Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 89
Filtrar
1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to test the fetal programming theoretical framework in nutritional epidemiology. We evaluated whether maternal seafood intake during pregnancy was associated with 8-year-old attention outcomes after adjusting for previous child seafood intake and cognitive function. We also explored effect modification by several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism. METHODS: Our final analyses included 1644 mother-child pairs from the prospective INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) cohort study (Spain, recruitment between 2003 and 2008). We used food frequency questionnaires to assess prenatal and postnatal seafood consumption of the mother-child pairs. We evaluated attention function of the children through the computer-based Attention Network Test (ANT) and we used the number of omission errors and the hit reaction time standard error (HRT-SE). Parents reported child attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale Short Form (CPRS-R: S). We measured seven candidate SNPs in a subsample of 845 children. We estimated associations using regression models, adjusting for family characteristics, child seafood intake and cognitive functions at early ages, and to explore SNP effect modifications. RESULTS: Higher total seafood intake during early pregnancy was associated with a reduction of child ANT omission errors, 5th quintile (median = 854 g/week) vs 1st quintile (median = 195 g/week), incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.76; 95% CI = 0.61, 0.94. Similar results were observed after adjusting the models for child seafood intake and previous cognitive status. Lean, large and small fatty fish showed similar results, and generally similar but less robust associations were observed with the other attention outcomes. Shellfish and canned tuna showed weaker associations. The association patterns were weaker in late pregnancy and null in child seafood consumption. Child rs1260326 (glucokinase regulator, GCKR) and child/maternal rs2281591 (fatty acid elongase 2, ELOVL2) polymorphisms showed nominal P-value for interactions <0.10 between total seafood intake and ANT outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for previous child cognitive functions and child seafood intake, high pregnancy consumption (total, lean, small and large fatty fish) was independently associated with improvements of some 8-year-old attention outcomes. Genetic effect modification analyses suggest PUFA intake from seafood as a potential biological mechanism of such association.

2.
Environ Int ; 131: 104927, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution exposure and emotional and behavioural problems in children is unclear. We aimed to assess prenatal and postnatal exposure to several air pollutants and child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in children of 7-11 years. METHODS: We analysed data of 13182 children from 8 European population-based birth cohorts. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤10 µm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and between 10 and 2.5 µm (PMcoarse), the absorbance of PM2.5 filters (PM2.5abs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated at residential addresses of each participant. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and aggressive symptoms were assessed at 7-11 years of age using parent reported tests. Children were classified in borderline/clinical range or clinical range using validated cut offs. Region specific models were adjusted for various socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics and then combined using random effect meta-analysis. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting methods were applied to correct for potential attrition bias. RESULTS: A total of 1896 (14.4%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range, and 1778 (13.4%) as having aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range. Overall, 1108 (8.4%) and 870 (6.6%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range, respectively. Prenatal exposure to air pollution was not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.02 [95%CI 0.95 to 1.10] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2) nor with aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.96 to 1.12] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2). Similar results were observed for the symptoms in the clinical range, and for postnatal exposures to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution is not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms or aggressive symptoms in children of 7 to 11 years old.

3.
Environ Res ; 174: 135-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075694

RESUMO

Early-life exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) may adversely impact health later in life. To date, evidence of iAs adverse effects on children's neurodevelopment comes mainly from populations highly exposed to contaminated water with conflicting results. Little is known about those effects among populations with low iAs exposure from food intake. We investigated the cross-sectional association between exposure to iAs and neurodevelopment scores among children living in Spain whose main route of exposure was diet. Arsenic species concentrations in urine from 400 children was determined, and the sum of urinary iAs, dimethylarsinic acid, and monomethylarsonic acid was used to estimate iAs exposure. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities was used to assess children's neuropsychological development at about 4-5 years of age. The median (interquartile range) of children's sum of urinary iAs, MMA, and DMA was 4.85 (2.74-7.54) µg/L, and in adjusted linear regression analyses the natural logarithm transformed concentrations showed an inverse association with children's motor functions (ß, [95% confidence interval]; global scores (-2.29, [-3.95, -0.63])), gross scores (-1.92, [-3.52, -0.31]) and fine scores (-1.54, [-3.06, -0.03]). In stratified analyses by sex, negative associations were observed with the scores in the quantitative index (-2.59, [-5.36, 0.17]) and working memory function (-2.56, [-5.36, 0.24]) only in boys. Our study suggests that relatively low iAs exposure may impair children's neuropsychological development and that sex-related differences may be present in susceptibility to iAs related effects; however, our findings should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding.

4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 661-673, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062119

RESUMO

There is scientific evidence on the protective effects of nut intake against cognitive decline in the elderly; however, this effect has been less explored in child neurodevelopment and no studies have explored the potential longitudinal association with nut intake during pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the association of maternal nut intake during pregnancy with child neuropsychological outcomes. We included 2208 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in four regions of Spain. The follow up settings were during pregnancy (first and third trimesters), birth, 1.5, 5 and 8 years. Neuropsychological examinations were based on Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1.5 years), McCarthy scales of Children's Abilities (5 year), Attention Network Test (ANT, 8 year) and N-Back test (8 year). Nut intake in pregnancy was reported through a validated food frequency questionnaire during the first and the third trimester. Multivariable regressions analyzed associations after controlling for priori selected confounders notably maternal education, social class, body mass index, energy intake, fish intake, omega-3 supplements, alcohol consumption and smoking habits during pregnancy. Children within the highest tertile of maternal nut consumption during first pregnancy trimester (> 32 g/week) had a decrease of 13.82 ms [95% confidence interval (CI) - 23.40, - 4.23] in the ANT-hit reaction time standard error, compared to the first tertile (median 0 g/w). A similar protective association pattern was observed with the other cognitive scores at the different child ages. After correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni familywise error rate (FWER), Hochberg FWER and Simes false discovery rate, ANT-hit reaction time standard error remained significant. Final model estimates by inverse probability weighting did not change results. Third pregnancy trimester nut intake showed weaker associations. These data indicate that nut intake during early pregnancy is associated with long-term child neuropsychological development. Future cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this association pattern in order to further extend nutrition guidelines among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Mães , Nozes , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
6.
J Pediatr ; 209: 204-211.e4, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether higher omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma is associated with more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 4 and 7 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: This study was based on a population-based birth cohort in Spain. N-6 arachidonic acid and n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were measured in cord plasma. At 4 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by teachers through the ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed checklist (n = 580). At 7 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by parents through the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised (short form; n = 642). The ADHD variable was treated as continuous (score) and as dichotomous (symptom diagnostic criteria). Child and family general characteristics were prospectively collected through questionnaires. We applied pooled zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regressions adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: A higher omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma was associated with a higher ADHD index (incidence rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.23) at 7 years old. The association was not observed at 4 years old (incidence rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.92-1.18). No associations were found using ADHD symptom diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: High prenatal omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio preceded the appearance of subclinical ADHD symptoms during mid-childhood. Our findings suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy may modulate the risk to develop long-term ADHD symptoms in the offspring.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

8.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(3): 432-440, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590402

RESUMO

DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) are abundant in regulatory elements, such as promoter, enhancer and transcription factor binding sites. Many studies have revealed that disease-associated variants were concentrated in DHS-related regions. However, limited studies are available on the roles of DHS-related variants in lung cancer. In this study, we performed a large-scale case-control study with 20 871 lung cancer cases and 15 971 controls to evaluate the associations between regulatory genetic variants in DHS and lung cancer susceptibility. The expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and pathway-enrichment analysis were performed to identify the possible target genes and pathways. In addition, we performed motif-based analysis to explore the lung-cancer-related motifs using sequence kernel association test. Two novel variants, rs186332 in 20q13.3 (C>T, odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10-1.24, P = 8.45 × 10-7) and rs4839323 in 1p13.2 (T>C, OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95, P = 1.02 × 10-6) showed significant association with lung cancer risk. The eQTL analysis suggested that these two SNPs might regulate the expression of MRGBP and SLC16A1, respectively. What's more, the expression of both MRGBP and SLC16A1 was aberrantly elevated in lung tumor tissues. The motif-based analysis identified 10 motifs related to the risk of lung cancer (P < 1.71 × 10-4). Our findings suggested that variants in DHS might modify lung cancer susceptibility through regulating the expression of surrounding genes. This study provided us a deeper insight into the roles of DHS-related genetic variants for lung cancer.

9.
Eur J Public Health ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462218

RESUMO

Background: The health of pregnant women and their fetuses are especially sensitive to socioeconomic conditions. This study analyzes the impact of maternal socioeconomic status (SES), evaluated by occupation and maternal education level, in preterm births (PTBs) and in small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, considering the effect of the potential mediating factors on the SES and birth outcomes. Methods: A total of 2497 mother/newborn dyads from the INMA-Spain project were studied. We examined maternal occupation and education in relation to PTB and SGA along with covariate data, using logistic regression analysis. Adjusted models for each of the outcome variables in relation to SES indicators were estimated, considering potential mediating factors. Results: About 4.7% of babies were PTB and 9.7% SGA. Full adjusted logistic regression models showed similar odds ratio (OR) for SGA in both SES indicators. Manual working women or without university studies had higher risk of SGA than their counterpart groups (OR = 1.39% CI = 1.03-1.88 and OR = 1.39% CI = 1.00-2.00, respectively). Likewise, mothers with a manual occupation were at more risk of PTB than those with a non-manual occupation (OR = 1.74 95% CI = 1.13-2.74), but there was no association between education and PTB. Smoking, pre-pregnancy BMI and underweight gain during pregnancy were significantly associated to SGA births. The mother's age, presence of complications and overweight gain during pregnancy were related to PTB. Conclusion: The mother's socioeconomic disadvantage was consistently associated with birth outcomes giving rise to intergenerational transmission of health inequalities. Reducing inequalities requires eliminating the upstream causes of poverty itself.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3927, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254314

RESUMO

Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.

11.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 90(2): 116-122, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD) is a measure of in utero exposure to hormonally active agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and AGD. METHODS: POP levels were measured in pregnant women, and the AGD was recorded in 43 offspring at 18 months. We used linear regression models to analyze the association between maternal POP exposure and offspring AGD. We defined the anogenital index (AGI) as AGD divided by weight at 18 months (AGI = AGD / weight at 18 months [mm/kg]) and included this variable in the regression models. RESULTS: AGI measure was 2.35 (0.61) and 1.38 (0.45) in males and females, respectively. AGI was inversely associated with lipid-adjusted concentrations of PBDE-99 (ß = -0.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.51, -0.04) and PBDE-153 (ß = -0.61, 95% CI: -1.11, -0.11) in males. We did not find any statistically significant relationship between any POPs and AGI in females. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental exposure to POPs may affect genital development and result in reproductive tract alterations with potentially relevant health consequences in maturity.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027417

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to understand the association between prenatal, newborn and postnatal head circumference (HC) and preschool neurodevelopment in a large population-based birth cohort. The INMA project followed 1795 children from 12 weeks of pregnancy to preschool years. HC measurements were carried out prospectively, and following a standardized protocol during pregnancy (12, 20 and 34 weeks), birth, and child ages of 1-1.5 and 4 years old; and z-scores were further estimated. Prenatal head growth was assessed using conditional z-scores between weeks 12-20 and 20-34. Several neuropsychological tests [MSCA (cognition), CPT (attention)] and behavioral rating scales [DSM-IV-ADHD, CAST (autism), CPSCS (social competence)] were carried out during the last follow-up (5 years old). Multivariable models adjusted for family and child characteristics were applied to analyze associations between HC and neurodevelopment. In fully adjusted models, prenatal HC and head growth showed little or no associations with the neurodevelopment outcomes. Independent associations were observed between HC z-scores at birth, 1-1.5 years and 4 years and MSCA global cognitive scores and DSM-IV inattention symptoms. Specifically, z-score at birth was positively associated with general cognitive scores [ß 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59, 1.85], and we observed a protective association with ADHD-DSM-IV total symptoms, mean ratio (MR) 0.85 (0.75, 0.96). Prenatal HC and head growth measurements gave little information about child cognitive abilities and behavior at preschool years. However, HC at birth and early childhood was positively associated with a range of neuropsychological outcomes, including protective associations with ADHD symptoms.

13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(3): 588-596, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. METHODS: Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. RESULTS: Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
14.
Matern Child Health J ; 22(5): 725-734, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349652

RESUMO

Objective The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with non-initiation and cessation of predominant breastfeeding (PBF) in a mother-child cohort from Spain. Materials and Methods The analysis included 2195 mother-infant from birth to 14 months post- delivery recruited between 2004 and 2008. Maternal characteristics were collected during the pregnancy. Lactation data were obtained at 6 and 14 months after delivery. PBF was defined as intake of breast milk plus liquids like juices or water. The PBF cessation was calculated using the date that women started PBF and the date that she reported to start giving infant formula and/or food. The relationship between maternal variables and PBF initiation and cessation was modeled using logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results The prevalence of PBF at hospital discharge was 85.3, 53.4% at 3 months, 46.1% at 4 months and 7.2% at 6 month. Only two women continued PBF at 12 months and none at 14 months. The initiating of PBF was associated with higher levels of maternal education, being a first-time mother and worked in a non-manual occupation. Higher level of physical activity, not smoking and having a healthy BMI, were also positively associated with PBF initiation. PBF cessation was higher in young, obese women, who had had complications during the pregnancy, and who had lower levels of education and smoked. The employment status of women, in week 32 of pregnancy and also in month 14 post-delivery, determined likelihood of PBF cessation. Conclusions Healthier habits and education positively influenced PBF initiation and duration. Decrease in PBF duration rates in Spain can be interpreted in part as a consequence of women returning to work.

15.
Environ Int ; 110: 113-122, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disinfection by-products (DBPs) constitute a complex mixture of prevalent chemicals in drinking water and there is evidence of neurotoxicity for some of them. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between estimates of DBP exposure during pregnancy and child neuropsychological outcomes at 1 and 4-5years of age. METHODS: We conducted a population-based mother-child cohort study in Spain with recruitment at first trimester of gestation (INMA Project, 2003-2008). Neuropsychological development was measured at 1year of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and at 4-5years with the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Modeled tap water concentrations of trihalomethanes (THM) were combined with personal ingestion, showering and bathing habits to estimate exposure as ingestion uptake, all route (showering, bathing, ingestion) uptake (µg/day) and crude levels (µg/l) in the residence. Chloroform, brominated THMs (bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform) and total THMs (chloroform and brominated THMs) were analysed separately. Nine haloacetic acids levels were available in one of the areas. Linear regression was used to estimate associations in 1855 subjects adjusting for covariables. RESULTS: The median concentration of total THMs, chloroform, brominated THMs, total haloacetic acids, dichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid were, respectively 30.3µg/L, 9.4µg/L, 11.6µg/L, 10.5µg/L, 2.7µg/L, and 3.1µg/L. The associations between THM exposure and neuropsychological outcomes were null, except for total and brominated THM uptake though all routes and the general cognitive score at 4-5years, with a decrease in -0.54 points (95%CI -1.03, -0.05) and -0.64 (95%CI -1.16, -0.12), respectively, for doubling total and brominated THM uptake. A positive association found between dichloroacetic acid and the mental score at 1year did not persist at 4-5years. CONCLUSIONS: Minor associations observed between DBP exposure during gestation and child neuropsychological development at 1year disappeared at 4-5years. Although a suggestive association is identified for exposure to brominated THMs and the cognitive score at 4-5years, chance cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Desinfetantes/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Gravidez , Espanha/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Environ Res ; 160: 97-106, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal mercury exposure has been related to reductions in anthropometry at birth. Levels of mercury have been reported as being relatively elevated in the Spanish population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to mercury and fetal growth. METHODS: Study subjects were pregnant women and their newborns (n:1867) participating in a population-based birth cohort study set up in four Spanish regions from the INMA Project. Biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were measured by ultrasounds at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of gestation. Size at and growth between these points were assessed by standard deviation (SD) scores adjusted for constitutional characteristics. Total mercury (T-Hg) was determined in cord blood. Associations were investigated by linear regression models, adjusted by sociodemographic, environmental, nutritional - including four seafood groups - and lifestyle-related variables in each sub-cohort. Final estimates were obtained using meta-analysis. Effect modification by sex, seafood intake and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153 concentration was assessed. RESULTS: Geometric mean of cord blood T-Hg was 8.2µg/L. All the estimates of the association between prenatal Hg and growth from 0 to 12 weeks showed reductions in SD-scores, which were only statistically significant for BPD. A doubling of cord blood T-Hg was associated with a 0.58% reduction in size of BPD at week 12 (95% confidence interval -CI-: - 1.10, - 0.07). Size at week 34 showed estimates suggestive of a small reduction in EFW, i.e., a doubling of T-Hg levels was associated with a reduction of 0.38% (95% CI: - 0.91, 0.15). An interaction between PCB153 and T-Hg was found, with statistically significant negative associations of T-Hg with AC and EFW in late pregnancy among participants with PCB153 below the median. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to mercury during pregnancy was associated with early reductions in BPD. Moreover, an antagonism with PCB 153 was observed with noteworthy reductions late in pregnancy in AC and EFW in the group with lower PCB153.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Res ; 161: 276-283, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We integratively assessed the effect of different indoor and outdoor environmental exposures early in life on respiratory and allergic health conditions among children from (sub-) urban areas. METHODS: This study included children participating in four ongoing European birth cohorts located in three different geographical regions: INMA (Spain), LISAplus (Germany), GINIplus (Germany) and BAMSE (Sweden). Wheezing, bronchitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis throughout childhood were assessed using parental-completed questionnaires. We designed "environmental scores" corresponding to different indoor, green- and grey-related exposures (main analysis, a-priori-approach). Cohort-specific associations between these environmental scores and the respiratory health outcomes were assessed using random-effects meta-analyses. In addition, a factor analysis was performed based on the same exposure information used to develop the environmental scores (confirmatory analysis, data-driven-approach). RESULTS: A higher early exposure to the indoor environmental score increased the risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the first year of life (combined adjusted odds ratio: 1.20 [95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.27] and 1.28 [1.18-1.39], respectively). In contrast, there was an inverse association with allergic rhinitis between 6 and 8 years (0.85 [0.79-0.92]). There were no statistically significant associations for the outdoor related environmental scores in relation to any of the health outcomes tested. The factor analysis conducted confirmed these trends. CONCLUSION: Although a higher exposure to indoor related exposure through occupants was associated with an increased risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the 1st year, it might serve as a preventive mechanism against later childhood allergic respiratory outcomes in urbanized environments through enhanced shared contact with microbial agents.

19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(9): 097016, 2017 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural environments, including green spaces, may have beneficial impacts on brain development. However, longitudinal evidence of an association between long-term exposure to green spaces and cognitive development (including attention) in children is limited. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between lifelong residential exposure to green space and attention during preschool and early primary school years. METHODS: This longitudinal study was based on data from two well-established population-based birth cohorts in Spain. We assessed lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness and tree cover as the average of satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index and vegetation continuous fields, respectively, surrounding the child's residential addresses at birth, 4-5 y, and 7 y. Attention was characterized using two computer-based tests: Conners' Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) at 4-5 y (n=888) and Attentional Network Task (ANT) at 7 y (n=987). We used adjusted mixed effects models with cohort random effects to estimate associations between exposure to greenness and attention at ages 4-5 and 7 y. RESULTS: Higher lifelong residential surrounding greenness was associated with fewer K-CPT omission errors and lower K-CPT hit reaction time-standard error (HRT-SE) at 4-5 y and lower ANT HRT-SE at 7 y, consistent with better attention. This exposure was not associated with K-CPT commission errors or with ANT omission or commission errors. Associations with residential surrounding tree cover also were close to the null, or were negative (for ANT HRT-SE) but not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Exposure to residential surrounding greenness was associated with better scores on tests of attention at 4-5 y and 7 y of age in our longitudinal cohort. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP694.


Assuntos
Atenção , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 109(9): 614-618, sept. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-165846

RESUMO

Introducción: Aparato Digestivo es una de las especialidades ofertadas a los opositores que acceden a la formación sanitaria especializada cada año. Este proyecto analiza los datos de elección de Aparato Digestivo en los últimos años. Material y métodos: los datos de la elección se han obtenido de la publicación oficial de los actos de asignación de plazas del Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. Se ha recabado información de los distintos centros docentes a través de sus guías formativas, el Catálogo Nacional de Hospitales y la Organización Nacional de Trasplantes. Resultados: la mediana de elección de número de orden para Aparato Digestivo ha descendido anualmente, situando la especialidad en 2015 entre las cinco más populares en la elección. La mediana de los hospitales con mayor número de camas, actividad de trasplante hepático en adultos y Unidad de Sangrantes es significativamente menor. Lo mismo sucede al analizar los centros en base a la presencia de guardias específicas de Aparato Digestivo para residentes o vinculación con facultades de Medicina. Los datos de los últimos cinco años sitúan a Madrid, Aragón y Euskadi como las comunidades autónomas más populares. Los centros con menor mediana de número de orden para el periodo 2011-2015 fueron los hospitales universitarios Ramón y Cajal, Santiago de Compostela y Gregorio Marañón. Conclusiones: Aparato Digestivo ha ido mejorando de manera progresiva en la elección de plazas de especialización hasta llegar a situarse entre las cinco más populares. Los electores se decantan por centros grandes, de mayor complejidad asistencial y elevada actividad investigadora (AU)


Introduction: Gastroenterology is one of the medical specialties offered to residency training candidates each year. This project analyzes the data associated with the choice of a Gastroenterology residency program in recent years. Material and methods: Data related to specialty selection were obtained from official reports with regard to the allocation of residency places by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. Information was collected from various teaching centers via their training guides, the Spanish National Catalogue of Hospitals and the National Transplant Organization. Results: The median consecutive number involved in the choice of Gastroenterology training has decreased year after year, and this specialty is now positioned among the five most commonly selected residency programs in 2015. The median number of hospitals with a higher number of beds, adult liver transplantation activities and dedicated GI bleeding units is significantly lower. This is also true when centers are analyzed according to the presence of specific Gastroenterology on-call shifts for residents or their association with medical schools. Data from the past five years highlight Madrid, Aragón and the Basque Country as the autonomous communities where Gastroenterology is the most popular. Centers selected by candidates with the lowest median consecutive numbers from 2011-2015 included the university hospitals Ramón y Cajal, Santiago de Compostela and Gregorio Marañón. Conclusions: Gastroenterology has gradually escalated in the ranking of residency choices and is now one of the five most popular options. Potential residents prefer larger centers with complex-care patients and more research activity (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gastroenterologia/educação , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Sistema Digestório , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Educação Médica/normas , Análise Estatística , Internato e Residência/métodos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/tendências
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA