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7.
Bull Entomol Res ; 108(6): 716-725, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237511

RESUMO

The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor. In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor. Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.


Assuntos
Óleo de Cravo , Controle de Insetos , Repelentes de Insetos , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Tenebrio , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dose Letal Mediana , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tenebrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Environ Entomol ; 41(2): 333-41, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22507006

RESUMO

Phytochemicals may modify the food quality, reduce a plant's palatability to insects, or defend against pests. This work aimed to study 1) relationships between the nitrogen and potassium levels given to plants in nutritive solutions and the foliar phytochemical concentrations, 2) the effect of nutrients and secondary compounds of Coffea arabica on the behavior of Coccus viridis, and 3) tolerance of C. arabica to losses. Deficient, normal, and excessive nitrogen and potassium fertilization treatments were used. Each treatment had two plants (one infested and one noninfested plant). The contents of phytochemicals in the infested plants' leaves and their dry matter of roots, stems, and leaves as well as the total contents in noninfested plants, were determined. The adults and nymphs of C. viridis were counted for 60 d in all treatments. It was verified that elevated nitrogen and potassium levels in the nutritional solutions led to increased of nymphs and adults of C. viridis to the coffee plants over time. Potassium and nitrogen had both direct and indirect effects on C. viridis. The direct effect was because of the increase of the nitrogen content in the leaves. The indirect effect instead was because of reductions in the caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents in the leaves. This is the first study to show relationship nutrient levels of coffee phytochemicals in response to herbivory by scale insects. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid applied on coffee leaves stimulated the locomotory activity of the green scale, thus reducing their feeding compared with untreated leaves. The elevation of caffeine and chlorogenic acid levels in coffee leaves affect this generalist insect by stimulating the locomotion of crawlers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coffea/química , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbivoria , Animais , Cafeína , Coffea/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilizantes , Alimentos , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Potássio/metabolismo
11.
J Econ Entomol ; 104(6): 1909-17, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22299352

RESUMO

The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Animais , Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Brasil , Café , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Controle de Insetos/economia , Metanol/farmacologia , Densidade Demográfica , Tamanho da Amostra , Amostragem , Estações do Ano
12.
J Econ Entomol ; 103(4): 1438-43, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20857759

RESUMO

Coffee (Coffea spp.) alkaloids (caffeine and related methylxanthines) and phenolics (caffeic and chlorogenic acids) have recognized pestistatic/pesticidal activity and mediate insect-plant interactions. The present investigation assessed the resistance of 12 coffee genotypes to the leaf miner Leucoptera (= Perileucoptera) coffeella (Guérin-Méneville & Perrottet) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) and correlated such results with the leaf content of coffee alkaloids and phenolics that probably play a role in the interaction between coffee and this leaf miner. The levels of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, caffeine, and related methylxanthines were measured and quantified in leaf extracts of these genotypes before and 7 d after their infestation by the leaf miner. Some coffee genotypes (Coffea canephora L. and Coffea racemosa Lour. and its hybrids with Coffea arabica L.) exhibited high pesticidal activity (100% mortality) toward the L. coffeella, indicating their antibiosis resistance. However, there was no correlation between this activity and the leaf levels of coffee alkaloids and phenolics. Curiously, infestation by L. coffeella leads to a nearly four-fold decline in the leaf levels of chlorogenic acid, which does not affect this pest species but may affect other generalist species. Indeed, chlorogenic acid sprayed on coffee leaves stimulated locomotory activity of the green scale Coccus viridis (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccidae), thus minimizing their feeding in contrast with the absence of this polyphenol. Therefore, reduction of chlorogenic acid levels in coffee leaves due to leaf miner infestation seems to also favor infestation by generalist insects, such as the green scale.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Café/parasitologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Café/química , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hemípteros , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/química
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