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2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1137-1154, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994979

RESUMO

Apresenta-se um panorama da Neuropsicologia brasileira, enfocando sua inserção no país, caracterizando o momento atual e desafios à sua consolidação. Aborda-se a trajetória da Neuropsicologia, traçando-se cinco períodos que a caracterizam, bem como sua trajetória nacional. A Neuropsicologia brasileira assiste à sofisticação da neuroimagem e ao avanço da pesquisa e interesse na área, à criação de entidades representativas, ao crescente número de publicações, grupos de pesquisa e de cursos de pós-graduação, ao desenvolvimento de instrumentos brasileiros e à ampliação da normatização e validação de instrumentos estrangeiros. Apesar desses avanços, ressalta-se a necessidade de constituir uma Neuropsicologia brasileira, sintonizada com os desafios de um país diverso, que contribua com políticas públicas, produza conhecimentos que atinjam diferentes populações e contribua para a diminuição das desigualdades sociais.(AU)


This paper aims to present an overview of Brazilian neuropsychology, focusing on the way the discipline was brought to Brazil, the present panorama of the discipline, and the challenges related to its consolidation. This article addresses the historical course of Neuropsychology, mapping the five distinct periods that characterized its history, as well as its national course. Brazilian neuropsychology is currently aided by the sophistication of neuroimaging techniques, the advancement in research and the interest in the area, as well as the creation of representative professional associations, the growing number of publications, research groups and graduate courses, the development of Brazilian instruments and the increase in standardization and validation of foreign instruments. Despite these advances, it is necessary to emphasize the need to make a Brazilian Neuropsychology, in tune with the challenges that come from a diverse country, one which contributes with public policies, produces knowledge that reaches different peoples and contributes towards reducing social inequalities.(AU)


Este artículo presenta un panorama de la Neuropsicología en Brasil, enfocándose en su inserción en el país, caracterizando el momento actual y los desafíos a su consolidación. Aborda la historia de la Neuropsicología, trazando los cinco períodos que la caracterizan y su trayectoria nacional. La Neuropsicología brasileña presencia la sofisticación de las técnicas de neuroimagen y el avance de la investigación y el interés de los estudiantes y profesionales, así como la creación de órganos representativos, el creciente número de grupos de investigación, cursos postgrado y publicaciones, el desarrollo de instrumentos brasileños de evaluación neuropsicológica y la estandarización de los procesos y validación de instrumentos extranjeros. A pesar de esos avances, se destaca la necesidad de establecer una Neuropsicología brasileña, en sintonía con desafíos y urgencias de un país diverso, que contribuya con políticas públicas, produzca y ponga en práctica conocimientos que alcancen diferentes poblaciones y contribuya con la reducción de las desigualdades sociales.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Aplicada , Neuropsicologia , Pesquisa , Brasil , Neuroimagem/psicologia , História
3.
Am J Transplant ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654479

RESUMO

Kidney transplant (KT) recipients have an increased risk for urothelial carcinoma. A role for JC virus (JCV) in human cancers is not yet proved but there is an increasingly reported association between BK virus (BKV) nephropathy and renourinary neoplasms. We report a KT recipient who developed a high-grade urothelial carcinoma 5 years after a diagnosis of JCV nephropathy and 9 years after kidney transplantation. Neoplastic tissue was positive for JCV DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunochemical staining showed strong positivity for cell cycle markers (p16, p53, and Ki67) and for early viral protein JCV large T antigen (JCV LTag; using a broad polyomavirus antibody); however, late viral protein (VP1) stained negative. In contrast, in non-neoplastic urothelium, JCV DNA and all immunochemical markers were negative. These facts suggest that malignancy was induced by JCV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of urothelial high-grade carcinoma associated with JCV nephropathy in a KT recipient.

4.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547323

RESUMO

Lonicera caerulea L. (haskap) berries are widely known for their richness in anthocyanins. In this study, such fruits were assessed for their nutritional and chemical composition, but also as sources of anthocyanins with great colouring properties to be applied in foodstuff. Haskap presented high levels of water, four free sugars (mainly fructose and glucose), five organic acids (mainly citric, malic, and quinic), α- and γ-tocopherol, twenty fatty acids (with prevalence of linoleic acid), and eight phenolic compounds, among which six were anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-O-glucoside). The extract presented great antioxidant properties, evaluated through TBARS and OxHLIA assays, as well as antimicrobial capacity against six bacteria and six fungi. Two colourants were obtained by spray-drying haskap juice with maltodextrin and a mixture of maltodextrin and arabic gum. These formulations were stable over 12 weeks of storage at room and refrigerated temperature, without significant variations in colour parameters and in anthocyanins concentration. They were considered safe for consumption once neither microbial contamination nor cytotoxicity in non-tumour cells were detected. The results obtained allow for the consideration of haskap as a promising source of colourants to be applied not only in the food industry, but also in other fields that rely on artificial colourants.

5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115035, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426956

RESUMO

Alginate-based hydrogels can find uses in a wide range of applications, including in the encapsulation field. This type of hydrogels is usually ionically crosslinked using calcium sources giving rise to products with limited internal crosslinking. In this work, it is hypothesized that the combination of alginate crosslinked by calcium chloride (external crosslinking; ionic mechanism) with gelatin crosslinked by transglutaminase (internal crosslinking; enzymatic induced mechanism) can be used to tailor the swelling behavior of alginate-based hydrogel microspheres. A systematic study was conducted by covering process variables such as gelatin content, TGase concentration, and CaCl2 contact time, added by statistic tools as central composite rotatable design (CCRD), principal component analysis (PCA) and multiobjective optimization, to map their effect on the resulting water content after production (expressed as swelling ratio), and swelling properties at pH 3 and 7. Among the studied variables, particle's swelling was mostly affected by the gelatin content and transglutaminase concentration.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892177

RESUMO

The presence of age-related comorbidities prone elderly patients to the phenomenon of polypharmacy and consequently to a higher risk of nonadherence. Thus, this paper aims to characterize the medication consumption profile and explore the relationship of beliefs and daily medication management on medication adherence by home-dwelling polymedicated elderly people. A questionnaire on adherence, managing, and beliefs of medicines was applied to polymedicated patients with ≥65 years old, in primary care centers of the central region of Portugal. Of the 1089 participants, 47.7% were considered nonadherent. Forgetfulness (38.8%), difficulties in managing medication (14.3%), concerns with side effects (10.7%), and the price of medication (9.2%) were pointed as relevant medication nonadherence-related factors. It was observed that patients who had difficulties managing medicines, common forgetfulness, concerns with side effects, doubting the need for the medication, considered prices expensive, and had a lack of trust for some medicines had a higher risk of being nonadherent. This study provides relevant information concerning the daily routine and management of medicines that can be useful to the development of educational strategies to promote health literacy and improve medication adherence in polymedicated home-dwelling elderly.

8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1096: 117-133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324351

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death in this gender [1]. Data suggests that 10-20% of patients with prostate cancer metastasis develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) within 5 years of follow-up, and that the median survival since development of castration resistance is approximately 14 months (range 9-30) [2]. Additionally, patients with non-metastatic CRPC are at higher risk of disease progression. Approximately 15-33% of patients develop metastasis within 2 years, increasing the mortality burden in this population [3, 4].


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Naturwissenschaften ; 105(11-12): 63, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311012

RESUMO

New finds of bones of the Egyptian Mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), one from Portugal and one from Spain, were directly 14C dated to the first century AD. While the Portuguese specimen was found without connection to the Chalcolithic occupation of the Pedra Furada cave where it was recovered, the Spanish find, collected in the city of Mérida, comes from a ritual pit that also contained three human and 40 dog burials. The finds reported here show that the Egyptian mongoose, contrary to the traditional and predominant view, did not first arrive in the Iberian Peninsula during the Muslim occupation of Iberia. Instead, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the species was first introduced by the Romans, or at least sometime during the Roman occupation of Hispania. Therefore, radiocarbon dating of new archaeological finds of bones of the Egyptian Mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in the Iberian Peninsula push back the confirmed presence of the species in the region by approximately eight centuries, as the previously oldest dated record is from the ninth century. With these new dates, there are now a total of four 14C dated specimens of Egyptian mongooses from the Iberian Peninsula, and all of these dates fall within the last 2000 years. This offers support for the hypothesis that the presence of the species in Iberia is due to historical introductions and is at odds with a scenario of natural sweepstake dispersal across the Straits of Gibraltar in the Late Pleistocene (126,000-11,700 years ago), recently proposed based on genetic data.


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono/análise , Egito , História Antiga , Portugal , Espanha
10.
Molecules ; 23(7)2018 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958439

RESUMO

Cosmetics, like any product containing water and organic/inorganic compounds, require preservation against microbial contamination to guarantee consumer's safety and to increase their shelf-life. The microbiological safety has as main goal of consumer protection against potentially pathogenic microorganisms, together with the product's preservation resulting from biological and physicochemical deterioration. This is ensured by chemical, physical, or physicochemical strategies. The most common strategy is based on the application of antimicrobial agents, either by using synthetic or natural compounds, or even multifunctional ingredients. Current validation of a preservation system follow the application of good manufacturing practices (GMPs), the control of the raw material, and the verification of the preservative effect by suitable methodologies, including the challenge test. Among the preservatives described in the positive lists of regulations, there are parabens, isothiasolinone, organic acids, formaldehyde releasers, triclosan, and chlorhexidine. These chemical agents have different mechanisms of antimicrobial action, depending on their chemical structure and functional group's reactivity. Preservatives act on several cell targets; however, they might present toxic effects to the consumer. Indeed, their use at high concentrations is more effective from the preservation viewpoint being, however, toxic for the consumer, whereas at low concentrations microbial resistance can develop.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/química , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Preservação Biológica/métodos
11.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 23(1): 1-1, jan.-mar. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-975312

Assuntos
Editorial , Psicologia
12.
Food Chem ; 245: 845-853, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287450

RESUMO

Mushroom extracts contain bioactive compounds potentially useful to functionalize foodstuffs. Herein, alcoholic extracts of Agaricus bisporus were studied for their bioactivity and viability as functional ingredients in a food product with high water content (yogurt). Extracts were microencapsulated (to improve their stability and hydrophilicity) by spray-drying, using maltodextrin crosslinked with citric acid as encapsulating material. The effect of thermal treatment (after atomization) on crosslinking and bioactivity of microspheres was tested. The incorporation of free and thermally untreated forms resulted in yogurts with higher initial antioxidant activity (EC50 values: 214 and 272 mg.mL-1) that decreased after 7 days (EC50 values: 248 and 314 mg.mL-1). Contrarily, thermally treated microencapsulated extracts showed higher antioxidant activity after the same period (EC50 values, 0 days: 106 mg.mL-1; 7 days: 48.7 mg.mL-1), in result of an effective protection provided by microencapsulation with crosslinked maltodextrin and citric acid. Functionalized yogurts showed an overall maintenance of nutritional properties.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Alimento Funcional , Polissacarídeos/química , Iogurte , Antioxidantes , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Dessecação/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 9082716, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159181

RESUMO

Introduction: Infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is transmissible and is considered a public health issue which affects people of all ages. The objective of this study was to identify factors (lifestyles, dietary factors, and hygiene conditions) related to the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods: We carried out an observational cross-sectional study with a community sample of adults from the municipalities of Viseu and Sátão, Portugal. The final sample resulted in 166 adults. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire with questions regarding sociodemographic aspects and lifestyles. H. pylori infection was identified using the 13C-urea breath test. Results: No association was found between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or coffee or dietary factors. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in adults who reported higher consumption of fried food and lower consumption of vegetables and fruit. H. pylori infection was significant for the variables of lower frequency of handwashing before going to the bathroom (p = 0.02) and well water consumption (p = 0.05). Conclusion: A significant association was found for H. pylori infection with the lower frequency of handwashing before going to the bathroom and the consumption of well water.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Higiene , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3918, 2017 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634416

RESUMO

The Paris Agreement signed by 195 countries in 2015 sets out a global action plan to avoid dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to remain below 2 °C. Under that premise, in situ experiments were run to test the effects of 2 °C temperature increase on the benthic communities in a seagrass bed and adjacent bare sediment, from a temperate European estuary. Temperature was artificially increased in situ and diversity and ecosystem functioning components measured after 10 and 30 days. Despite some warmness effects on the analysed components, significant impacts were not verified on macro and microfauna structure, bioturbation or in the fluxes of nutrients. The effect of site/habitat seemed more important than the effects of the warmness, with the seagrass habitat providing more homogenous results and being less impacted by warmness than the adjacent bare sediment. The results reinforce that most ecological responses to global changes are context dependent and that ecosystem stability depends not only on biological diversity but also on the availability of different habitats and niches, highlighting the role of coastal wetlands. In the context of the Paris Agreement it seems that estuarine benthic ecosystems will be able to cope if global warming remains below 2 °C.

15.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 113: 69-78, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27768936

RESUMO

Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential protein present in all eukaryote cells, ranging from vertebrates to unicellular organisms. CaM is the most important Ca2+ signalling protein, composed of two domains, N- and C-terminal domains, linked by a flexible central α-helix, and is responsible for the regulation of numerous calcium-mediated signalling pathways. Four calcium ions bind to CaM, changing its conformation and determining how it recognizes and regulates its cellular targets. The oxidation mechanism of native and denatured CaM, at a glassy carbon electrode, was investigated using differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Native and denatured CaM presented only one oxidation peak, related to the tyrosine amino acid residue oxidation. Calcium-induced calmodulin conformational change and the influence of Ca2+ concentration on the electrochemical behaviour of CaM were evaluated, and significant differences, in the tyrosine amino acid residue peak potential and current, in the absence and in the presence of calcium ions, were observed. Gravimetric measurements were performed with a graphite coated piezoelectric quartz crystal with adsorbed CaM, and calcium aggregation by CaM was demonstrated.


Assuntos
Cálcio/farmacologia , Calmodulina/química , Animais , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Bovinos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução , Desnaturação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 476: 184-192, 2016 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27214149

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The possibility of tailoring the final properties of environmentally friendly waterborne polyurethane and polyurethane-urea dispersions and the films they produce makes them attractive for a wide range of applications. Both the reagents content and the synthesis route contribute to the observed final properties. EXPERIMENTS: A series of polyurethane-urea and polyurethane aqueous dispersions were synthesized using 1,2-ethanediamine and/or 1,4-butanediol as chain extenders. The diamine content was varied from 0 to 4.5wt%. Its addition was carried out either by the classical heterogeneous reaction medium (after phase inversion step), or else by the alternative homogeneous medium (prior to dispersion formation). Dispersions as well as films prepared from dispersions have been later extensively characterized. FINDINGS: 1,2-Ethanediamine addition in heterogeneous medium leads to dispersions with high particle sizes and broad distributions whereas in homogeneous medium, lower particle sizes and narrow distributions were observed, thus leading to higher uniformity and cohesiveness among particles during film formation. Thereby, stress transfer is favored adding the diamine in a homogeneous medium; and thus the obtained films presented quite higher stress and modulus values. Furthermore, the higher uniformity of films tends to hinder water molecules transport through the film, resulting, in general, in a lower water absorption capacity.

17.
Food Funct ; 7(3): 1319-28, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26887343

RESUMO

Bioactive extracts were obtained from powdered carob pulp through an ultrasound extraction process and then evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Ten minutes of ultrasonication at 375 Hz were the optimal conditions leading to an extract with the highest antioxidant effects. After its chemical characterization, which revealed the preponderance of gallotannins, the extract (free and microencapsulated) was incorporated in yogurts. The microspheres were prepared using an extract/sodium alginate ratio of 100/400 (mg mg(-1)) selected after testing different ratios. The yogurts with the free extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the samples added with the encapsulated extracts, showing the preserving role of alginate as a coating material. None of the forms significantly altered the yogurt's nutritional value. This study confirmed the efficiency of microencapsulation to stabilize functional ingredients in food matrices maintaining almost the structural integrity of polyphenols extracted from carob pulp and furthermore improving the antioxidant potency of the final product.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Iogurte/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Aditivos Alimentares/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ultrassom
18.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 19(52): 71-82, Jan-Feb/2015.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-736419

RESUMO

Neste artigo, procura-se evidenciar como, no conto “Um caso da prática médica”, o escritor russo, Anton Tchékhov, ele próprio médico, ficcionaliza e chama a atenção para aspetos da prática clínica hoje tantas vezes descurados, designadamente a observação e avaliação do ambiente em que vivem os doentes; e aspetos de índole familiar, social e até sexual, bem como a importância crucial da relação interpessoal de carácter dialógico entre médico e doente. Relacionar-se-á esta chamada de atenção indireta de Tchékhov com a situação atual no domínio da prática clínica, recorrendo-se ao conceito de Medicina Baseada na Prova (EBM), como paradigma atualmente dominante nas práticas médicas, e à necessidade de o complementar com o da Medicina Baseada na Narrativa (NBM) ou Medicina Narrativa...


The aim of this paper was to show how, in the short story “A Doctor’s Visit,” the Russian writer Anton Chekhov, himself a physician, creates a fictional narrative in which he draws attention to aspects of clinical practice that are rather overlooked today, namely: observation and evaluation of the environment in which patients live and aspects of their family, social and even sexual outlook, along with the crucial importance of the interpersonal dialogue-based relationship between doctor and patient. The attention indirectly drawn to this issue by Chekhov is here correlated with the current situation within the domain of clinical practice by invoking the concept of evidence-based medicine as the currently dominant paradigm in medical practice, and with the need for a complementary approach, namely by narrative-based medicine or narrative medicine...


En este artículo se busca mostrar como en el cuento “Un caso de práctica médica”, el escritor ruso Anton Tchékhov, que era médico, presenta como ficción y llama la atención para aspectos de la práctica clínica tantas veces descuidados, específicamente la observación y la evaluación del ambiente en que viven los enfermos y también sobre aspectos de índole familiar, social e incluso sexual, así como la importancia crucial de la relación inter-personal del carácter dialógico entre médico y paciente. Se relacionará esta llamada de atención indirecta de Tchékhov con la situación actual en el dominio de la práctica clínica, recurriéndose al concepto de EBM (Evidence based medicine) como paradigma dominante en la actualidad en las prácticas médicas y la necesidad de complementarlo con el de NBM (Narrative based medicine) o Medicina narrativa...


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Narração
19.
ABCS health sci ; 39(3)set.-dez. 2014.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-746720

RESUMO

Introdução: Para eficácia do aleitamento materno, a Organização Mundial de Saúde propõe a educação das mães durante o momento da gestação pelos profissionais de saúde. Objetivo: Observar as percepções das mães com relação ao aleitamento materno. Métodos: Estudo descritivo de caráter quantitativo utilizando técnica exploratória. Pesquisa realizada no Centro de Saúde Escola Capuava em Santo André, São Paulo. A população foi constituída por 29 mães submetidas à primeira consulta puerperal. Resultados: As médias de idade e de número de filhos das mães foram 26 anos e 1,8 filhos. Em sua maioria são casadas ou encontra-se em união estável (93,1%) e apresentam ensino médio completo (62,1%). Possuem vínculo empregatício 51,7%. Teve parto cesárea 58,6%. Foram amamentados na sala de parto 69,0% dos recém-nascidos. Possuem mamilos protusos 79,3% das mães, sendo que 55,2% não apresentaram fissuras. Não apresentaram nenhum cuidado em relação à limpeza dos mamilos 37,9% das mães, as demais usaram várias formas, sendo mais comum somente limpeza com leite materno (17,2%) e somente utilização de pomada (13,8%). A frequência de amamentação foi bastante variável. Dos recém-nascidos, 89,3% apresentaram pegas corretas. Relataram que tiveram todas as informações necessárias no pré-natal e puerpério 96,6% das mães. Pretendem introduzir precocemente o uso de chupetas para seu recém-nascido 44,8% das mães. Conclusão: As orientações realizadas durante a gestação e puerpério se tornam importantes e aos poucos produzem resultados positivos. Vale enfatizar que o enfermeiro se torna uma peça chave na realização das orientações durante os períodos de gestação e puerpério.


Introduction: In order to achieve breastfeeding efficiency, World Health Organization proposes education of mothers during pregnancy by health care professionals. Objective: To observe the perceptions of mothers regarding breastfeeding. Methods: Descriptive quantitative study following exploratory technique. Research was carried out at the Centro de Saúde Escola Capuava in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. The population consisted of 29 mothers submitted to the first postpartum visit. Results: The mean age of mothers was 26 years and the mean number of children was 1.8. Most of them are married or have stable union (93.1%) and completed high school (62.1%). A total of 51.7% are currently employed; 58.6% had cesarean section. Most (69.0%) of newborns were breastfed in the delivery room. Of mothers, 79.3% have protruding nipples, and 55.2% showed no fissures; 37.9% did not have any care regarding nipple cleaning, the remaining used various procedures, most commonly breast milk alone (17.2%) and ointment alone (13.8%). The frequency of breastfeeding was quite variable. Of newborns 89.3% presented correct latch. Of mothers, 96.6% reported receiving all the necessary information in the prenatal and postpartum; 44.8% intend to early introduce pacifier for their newborn. Conclusion: The instructions given during pregnancy and postpartum become important and gradually produce positive results, it is worth emphasizing that the nurse becomes a key part in achieving the guidelines during pregnancy and postpartum periods.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido , Período Pós-Parto
20.
Fungal Biol ; 118(5-6): 516-23, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24863480

RESUMO

The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60% of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-ß-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Quercus/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/química , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Transporte Proteico , Proteômica , Fatores de Virulência/química , Fatores de Virulência/genética
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