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1.
Cytokine ; 149: 155717, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD), one of the most common single-gene disorders, is caused by mutations in the hemoglobin ß-chain gene. Clinical presentation is heterogeneous, and inflammation is a common condition. Thereby, we hypothesized that inflammasome and related cytokine IL-1ß could represent significant SCD pathogenesis contributors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 161 SCD (SS/Sß) patients were enrolled for the study. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 inflammasome genes (NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, CARD8, IL1B) were selected based on minor allele frequency. Total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytes were isolated from 10 out of 161 SCD patients (HbSS) and 10 healthy donors (control group, Ctrl) for inflammasome analysis. RESULTS: SCD patients presented a functional impairment of inflammasome, with monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exhibiting a different NLRP3 inflammasome activation rate. Gain-of-function variants in NLRP1 and IL1B genes resulted associated with a mild SCD clinical presentation. DISCUSSION: Our results can contribute to the understanding of SCD inflammation. SCD patients showed possible exhaustion of monocytes due to chronic inflammation, moreover others cells in PBMC can contribute to the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. NLRP1 gain-of-function was associated with mild clinical presentation, suggesting that other inflammasome receptors can be involved in SCD. This is the first study reporting a significant contribution of inflammasome SNPs in SCD.

2.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 766702, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721493

RESUMO

Over the past decades, advances in plant biotechnology have allowed the development of genetically modified maize varieties that have significantly impacted agricultural management and improved the grain yield worldwide. To date, genetically modified varieties represent 30% of the world's maize cultivated area and incorporate traits such as herbicide, insect and disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, high yield, and improved nutritional quality. Maize transformation, which is a prerequisite for genetically modified maize development, is no longer a major bottleneck. Protocols using morphogenic regulators have evolved significantly towards increasing transformation frequency and genotype independence. Emerging technologies using either stable or transient expression and tissue culture-independent methods, such as direct genome editing using RNA-guided endonuclease system as an in vivo desired-target mutator, simultaneous double haploid production and editing/haploid-inducer-mediated genome editing, and pollen transformation, are expected to lead significant progress in maize biotechnology. This review summarises the significant advances in maize transformation protocols, technologies, and applications and discusses the current status, including a pipeline for trait development and regulatory issues related to current and future genetically modified and genetically edited maize varieties.

3.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e22917, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541749

RESUMO

Phytochemicals have been suggested as an effective strategy for cancer prevention. Within this context, triterpene betulinic acid (BA) exhibits several biological properties but its chemopreventive effect has not been fully demonstrated. The present study investigated the antigenotoxic potential of BA against doxorubicin (DXR)-induced genotoxicity using the mouse peripheral blood micronucleus assay, as well as its anticarcinogenic activity against 1,2dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal lesions in rats. Micronuclei (MN) assay and aberrant crypt foci assay were used to assess the antigenotoxic and the anticarcinogenic potential, respectively. The molecular mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenic activity of BA were evaluated by assessing anti-inflammatory (COX-2) and antiproliferative (PCNA) pathways. The results demonstrated that BA at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight exerted antigenotoxic effects against DXR, with a reduction of 70.2% in the frequencies of chromosomal damage. Animals treated with BA showed a 64% reduction in the number of preneoplastic lesions when compared to those treated with the carcinogen alone. The levels of COX-2 and PCNA expression in the colon were significantly lower in animals treated with BA and DMH compared to those treated with the carcinogen alone. The chemopreventive effect of BA is related, at least in part, to its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity, indicating a promising potential of this triterpene in anticancer therapies, especially for colorectal cancer.

4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1139-1146, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516422

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The territorial characteristics, heterogeneities of landscapes, and the regional profiles of Brazil show great disparities in the spatial distribution of tuberculosis burden. Objective of this study is to analyze the effects of environmental and social factors on tuberculosis incidence in three Brazilian municipalities and in the Federal District of Brazil. METHODOLOGY: We performed an ecological study carried out with 131,576 new cases of tuberculosis registered in the Brazilian national disease notification system. For our research we used climatic data, topographic data and socioeconomic data. RESULTS: Wind speed and vapor pressure increased the risk of tuberculosis infection between 4.6 and 5.8 times in the 3 municipalities, in comparison with the Federal District. In Recife socioeconomic aspects showed a greater association with tuberculosis. Lack of garbage collection, poor basic sanitation, and access to drinking water, respectively, increased 49, 33, and 28 times the risk of infection. In the multiple regression analysis, Rio de Janeiro showed several environmental characteristics - such as precipitation (p = 0.002), radiation (p = 0.020) and water vapor (p = 0.055) - and social characteristics associated with tuberculosis - such as the lack of sewage treatment, which revealed a 13.5-fold higher risk of infection (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Incidence in the areas studied was influenced by environmental and social conditions at different levels depending on the territory where the problem was identified. The results make it possible to guide an urban and social policy to reach the targets set out in the WHO End tuberculosis Strategy in large Brazilian urban agglomerations.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A is a fecal-oral infection caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been reported as target groups for HAV infection. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, risk factors, and circulating strains associated with HAV infection among MSM and TW in Central Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2011 to September 2013. Serum samples were collected from 425 individuals for anti-HAV antibody testing and HAV molecular characterization. Of them, 149 (35.1%) participants were self-identified as transgender women. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors of HAV seropositivity. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HAV exposure was 69.7% (95% Confidence Interval: 65.3-74.0%). Serological evidence of HAV was significantly higher in participants who self-identified as transgender women (83.2%) than MSM (62.3%). Increasing age, non-white race, and lower monthly household income were independently associated with HAV exposure among MSM. Only lower monthly household income was independently associated with HAV exposure among TW. One anti-HAV IgM positive sample, from a transgender woman (0.2%), was detected and classified as subgenotype IA. CONCLUSIONS: High HAV prevalence was observed, markedly among TW. Considering the risky sexual behaviors this population is exposed to, HAV vaccination and prevention programs targeting this population should be considered to prevent outbreaks and the burden of the disease.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360301

RESUMO

The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the factors associated with the mortality of elderly Italians diagnosed with coronavirus who resided in institutions or who were hospitalized because of the disease. METHODS: A systematic review following the recommendations of The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) was carried out, utilizing the PEO strategy, i.e., Population, Exposure and Outcome. In this case, the population was the elderly aged over 65 years old, the exposure referred to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the outcome was mortality. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI/PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were used until 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Five Italian studies were included in this meta-analysis, with the number of elderly people included varying between 18 and 1591 patients. The main morbidities presented by the elderly in the studies were dementia, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The factors associated with the mortality of elderly Italian people diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 who lived in institutions or who were hospitalized because of the disease were evaluated. It was found that dementia, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and hypertension were the main diagnosed diseases for mortality in elderly people with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Idoso , Região do Caribe , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 148: 110826, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze auditory cortical processing in high functioning ASD individuals. METHODS: Thirty individuals were included in the study (15 with Autism Spectrum Disorder and 15 with typical development), and their Auditory Event Related Potentials evaluation, elicited with tone burst and speech stimuli, were analyzed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between individuals with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder without intellectual disability and those with typical development in the auditory Event-related Potentials elicited with tone bursts or speech stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: The results of Auditory Event Related Potentials did not show any change at the cortical level in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva , Criança , Potenciais Evocados , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Humanos
8.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a vulnerable population of children and their household contacts. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immunoglobulin G serology tests were performed in children and their household contacts after enrollment during primary health care clinic visits. Participants were followed prospectively with subsequent specimens collected through household visits in Manguinhos, an impoverished urban slum (a favela) in Rio de Janeiro at 1, 2, and 4 weeks and quarterly post study enrollment. RESULTS: Six hundred sixty-seven participants from 259 households were enrolled from May to September 2020. This included 323 children (0-13 years), 54 adolescents (14-19 years), and 290 adults. Forty-five (13.9%) children had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction. SARS-CoV-2 infection was most frequent in children aged <1 year (25%) and children aged 11 to 13 years (21%). No child had severe COVID-19 symptoms. Asymptomatic infection was more prevalent in children aged <14 years than in those aged ≥14 years (74.3% and 51.1%, respectively). All children (n = 45) diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection had an adult contact with evidence of recent infection. CONCLUSIONS: In our setting, children do not seem to be the source of SARS-CoV-2 infection and most frequently acquire the virus from adults. Our findings suggest that, in settings such as ours, schools and child care potentially may be reopened safely if adequate COVID-19 mitigation measures are in place and staff are appropriately immunized.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Áreas de Pobreza , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
AIDS ; 35(6): 899-910, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the antiretroviral treatment, people with HIV (PWH) still experience systemic chronic inflammation and immune-senescence, which represent risk factors for severe comorbidities and inefficient response to pathogens and vaccines. Given the dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome in PWH and the recently demonstrated role played by NLRP3 in B lymphocytes, we hypothesized that NLRP3 dysregulation in B cells can contribute to chronic inflammation and humoral dysfunction in PWH. DESIGN: NLRP3 inflammasome activation was evaluated in B lymphocytes and correlated with antibodies production and immunization response in PWH. METHODS: NLRP3 inflammasome activation was compared in B lymphocytes isolated from PWH and healthy donors, in resting and stimulated conditions. Functional polymorphic variants in NLRP3 and IL1B genes were analysed in a cohort of PWH submitted to anti-HBV vaccine to assess the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome on humoral response. RESULTS: The NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to common PAMPs (LPS, ß-glucan) resulted higher in B lymphocytes of PWH than in HD. CpG-induced IgM secretion was also increased in B cells of PWH. NLRP3, but not IL1B, gain-of-function polymorphism associated to anti-HBs levels. CONCLUSION: These data reveal the dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome in B lymphocytes of PWH. Differently from myeloid compartment, which present an exhausted NLRP3 inflammasome, the complex appears to be hyper-activated in B cells of PWH, likely contributing to chronic inflammation and affecting humoral response.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Inflamassomos , Linfócitos B , Humanos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos
10.
Hypertens Res ; 44(8): 969-977, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568792

RESUMO

Children with obesity have a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and hypertension, which is associated with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation and kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) inactivation. Although recent studies have identified several peptide-based biomarkers for obesity, circulating peptides from the RAS and KKS in adolescents with obesity have not been described. The aim of this study was to examine circulating levels of RAS and KKS peptides in adolescents with obesity to investigate the turnover of these peptides and their relationship to metabolic disorders resulting from weight gain. The subjects (n = 104) were divided into normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), obese (OB), and morbidly obese (MO) groups. Anthropometric profiles were created by measuring height, weight, blood pressure, and skinfolds. Plasma levels of Ang I, II, (1-7), BK, and des-Arg9BK were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels were as follows: Ang-(1-7)-MO 58.3 ± 50, OB 223.2 ± 150, OW 318.6 ± 190, NW 479.1 ± 160 pmol/mL, and Bradykinin (BK)-MO 367.6 ± 103, OB 253.8 ± 130, OW 484 ± 279, NW 874.9 ± 385 pmol/mL. Ang-(1-7) correlated inversely with weight, body mass index, leptin, diastolic blood pressure, and systolic blood pressure. BK and Ang-(1-7) levels correlated inversely with skinfolds, waist-hip ratio (WHR), leptin, and arm circumference. BK levels correlated with adiponectin and Ang-(1-7) levels. Plasma Ang I levels were higher in the MO and OB groups than in the NW group, but plasma Ang II levels were similar in all groups. We suggest that Ang-(1-7) and des-Arg9BK metabolites are novel biomarkers of childhood obesity that are important for determining treatment strategies.

11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 97(6): 461-464, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to human alphaherpesvirus 2 (HSV-2) infection due to their high numbers of sexual partners. The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk behaviours associated with HSV-2. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A total of 376 FSWs were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) methodology and answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to test for HSV-2 antibodies using commercial ELISA and for HSV-2 DNA using real-time PCR. RESULTS: The seropositivity was 47.3% (178/376) for HSV-2 IgG and 10.1% (38/376) for HSV-2 IgM. HSV-2 viraemia was detected in two infected FSWs with primary infections. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, the OR for HSV-2 IgG increased with age (OR=2.53-7.90, OR=2.66-6.37) and the number of sexual partners (OR=2.30-3.25). On the other hand, daily alcohol consumption (OR=0.10) and the use of condoms during the last intercourse (OR=0.47) were protective factors against HSV-2 acquisition. CONCLUSION: Despite the impact of FSWs in public health policies with the dissemination of sexually transmitted infections, there have been few studies performed regarding the prevalence of HSV-2 in Brazil, making it difficult to implement any control or preventative measures. The results produced here using an RDS methodology demonstrated a high prevalence, risk behaviours and primary infection among the FSWs. These results reinforce the need to implement control and preventative measures for HSV-2 infection in this population.

12.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(2): e4978, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866321

RESUMO

This study presented for the first time the development and validation of a sensitive method for quantification of dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline in Krebs-Henseleit solution by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Aliquots of 2.0 mL calibrators, quality controls, and samples of Krebs-Henseleit solution incubated with tortoise's aortic ring for 30 min were extracted by solid-phase extraction. Catecholamine separation was achieved on a 100 × 4.6 mm LiChrospher RP-8 column and the quantification was performed by a mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray interface operating in positive ion mode. The run time was 4 min and the calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-20.0 ng/mL. The method was applied to the measurement of basal release of dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline from the tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria aortae in vitro. One aortic ring (30 mm) per tortoise (n = 5) was incubated for 30 min in a 5 mL organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The method demonstrated sensitivity, precision, and accuracy enough for its application in the measurement of basal release of these catecholamines from C. carbonaria aortic rings in vitro. The mean (standard deviation) concentrations of dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline were 3.48 (2.55) ng/mL, 1.40 (0.57) ng/mL, and 1.87 (1.09) ng/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Monoaminas Biogênicas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Monoaminas Biogênicas/análise , Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Monoaminas Biogênicas/farmacocinética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Glucose/química , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar/citologia , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos , Trometamina/química , Tartarugas/metabolismo
13.
Parasitology ; 148(4): 443-450, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256864

RESUMO

The host contact network structure results from the movement and behaviour of hosts (e.g. degree of sociability; vagility and greater or lesser fidelity of shelters), which can generate heterogeneity in the transmission of parasites and influence the parasitic burden of individual hosts. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the burdens of Gigantolaelaps oudemansi mites are related to the characteristics of the transmission networks of individuals of Oecomys paricola, a solitary rodent. The study was carried out in a savannah habitat in north-eastern Brazil. In the dry season, the rodent network presented sub-groups of rodent individuals interacting with each other, whereas in the wet season, no modules were formed in the network. Mite burden was positively related to the number of connections that an individual host had with other host individuals in the dry season. The pairwise absolute difference between the mean mite burdens among individual rodents was negatively correlated with the similarities of node interactions. No relationships were observed during the wet season. There was a higher heterogeneity of mite burden among hosts in the dry season compare to that in the wet season. In solitary species, spatial organization may show seasonal variation, causing a change in the opportunities of host contacts, thereby influencing the transmission and dispersion of their ectoparasite burdens.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Fatores Etários , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/transmissão , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(4): e1521, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340668

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the communication skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), considering the clinical and family perspective. Methods: from the point of view of parents and therapists, the language of ten children with ASD was analyzed. All children underwent speech therapy at the outpatient clinic of a Speech Therapy School. Two protocols were used for data collection. Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), which was applied to the children's parents, and Protocol for Assessment of Pragmatic Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders - called Pragmatic Protocol (PP), which was answered by therapists. The data were examined through a descriptive statistical analysis, considering absolute and relative frequency, and inferential statistics, through the Chi-square test, with a 5% of significance for all analyses. Results: an expressive presence of communicative deficits, in the answers presented by the therapists, was seen. In the protocol answered by the parents, it was also possible to observe the same trend, since the children failed to score in several items of Subscale I. Conclusion: parents and therapists evidenced changes in the communicative skills of the children surveyed, and emphasized that therapists, who have technical linguistic knowledge, like parents, can also be good informants about their children's communicative development process.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever as habilidades de comunicação de crianças com TEA considerando a perspectiva clínica e familiar. Métodos: foi analisada, a partir do ponto de vista dos pais e terapeutas, a linguagem de 10 crianças com TEA. Todas as crianças estavam em acompanhamento fonoaudiológico no ambulatório de uma Clínica Escola de Fonoaudiologia. Foram utilizados dois protocolos para coleta dos dados. O Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist- ATEC, o qual foi aplicado com os pais das crianças, e o Protocolo de Avaliação de Habilidades Pragmáticas de Crianças com Transtornos do Espectro do Autismo - PAHPEA, o qual foi respondido pelos terapeutas. Após aplicação dos protocolos, os dados foram examinados por meio de uma análise estatística descritiva, utilizando-se da frequência absoluta e relativa, e inferencial por meio do teste de associação Qui-quadrado, com significância de 5% para todas as análises. Resultados: de acordo com as respostas apresentadas pelos terapeutas, uma expressiva presença de déficits comunicativos foi observada. No protocolo respondido pelos pais também foi possível observar a mesma tendência, uma vez que as crianças deixaram de pontuar em vários itens da Subescala I. Conclusão: os pais e terapeutas evidenciaram alterações nas habilidades comunicativas das crianças pesquisadas, ressaltando que, assim como os terapeutas, os quais possuem conhecimento técnico linguístico, os pais também podem ser bons informantes sobre o processo de desenvolvimento comunicativo de seus filhos.

15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(3): 386-392, May-June 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1135026

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the neural encoding of verbal and nonverbal stimuli in individuals with autism spectrum disorder using brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Methodology: Thirty individuals between 7 and 12 years of age and of both genders participated in this study. Fifteen were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, and 15 had typical development. All subjects had normal hearing and no other impairments. An electrophysiological hearing assessment was performed using brainstem auditory evoked potentials with click and speech stimuli. Results: In the brainstem auditory evoked potentials with click stimuli, the mean wave I latency was longer for the right ear in both groups, and interpeak intervals III-V were greater for the individuals with autism spectrum disorder. For brainstem auditory evoked potentials with speech stimuli, wave V latency was shorter in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Conclusion: These data suggest that individuals with autism spectrum disorder may have a dysfunction of the central auditory nervous system for nonverbal stimuli and faster neural encoding of the initial part of the verbal stimulus, suggesting hypersensitivity to complex sounds such as speech.


Resumo Objetivos: Este estudo visou analisar a codificação neural de estímulos verbais e não verbais em indivíduos com transtorno do espectro do autismo com o uso de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. Metodologia: Participaram 30 indivíduos entre sete e 12 anos e de ambos os sexos; 15 foram diagnosticados com transtorno do espectro do autismo e 15 apresentaram desenvolvimento típico. Todos os indivíduos apresentaram audição normal e nenhuma outra alteração. Foi feita uma avaliação eletrofisiológica da audição com o uso dos potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico com estímulos de clique e fala. Resultados: Nos potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico com estímulos de clique, a média do valor de latência da onda I foi maior para o ouvido direito nos dois grupos e os intervalos interpicos III-V foram maiores para os indivíduos com transtorno do espectro do autismo. Para os potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico com estímulos de fala, a latência da onda V foi menor nos indivíduos com transtorno do espectro do autismo. Conclusão: Nossos dados sugerem que os indivíduos com transtorno do espectro do autismo podem ter uma disfunção do sistema nervoso auditivo central para estímulos não verbais e codificação neural mais rápida da parte inicial dos estímulos verbais, o que sugere hipersensibilidade a sons complexos, como a fala.

16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 550624, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193317

RESUMO

The interplay between M. tuberculosis (Mtb) and humans is multifactorial. The susceptibility/resistance profile and the establishment of clinical tuberculosis (TB) still remains elusive. The gain-of-function variant rs10754558 in the NLRP3 gene (found in 30% of the world population) confers protection against the development of TB, indicating a prominent role played by NLRP3 inflammasome against Mtb. Through genotype-guided assays and various Mtb strains (BCG, H37Rv, Beijing-1471, MP287/03), we demonstrate that Mtb strains activate inflammasome according to the NLRP3/IL-1ß or NLRC4/IL18 preferential axis. NLRP3 and NLRC4 genetic variants contribute to the presentation of TB. For the first time, we have shown that loss-of-function variants in NLRC4 significantly contribute to the development of extra-pulmonary TB. The analysis of inflammasome activation in a cohort of TB patients and their "household contacts" (CNT) revealed that plasma IL-1ß/IFN-α ratio lets us distinguish patients from Mtb-exposed-but-healthy individuals from an endemic region. Moreover, NLRP3 inflammasome seemed "exhausted" in TB patients compared to CNT, indicating a more efficient activation of inflammasome in resistant individuals. These findings suggest that inflammasome genetics as well as virulence-dependent level of inflammasome activation contribute to the onset of a susceptible/resistant profile among Mtb-exposed individuals.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Tuberculose/etiologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Adulto , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Virulência
17.
J Clin Exp Dent ; 12(8): e719-e724, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913567

RESUMO

Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) frequently receive poorer health care then the general population. Frequently the speech-language pathologist is the only health professional that follows the child's everyday life and therefore is the only resource for guidance regarding basic health habits. Poor oral health may result in severe discomfort and other health problems that can be prevented by simple routine habits and adequate professional follow-up. The aim of the present study was to gather information about oral hygiene and dental care habits of children with ASD and their families. The hypothesis was that these children have poorer oral care habits than their families. Material and Methods: Participants were parents of 120 children with autism, aged 4 to 12 years in two different cities of the state of Sao Paulo. They answered to a simple questionnaire about oral hygiene and health care habits. Results: Indicated that there is a significant difference (p< 0.001) between the children and their families regarding basic oral hygiene habits, such as brushing and flossing, as well as routine visits to the dentist. Conclusions: This information clearly indicates the need for education programs aiming to encourage the inclusion children with ASD in the basic habits of oral care carried-out by the families. Key words:Autism disorder, oral hygiene habits, oral health.

18.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5032, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876090

RESUMO

Objective To describe the implementation of a care protocol based on rapid response teams, for management and resolution of bleeding. Methods A hospital protocol called Hemorrhage Code (Code H) was devised and developed. In a flow line, a multidisciplinary team provides comprehensive, fast and effective care to the patient with a severe hemorrhagic condition. In another flow line, professionals based at the hospital pharmacy focus on identifying patients at risk of bleeding, to avoid this event. Several hospital professionals and sectors were trained, each with specific roles, ensuring full support to the medical and nursing staffs. Results After implementing this protocol, we were able to significantly reduce the number of catastrophic events related to failure in bleeding management. Conclusion Code H is an example of a value-based medicine and precision medicine project by delivering comprehensive and multidisciplinary care, in addition to point-of-care testing introduced in clinical practice, optimizing patient safety and care practices at the hospital. Furthermore, it will be possible to minimize the risk of lawsuits for the hospital and physicians, as well as rationalizing resources with benefits for administrators and payers.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia/terapia , Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Brasil , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Endod ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805336

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Because active cells present higher abundance of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) than rDNA (rRNA genes), data obtained with rDNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and rRNA-based qPCR (RT-qPCR) were correlated to search for active bacteria after chemomechanical procedures (CMP). In addition, the ability of both assays to detect bacteria in endodontic samples was evaluated. METHODS: Samples were taken from 40 teeth with primary endodontic infections before (S1) and after CMP (S2). DNA and cDNA (synthetized from RNA) were used as templates for qPCR using universal primers for bacteria and species-specific primers for Bacteroidaceae sp. HOT-272, Cutibacterium acnes, Selenomonas spp., and Enterococcus faecalis. RESULTS: After CMP, there was a drastic reduction in the number of total bacteria, Selenomonas spp., and E. faecalis, whereas no significant difference was observed for the levels of Bacteroidaceae sp. HOT-272 and C. acnes. The concentration of rRNA copies in S2 samples was significantly higher than the corresponding levels of rDNA for assays targeting total bacteria, Bacteroidaceae sp. HOT-272, and C. acnes (P < .05), indicating persistence of active bacteria. The rDNA-based qPCR presented low sensitivity and high specificity when compared with RT-qPCR. For most assays, samples positive for rDNA were also positive for rRNA (positive predictive value = 100%). CONCLUSIONS: CMP was effective in reducing levels but not the metabolic activity of total bacteria. Bacteroidaceae sp. HOT-272 and C. acnes were active members of the persistent community. Although less sensitive than RT-qPCR, most rDNA-based qPCR assays had a low risk of providing false-positive results in postinstrumentation samples.

20.
Pharm Res ; 37(9): 172, 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830303

RESUMO

Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer. Treatments that directly address tumor survival are required. Indomethacin (IND) is a well-known drug used worldwide. Although widely used as a therapeutic agent, IND has undesirable gastrointestinal effects. PURPOSE: To investigate the antitumor efficacy of IND incorporated into mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs+IND), as well as its toxic potential in a syngeneic murine B16 melanoma model. METHODS: Antitumor activity was evaluated by measuring tumor size and weight and by histopathological analysis. Possible molecular signaling pathways involved in the antitumor activity were analyzed by Western blot in liver tissue and by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue. The potential toxicity was evaluated by determining body and organ weights and by biochemical and genotoxic analysis. RESULTS: MSNPs+IND treatments inhibited tumor growth by up to 70.09% and decreased the frequency of mitosis in tumor tissues, which was up to 37.95% lower compared to the IND groups. In hepatic tissue, COX-2 levels decreased significantly after treatment with MSNPs+IND and IND. Additionally, MSNPs+IND and IND increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 (156.25% and 137.50%, respectively), inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Genotoxicity was limited to the group treated with the higher concentration of IND, while MSNPs prevented IND-induced genotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: MSNPs may be promising for future applications in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Indometacina/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Indometacina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Dióxido de Silício/química
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