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1.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(3): 204-210, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee contains many bioactive substances that can play a role on colorectal cancer. Epidemiological evidence of coffee intake and colorectal cancer is, however, inconsistent. AIM: To provide further information on the risk of colorectal cancer in relation to coffee consumption. METHODS: Data derive from two companion case-control studies conducted in Italy and Spain within the European Union Project on Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in Drinking Water and the Spanish Multi-Case Control study on Cancer. These included a total of 2289 incident cases with colorectal cancer and 3995 controls with information on coffee intake. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for study centre, sex, age, education, smoking, and other covariates. RESULTS: Compared with never coffee drinkers, the OR was 0.99 (95% CI 0.95-1.02) for total coffee consumption. There was no significant trend in risk with dose or duration, the ORs being 0.95 (95% CI 0.72-1.25) for an amount of five or more cups per day of coffee and 0.95 (95% CI 0.75-1.19) for a duration of consumption of 50 years or longer. The OR was 1.04 (95% CI 0.87-1.25) for two or more cups per day of decaffeinated coffee. There were no heterogeneity across strata of various covariates, as well as no apparent differences between various anatomical subsites. CONCLUSION: This large pooled analysis of two studies shows no association of coffee and decaffeinated coffee with colorectal cancer risk.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1537-1545, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743289

RESUMO

AIMS: To study whether the consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks is associated with breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers. METHODS: Multicentric population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain) conducted in 12 Spanish provinces. Participants were men and women between 20 and 85 years of age with diagnoses of colorectal (n = 1852), breast (n = 1486), or prostate cancer (n = 953), and population-based controls (n = 3543) frequency-matched by age, sex, and region. Dietary intake was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Foods and drinks were categorized according to their degree of processing based on the NOVA classification. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between ultra-processed food and drink consumption and colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. RESULTS: In multiple adjusted models, consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (OR for a 10% increase in consumption: 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.18). The corresponding odds for breast (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11) and prostate cancer (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.93-1.12) were indicative of no association. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this large population-based case-control study suggest an association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks and colorectal cancer. Food policy and public health should include a focus on food processing when formulating dietary guidelines.

3.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 58-65, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between Body-Mass-Index (BMI) and lung cancer prognosis is heterogeneous. We evaluated the impact of sex, smoking and race on the relationship between BMI and overall survival (OS) in non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Data from 16 individual ILCCO studies were pooled to assess interactions between BMI and the following factors on OS: self-reported race, smoking status and sex, using Cox models (adjusted hazard ratios; aHR) with interaction terms and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots in stratified analyses. RESULTS: Among 20,937 NSCLC patients with BMI values, females = 47 %; never-smokers = 14 %; White-patients = 76 %. BMI showed differential survival according to race whereby compared to normal-BMI patients, being underweight was associated with poor survival among white patients (OS, aHR = 1.66) but not among black patients (aHR = 1.06; pinteraction = 0.02). Comparing overweight/obese to normal weight patients, Black NSCLC patients who were overweight/obese also had relatively better OS (pinteraction = 0.06) when compared to White-patients. BMI was least associated with survival in Asian-patients and never-smokers. The outcomes of female ever-smokers at the extremes of BMI were associated with worse outcomes in both the underweight (pinteraction<0.001) and obese categories (pinteraction = 0.004) relative to the normal-BMI category, when compared to male ever-smokers. CONCLUSION: Underweight and obese female ever-smokers were associated with worse outcomes in White-patients. These BMI associations were not observed in Asian-patients and never-smokers. Black-patients had more favorable outcomes in the extremes of BMI when compared to White-patients. Body composition in Black-patients, and NSCLC subtypes more commonly seen in Asian-patients and never-smokers, may account for differences in these BMI-OS relationships.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms linking occupational heat exposure with chronic diseases have been proposed. However, evidence on occupational heat exposure and cancer risk is limited. METHODS: We evaluated occupational heat exposure and female breast cancer risk in a large Spanish case-control study. We enrolled 1,738 breast cancer cases and 1,910 frequency-matched population controls. A Spanish job exposure matrix, MatEmEsp, was used to assign estimates of the proportion of workers exposed (P greater than or equal to 25% for at least one year) and work time with heat stress (wet bulb globe temperature ISO 7243) for each occupation. We used three exposure indices: ever vs. never exposed, lifetime cumulative exposure and duration of exposure (years). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), applying a lag-period of 5 years, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Ever occupational heat exposure was associated with a moderate but statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.01, 1.46), with significant trends across categories of lifetime cumulative exposure and duration (p-trend = 0.01 and 0.03 respectively). Stronger associations were found for hormone receptor positive disease (OR ever exposure = 1.38; 95% CI 1.12, 1.67). We found no confounding effects from multiple other common occupational exposures, however results attenuated with adjustment for occupational detergent exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some evidence of an association between occupational heat exposure and female breast cancer risk. IMPACT: Our results contribute substantially to the scientific literature. Further investigations are needed, considering multiple occupational exposures.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374289

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between the intake of the major nutrients and prognosis in breast cancer. A cohort based on 1350 women with invasive (stage I-IV) breast cancer (BC) was followed up. Information about their dietary habits before diagnosis was collected using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants without FFQ or with implausible energy intake were excluded. The total amount consumed of each nutrient (Kcal/day) was divided into tertiles, considering as "high intakes" those above third tertile. The main effect studied was overall survival. Cox regression was used to assess the association between death and nutrient intake. During a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 171 deaths were observed. None of the nutrients analysed was associated with mortality in the whole sample. However, in normal-weight women (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2) a high intake of carbohydrates (≥809 Kcal/day), specifically monosaccharides (≥468 Kcal/day), worsened prognostic compared to lowest (≤352 Kcal/day). Hazard Ratios (HRs) for increasing tertiles of intake were HR:2.22 95% CI (1.04 to 4.72) and HR:2.59 95% CI (1.04 to 6.48), respectively (p trend = 0.04)). Conversely, high intakes of polyunsaturated fats (≥135 Kcal/day) improved global survival (HR: 0.39 95% CI (0.15 to 1.02) p-trend = 0.05) compared to the lowest (≤92.8 kcal/day). In addition, a protective effect was found substituting 100 kcal of carbohydrates with 100 kcal of fats in normal-weight women (HR: 0.76 95% CI (0.59 to 0.98)). Likewise, in premenopausal women a high intake of fats (≥811 Kcal/day) showed a protective effect (HR:0.20 95% CI (0.04 to 0.98) p trend = 0.06). Finally, in Estrogen Receptors (ER) negative tumors, we found a protective effect of high intake of animal proteins (≥238 Kcal/day, HR: 0.24 95% CI (0.06 to 0.98). According to our results, menopausal status, BMI and ER status could play a role in the relationship between diet and BC survival and must be taken into account when studying the influence of different nutrients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dieta , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114671

RESUMO

Several anticancer properties have been largely attributed to phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, but epidemiologic evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, some classes have not been studied in relation to gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intake of phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other phenolics and the risk of developing GC and its anatomical and histological subtypes. We used data from a multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from different regions of Spain. We included 2700 controls and 329 GC cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of phenolic intake. Our results showed an inverse association between stilbene and lignan intake and GC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.69 and ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, respectively). We found no overall association between total phenolic acid and other polyphenol class intake and GC risk. However, hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.61), hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71), and tyrosols (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) were inversely associated with GC risk. No differences were found in the analysis by anatomical or histological subtypes. In conclusion, a diet high in stilbenes, lignans, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols was associated with a lower GC risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.

7.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 230: 113597, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795877

RESUMO

Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and other phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may affect child neurodevelopment, but data on the effects of prenatal exposure to phenols on cognitive function remain sparse. Our aim was to examine the association of placental concentrations of several phenolic EDCs, including BPA, parabens (PBs), and benzophenones (BzPs), with cognitive development in preschool children from the Environment and Childhood (INMA) Project in Spain. Concentrations of BPA, four PBs (methylparaben [MePB], ethylparaben [EtPB], propylparaben [PrPB], and butylparaben [BuPB]), and six BzPs (BzP-1, BzP-2, BzP-3, BzP-6, BzP-8, and 4-hydroxybenzophenone [4-OH-BzP]) were measured in 490 placenta samples randomly selected from five INMA cohorts collected between 2000 and 2008. Neuropsychological assessment of cognitive and motor function was performed with the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) at the age of 4-5 years. Associations were assessed in a sub-sample of 191 mother-child pairs using linear and logistic regression models adjusted for confounding factors. PB compounds were detected in more than 71% of placentas, BPA in 62%, 4-OH-BzP in 50%, and the remaining BzPs in <9% of the samples. Because of the low detection frequency of BzP compounds, only 4-OH-BzP was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. After adjustment for confounders, BPA was associated with greater odds of scoring lower (below the 20th percentile) in the verbal (third vs. first exposure tertile: odds ratio [OR] = 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00; 5.81, p-trend = 0.05) and gross motor (detected vs. undetected: OR = 1.75, 95%CI = 1.06; 9.29) areas, and these associations were only significant for boys. Regarding PB compounds, PrPB was associated with lower scores in memory (detected vs. undetected: ß = -4.96, 95%CI = -9.54; -0.31), span memory (OR = 2.50, 95%CI = 0.95; 6.92 and 2.71, 95%CI = 0.97; 6.64, respectively for second and third tertiles, p-trend = 0.03), and motor function (ß = -5.15, 95%CI = -9.26; -0.01 for third vs. first exposure tertile, p-trend = 0.04). EtPB and total PBs concentrations in the second tertile were also associated with poorer visual function of posterior cortex and worse quantitative performance, respectively, but linear trends were not statistically significant. The associations of BPA and PrPB with poorer verbal, memory, and motor skills are novel observations that warrant further attention. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm whether prenatal exposure to BPA and other phenolic EDCs is associated with impaired cognitive development.

8.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(3): 667-678, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to analyse the relative survival with breast cancer in women diagnosed after new treatments were generalised and to ascertain the current effect that tumour characteristics such as grade, stage or subtype have on survival as well as the new AJCC-pathological prognostic score. METHODS: The breast cancer MCC-Spain follow-up study is a prospective cohort study of 1685 incident breast cancer cases. Women between 20 and 85 years old were recruited between the years 2008 and 2013 in 18 hospitals located in 10 Spanish provinces and they have been followed until 2017/2018. Relative survival was estimated after 3, 5 and 8 years of follow-up using Ederer II method. In addition, Weibull regression adjusted by age, hospital, grade and stage was used to investigate prognosis factors. RESULTS: Among components of TNM staging system, tumour size greater than 50 mm (i.e. T3 or T4) more than doubled the risk of dying, while N3 nodal involvement and presence of metastasis had a huge effect on mortality. The AJCC pathological prognostic score strongly correlated with survival; thus, hazard ratios increased as the score rose, being 2.31, 4.00, 4.94, 7.92, 2.26, 14.9 and 58.9 for scores IB, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IIIC and IV, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both TNM staging and histological/molecular biomarkers are associated with overall survival in Spanish women with breast cancer; when both are combined in the AJCC pathological prognosis score, the prognostic value improved with risk indices that increased rapidly as the pathological prognosis score increased.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2220, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393777

RESUMO

Few germline mutations are known to affect lung cancer risk. We performed analyses of rare variants from 39,146 individuals of European ancestry and investigated gene expression levels in 7,773 samples. We find a large-effect association with an ATM L2307F (rs56009889) mutation in adenocarcinoma for discovery (adjusted Odds Ratio = 8.82, P = 1.18 × 10-15) and replication (adjusted OR = 2.93, P = 2.22 × 10-3) that is more pronounced in females (adjusted OR = 6.81 and 3.19 and for discovery and replication). We observe an excess loss of heterozygosity in lung tumors among ATM L2307F allele carriers. L2307F is more frequent (4%) among Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We also observe an association in discovery (adjusted OR = 2.61, P = 7.98 × 10-22) and replication datasets (adjusted OR = 1.55, P = 0.06) with a loss-of-function mutation, Q4X (rs150665432) of an uncharacterized gene, KIAA0930. Our findings implicate germline genetic variants in ATM with lung cancer susceptibility and suggest KIAA0930 as a novel candidate gene for lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Risco
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 412-421, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330394

RESUMO

Rationale: Millions of workers around the world are exposed to respirable crystalline silica. Although silica is a confirmed human lung carcinogen, little is known regarding the cancer risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype. However, little is known regarding the disease risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype.Objectives: We aimed to address current knowledge gaps in lung cancer risks associated with low levels of occupational silica exposure and the joint effects of smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risks.Methods: Subjects from 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada with detailed smoking and occupational histories were pooled. A quantitative job-exposure matrix was used to estimate silica exposure by occupation, time period, and geographical region. Logistic regression models were used to estimate exposure-disease associations and the joint effects of silica exposure and smoking on risk of lung cancer. Stratified analyses by smoking history and cancer subtypes were also performed.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 control subjects. Lung cancer odds ratios ranged from 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.27) to 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.60) for groups with the lowest and highest cumulative exposure, respectively. Increasing cumulative silica exposure was associated (P trend < 0.01) with increasing lung cancer risks in nonsilicotics and in current, former, and never-smokers. Increasing exposure was also associated (P trend ≤ 0.01) with increasing risks of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Supermultiplicative interaction of silica exposure and smoking was observed on overall lung cancer risks; superadditive effects were observed in risks of lung cancer and all three included subtypes.Conclusions: Silica exposure is associated with lung cancer at low exposure levels. An exposure-response relationship was robust and present regardless of smoking, silicosis status, and cancer subtype.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 402-411, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330395

RESUMO

Rationale: Although the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated in multiple studies, little is known regarding exposure-response relationships associated with different exposure subgroups and different lung cancer subtypes.Objectives: We expanded on a previous pooled case-control analysis on diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer by including three additional studies and quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate lung cancer and subtype risks associated with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust characterized by elemental carbon (EC) concentrations.Methods: We used a quantitative EC job-exposure matrix for exposure assessment. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with various metrics of EC exposure. Lung cancer excess lifetime risks (ELR) were calculated using life tables accounting for all-cause mortality. Additional stratified analyses by smoking history and lung cancer subtypes were performed in men.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 lung cancer cases and 20,965 control subjects. In men, exposure response between EC and lung cancer was observed: odds ratios ranged from 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.30-1.52) for the lowest and highest cumulative exposure groups, respectively. EC-exposed men had elevated risks in all lung cancer subtypes investigated; associations were strongest for squamous and small cell carcinomas and weaker for adenocarcinoma. EC lung cancer exposure response was observed in men regardless of smoking history, including in never-smokers. ELR associated with 45 years of EC exposure at 50, 20, and 1 µg/m3 were 3.0%, 0.99%, and 0.04%, respectively, for both sexes combined.Conclusions: We observed a consistent exposure-response relationship between EC exposure and lung cancer in men. Reduction of workplace EC levels to background environmental levels will further reduce lung cancer ELR in exposed workers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Carbono , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260135

RESUMO

There is limited evidence of phenolic compounds acting as protective agents on several cancer types, including breast cancer (BC). Nevertheless, some polyphenol classes have not been investigated and there is a lack of studies assessing the effect on menopausal status and hormone receptor status as influenced by these compounds. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of all polyphenol classes in relation to the BC risk by menopausal and hormone receptor status. We used data from a population-based multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) including 1472 BC cases and 1577 controls from 12 different regions of Spain. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CI were calculated using logistic regression of mixed effects by quartiles and log2 of polyphenol intakes (adjusted for the residual method) of overall BC, menopausal and receptor status. No associations were found between total intake of polyphenols and BC risk. However, inverse associations were found between stilbenes and all BC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.70, 95%CI: 0.56-0.89, Ptrend = 0.001), the consumption of hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.59-0.93, Ptrend = 0.012) and hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.57-0.93; Ptrend = 0.005) were also inversely associated. The intake of stilbenes, hydroxybenzaldehydes and hydroxycoumarins can contribute to BC reduction risk on all menopausal and receptor statuses.

13.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260185

RESUMO

Backgound: Traditional anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) do not fully capture the complex biology of body fat (BF) in the elderly. The Clinica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE) index, based on BMI, is proposed as a better indicator of BF. However, its relation with BMI is not clear. The aim was to compare the agreement between CUN-BAE, BMI, and WC in those aged ≥50 years. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 3153 Caucasian healthy adults was taken from the MCC-Spain study. The Pearson's correlation and its 95% confidence interval (CI), adiposity distribution, and Kappa Index (95%CI) were calculated. Results: The correlation of CUN-BAE with WC is 0.18 (95%CI 0.14-0.21) and that with BMI is moderate (r 0.58; 95%CI 0.55-0.60), but both increased strongly by sex. Agreement (normal weight/overweight/obesity) of CUN-BAE with BMI is 7% and with WC is 18%. Conclusions: The correlation and the degree of agreement of CUN-BAE with BMI and WC are low in individuals aged over 50, but it is higher by sex. Thus, this different criterion of obesity may have clinical applications. More studies with a gold standard are needed to evaluate the CUN-BAE in elderly adults.

14.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 45-55, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence on green spaces and obesity is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To study the association of access to green spaces and surrounding greenness with obesity in Spain. METHODS: We enrolled 2354 individuals 20-85 years from urban areas of seven provinces of Spain between 2008-13. Subjects were randomly selected population controls of the MCC-Spain case-control study. We geocoded current residences and defined exposures in a buffer of 300 m around them: i) access to green space, identified using Urban Atlas, and ii) levels of surrounding greenness, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We examined excess weight/obesity as binary outcomes based on body mass index and waist-hip ratio. We examined effect modification by genetic factors, sex and individual socio-economic status and mediation by physical activity and concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. To assess potential effect modification by genetic factors, we used a polygenic risk score based on obesity polymorphisms detected in genome-wide association studies. We used logistic mixed-effects models with a random effect for catchment area adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Access to green space was associated with a reduced risk of excess weight/obesity after adjusting for confounders [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.82 (0.63, 1.07), p-value = 0.143; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.45, 1.01), p-value = 0.057]. In the stratified analysis, this association was only observed in women. Associations between surrounding greenness and excess weight/obesity were null or modest based on a 1 IQR increase in NDVI [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.99 (0.88, 1.11), p-value = 0.875; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.79, 1.05), p-value = 0.186]. The observed associations were not mediated by physical activity or air pollution. DISCUSSION: Access to green space may be associated with decreased risk of excess weight/obesity among women in Spain. Mechanisms explaining this association remain unclear.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Planejamento Ambiental , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(3): 1171-1179, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between dietary fat and fat subtype and breast cancer development. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study with 1181 cases of incident breast cancer, diagnosed between 2007 and 2012, and 1682 population controls frequency matched (by age, sex, and region) from the Spanish multicenter case-control study MCC-Spain. RESULTS: We found a significant protective effect in premenopausal women of total fat intake [OR 0.51 95% CI (0.31-0.86) highest versus lowest tertile], but no effect was observed in menopausal women [OR 1.15 95% CI (0.83-1.60)]. Analyzing by type of fat, this protective effect persisted only for the monounsaturated fatty acids [OR 0.51 95% CI (0.32-0.82)]. In contrast, other fatty acids did not have a significant effect. In addition, a protection against risk of breast cancer was found when polyunsaturated fats were "substituted" by monounsaturated, maintaining the same total fat intake [OR 0.68 95% CI (0.47-0.99)]. Finally, analyzing by breast cancer subtype, we found no effect, except in premenopausal women where intake of moderate [OR 0.52 95% CI (0.33-0.82)] and high monounsaturated fatty acids [OR 0.47 95% CI (0.27-0.82)] maintains a protective effect against ER/PR + tumors. In contrast, in menopausal women, a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids was associated with higher risk of HER2 + tumors [OR 2.00 95% CI (0.97-4.13)]. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a differential effect of monounsaturated fatty acids according to menopausal status and breast cancer subtype.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031904, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since 2016, the multicase-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain) has focused towards the identification of factors associated with cancer prognosis. Inception cohorts of patients with colorectal, breast and prostate cancers were assembled using the incident cases originally recruited. PARTICIPANTS: 2140 new cases of colorectal cancer, 1732 of breast cancer and 1112 of prostate cancer were initially recruited in 12 Spanish provinces; all cancers were incident and pathologically confirmed. Follow-up was obtained for 2097 (98%), 1685 (97%) and 1055 (94.9%) patients, respectively. FINDINGS TO DATE: Information gathered at recruitment included sociodemographic factors, medical history, lifestyle and environmental exposures. Biological samples were obtained, and 80% of patients were genotyped using a commercial exome array. The follow-up was performed by (1) reviewing medical records; (2) interviewing the patients by phone on quality of life; and (3) verifying vital status and cause of death in the Spanish National Death Index. Ninety-seven per cent of recruited patients were successfully followed up in 2017 or 2018; patient-years of follow-up were 30 914. Most colorectal cancers (52%) were at clinical stage II or lower at recruitment; 819 patients died in the follow-up and the 5-year survival was better for women (74.4%) than men (70.0%). 71% of breast cancers were diagnosed at stages I or II; 206 women with breast cancer died in the follow-up and the 5-year survival was 90.7%. 49% of prostate cancers were diagnosed at stage II and 32% at stage III; 119 patients with prostate cancer died in the follow-up and the 5-year survival was 93.7%. FUTURE PLANS: MCC-Spain has built three prospective cohorts on highly frequent cancers across Spain, allowing to investigate socioeconomic, clinical, lifestyle, environmental and genetic variables as putative prognosis factors determining survival of patients of the three cancers and the inter-relationship of these factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13407, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527690

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia and statin use have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but prospective studies have shown mixed results. We aimed to determine whether dyslipidemia is causally linked to CRC risk using a Mendelian randomization approach and to explore the association of statins with CRC. A case-control study was performed including 1336 CRC cases and 2744 controls (MCC-Spain). Subjects were administered an epidemiological questionnaire and were genotyped with an array which included polymorphisms associated with blood lipids levels, selected to avoid pleiotropy. Four genetic lipid scores specific for triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), or total cholesterol (TC) were created as the count of risk alleles. The genetic lipid scores were not associated with CRC. The ORs per 10 risk alleles, were for TG 0.91 (95%CI: 0.72-1.16, p = 0.44), for HDL 1.14 (95%CI: 0.95-1.37, p = 0.16), for LDL 0.97 (95%CI: 0.81-1.16, p = 0.73), and for TC 0.98 (95%CI: 0.84-1.17, p = 0.88). The LDL and TC genetic risk scores were associated with statin use, but not the HDL or TG. Statin use, overall, was a non-significant protective factor for CRC (OR 0.84; 95%CI: 0.70-1.01, p = 0.060), but lipophilic statins were associated with a CRC risk reduction (OR 0.78; 95%CI 0.66-0.96, p = 0.018). Using the Mendelian randomization approach, our study does not support the hypothesis that lipid levels are associated with the risk of CRC. This study does not rule out, however, a possible protective effect of statins in CRC by a mechanism unrelated to lipid levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Lipídeos/análise , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10847, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350458

RESUMO

Antibodies to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG) have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Because SGG may correlate with impaired gut epithelia, we assessed the association of antibodies to bacterial flagellin C (FliC), a measure potentially related to this impairment, with CRC and the CRC-specific interaction with antibodies to SGG proteins. Antibodies to FliC and SGG pilus proteins Gallo2178 and Gallo2179 were measured in two independent studies, a combined study from Nijmegen and Detroit (93 CRC cases, 74 controls) and a replication data set including 576 cases and 576 controls from the Spanish multicenter multicase-control study (MCC-Spain). Logistic regression was applied to assess whether antibodies to FliC were associated with CRC and modified the association of antibodies to SGG proteins with CRC. Antibodies to FliC were associated with those to SGG Gallo2178 among CRC cases, resulting in an interaction in the association of antibodies to Gallo2178 with CRC (p = 0.007). This association was only present among individuals with high antibody responses to FliC (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.45-4.06). In conclusion, our findings suggest that colorectal tumorigenesis could be accompanied by an impaired integrity of the epithelium that could result in associated increased antibody responses to bacterial proteins.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Proteínas de Fímbrias/imunologia , Fímbrias Bacterianas/imunologia , Flagelina/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Streptococcus gallolyticus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 749-760, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Literature on the separate effects of physical activities (PA) on risk of breast cancer (BC) sub-types is heterogeneous. We investigated domain-specific associations between PA and BC risk by menopausal status and molecular subtype. METHODS: 1389 histologically confirmed invasive BC cases and 1712 controls from the MCC-Spain study were included (age: 20-85 years). Questionnaire information on PA at work, at home, and during leisure time, including recreational PA and sedentary time, and data on reproductive history, anthropometry, family history of BC, diet, and lifestyles were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Information on the expression of oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2 receptors was available for > 95% of the cases. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of BC sub-types. RESULTS: Occupational PA (OPA) intensity was associated with higher BC risk. Associations were stronger for pre-menopausal (ORactive/very active vs. sedentary job 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22, 2.91) and ER+/PR+, HER2- tumours (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.28, 2.53). Sedentary time was associated with higher risk of post-menopausal BC (OR6-9 vs. <3 h/day 1.69; 95% CI 1.22, 2.32). Moderate-to-high-intensity household (HPA) and recreational PA (RPA) were inversely associated with BC occurrence in pre- and post-menopausal women, with estimated 14-33% lower risks (P for trend < 0.001) above 1000 MET·min/week. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of HPA and RPA were associated with lower risk of BC, with heterogeneity by molecular type, whereas sitting time was a consistent independent risk factor of BC risk. The positive association found for OPA with ER+/PR+ BC deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1228-1237, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality with relatively few prognostic biomarkers. We investigated associations with overall survival for telomere length (TL) and genetic variation in chromosome 5p15.33, an established telomere maintenance locus. METHODS: Leukocyte TL was measured after diagnosis in 807 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the Princess Margaret Cancer Center in Toronto and assessed prospectively in 767 NSCLC cases from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study. Associations with all-cause mortality were tested for 723 variants in 5p15.33, genotyped in 4,672 NSCLC cases. RESULTS: Short telomeres (≤10th percentile) were associated with poor prognosis for adenocarcinoma in both populations: TL measured 6 months after diagnosis [HR = 1.65; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.04-2.64] and for those diagnosed within 5 years after blood sampling (HR = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.37-4.28). Short TL was associated with mortality in never smokers with NSCLC (HR = 10.29; 95% CI, 1.86-56.86) and adenocarcinoma (HR = 11.31; 95% CI, 1.96-65.24). Analyses in 5p15.33 identified statistically significant prognostic associations for rs56266421-G in LPCAT1 (HR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.38-2.52; P = 4.5 × 10-5) in stage I-IIIA NSCLC, and for the SLC6A3 gene with OS in females with NSCLC (P = 1.6 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the potential clinical utility of TL, particularly for adenocarcinoma patients, while associations in chromosome 5p15.33 warrant further exploration. IMPACT: This is the largest lung cancer study of leukocyte TL and OS, and the first to examine the impact of the timing of TL measurement. Our findings suggest that extremely short telomeres are indicative of poor prognosis in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Telômero/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
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