marina on the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum was determined. Both species are harmful algal bloom forming algae, produce toxic metabolites, and can co-exist in the environment. In general, raphidophytes tend to dominate over dinoflagellates, which may indicate an allelopathic effect of the former algae. Strains of C. marina var. marina and G. catenatum isolated from Bahía de La Paz were cultured in bi-algal cultures with and without cell contact. Additionally, cultures of G. catenatum were exposed to cell-free culture filtrates of the raphidophyte to test whether soluble allelopathic molecules are active. During late stationary phase, both species were cultivated in mixed cultures for 72h using the following cell abundance proportions: 20×103cellsL-1: 20×103cellsL-1 (1:1; G. catenatum: C. marina); 10×103cellsL-1: 20×103cellsL-1 (1:2), and 20×103cellsL-1: 10×103cellsL-1 (2:1). Cells of G. catenatum were also exposed to different volumes of cell filtrates of C. marina (10, 20, and 50mL) using the same cell abundance proportions for 24h. Samples were taken daily for cell counts and microscopic observations. Growth inhibition was higher when there was cell contact between both species, however mortality of G. catenatum was also observed without direct cell contact, indicating that toxic metabolites are liberated to the culture medium. Changes in cell morphology of G. catenatum occurred in the presence of cells and filtrates of C. marina, such as loss of flagella and motility, swelling, loss of girdle and sulci, prominent nucleus, rupture of cell membrane, and cell lysis. Induction of temporary cysts was also observed. These results suggest that toxic metabolites are liberated to the medium by C. marina, affecting G. catenatum by inhibiting its growth and causing changes in its life history, providing new insights of interactions between raphidophytes and dinoflagellates that could happen in the natural environment when both species are present.