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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(4): 897-905, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419546

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents the most lethal form of primary immunodeficiency, with mortality rates of greater than 90% within the first year of life without treatment. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy are the only curative treatments available, and the best-known prognostic factors for success are age at diagnosis, age at hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and the comorbidities that develop in between. There are no evidence-based guidelines for standardized clinical care for patients with SCID during the time between diagnosis and definitive treatment, and we aim to generate a consensus management strategy on the supportive care of patients with SCID. First, we gathered available information about SCID diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines, then we developed a document including diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, and finally we submitted the interventions for expert consensus through a modified Delphi technique. Interventions are grouped in 10 topic domains, including 123 "agreed" and 38 "nonagreed" statements. This document intends to standardize supportive clinical care of patients with SCID from diagnosis to definitive treatment, reduce disease burden, and ultimately improve prognosis, particularly in countries where newborn screening for SCID is not universally available and delayed diagnosis is the rule. Our work intends to provide a tool not only for immunologists but also for primary care physicians and other specialists involved in the care of patients with SCID.

2.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(7): e13552, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297928

RESUMO

In this study, we report on major MRD or URD BMT outcomes in pediatric patients with SAA in Brazil. This was a retrospective study, which included 106 patients ≤18 years old who received a first BMT for SAA. All patients received bone marrow as graft source from an MRD (n = 69) or a URD (n = 37). Conditioning regimen was non-myeloablative in 73.6% of cases, and GVHD prophylaxis comprised a calcineurin inhibitor plus methotrexate in 89.6% of patients. After a median follow-up of 4.5 years after BMT, 81 patients are alive, with a 4-year OS of 77% and no statistically significant difference between the MRD and URD groups (82% vs. 69%, respectively; P = .08). Grade III-IV aGVHD at 6 months and cGVHD at 2 years were observed in 8% and 14% of cases, respectively, and were not statistically different between the groups. Twenty-five (23%) patients died at a median of 2.9 months after BMT. Our study showed that 4-year OS after BMT was not statistically different between MRD and URD recipients. This study shows that the outcomes of pediatric patients transplanted for SAA with a URD in Brazil are approaching those of MRD transplants. In contrast, OS after MRD BMT was lower than we would expect based on previous reports. The wide range of preparatory regimens used by the study centers highlights the need for standardized protocols for these children. Our findings provide a benchmark for future studies focused on improving BMT outcomes in this setting in Brazil.

3.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(11): 1799-1804, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089278

RESUMO

Busulfan is used in myeloablative schemes for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with monitoring of dosage through the area under the curve (AUC) of the drug plasma concentration (µMol min). In this study, we compared the complete pharmacokinetics of busulfan administered orally (Bu-Oral) and intravenously (Bu-IV). We evaluated 40 patients who underwent HSCT with different types of conditioning regimens. After one dose, in the Bu-Oral group (n = 21), the median AUC was 1174 µMol min (799-4000), reaching a median of 4440 µMol min (3428-7181.5) during conditioning in 24 h. In the Bu-IV group (n = 19), it was 1244.8 µMol min (1001.2-2021), reaching 5598.0 µMol min (3102-8818) during conditioning in 24 h. Measuring plasma concentration of Bu in patients undergoing HSCT is important, regardless of the formulation, and the inclusion of a pre-HSCT test can predict the optimal dose during conditioning. Pharmacokinetics of the oral administration of busulfan, as well as clearance, are extremely variable, and this can potentially compromise the clinical results of the treatment since it makes it difficult to predict clinical results.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(8): 917-926, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470982

RESUMO

The results of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) have been improving over time. Unfortunately, developing countries do not experience the same results. This first report of Brazilian experience of HSCT for PID describes the development and results in the field. We included data from transplants in 221 patients, performed at 11 centers which participated in the Brazilian collaborative group, from July 1990 to December 2015. The majority of transplants were concentrated in one center (n = 123). The median age at HSCT was 22 months, and the most common diseases were severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) (n = 67) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) (n = 67). Only 15 patients received unconditioned transplants. Cumulative incidence of GVHD grades II to IV was 23%, and GVHD grades III to IV was 10%. The 5-year overall survival was 71.6%. WAS patients had better survival compared to other diseases. Most deaths (n = 53) occurred in the first year after transplantation mainly due to infection (55%) and GVHD (13%). Although transplant for PID patients in Brazil has evolved since its beginning, we still face some challenges like delayed diagnosis and referral, severe infections before transplant, a limited number of transplant centers with expertise, and resources for more advanced techniques. Measures like newborn screening for SCID may hasten the diagnosis and ameliorate patients' conditions at the moment of transplant.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Doenças Raras/terapia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/mortalidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Doenças Raras/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(4): 392-399, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330393

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment that enhances survival and stabilizes neurologic symptoms in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) with cerebral involvement, a severe demyelinating disease of childhood. Patients with X-ALD who lack a well-matched HLA donor need a rapid alternative. Haploidentical HSCT using post transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) has been performed in patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases showing similar outcomes compared to other alternative sources. We describe the outcomes of transplants performed for nine X-ALD patients using haploidentical donors and PT/Cy. Patients received conditioning regimen with fludarabine 150 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 29 mg/kg and 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) with or without antithymocyte globulin. Graft-vs.-host disease prophylaxis consisted of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day on days +3 and +4, tacrolimus or cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil. One patient had a primary graft failure and was not eligible for a second transplant. Three patients had secondary graft failure and were successfully rescued with second haploidentical transplants. Trying to improve engraftment, conditioning regimen was changed, substituting 2 Gy TBI for 4 Gy total lymphoid irradiation. Eight patients are alive and engrafted (17-37 months after transplant). Haploidentical HSCT with PT/Cy is a feasible alternative for X-ALD patients lacking a suitable matched donor. Graft failure has to be addressed in further studies.


Assuntos
Adrenoleucodistrofia/terapia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Transplante Haploidêntico/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Criança , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(3): 1036-1049.e5, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy x-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by FOXP3 mutations. Because it is a rare disease, the natural history and response to treatments, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and immunosuppression (IS), have not been thoroughly examined. OBJECTIVE: This analysis sought to evaluate disease onset, progression, and long-term outcome of the 2 main treatments in long-term IPEX survivors. METHODS: Clinical histories of 96 patients with a genetically proven IPEX syndrome were collected from 38 institutions worldwide and retrospectively analyzed. To investigate possible factors suitable to predict the outcome, an organ involvement (OI) scoring system was developed. RESULTS: We confirm neonatal onset with enteropathy, type 1 diabetes, and eczema. In addition, we found less common manifestations in delayed onset patients or during disease evolution. There is no correlation between the site of mutation and the disease course or outcome, and the same genotype can present with variable phenotypes. HSCT patients (n = 58) had a median follow-up of 2.7 years (range, 1 week-15 years). Patients receiving chronic IS (n = 34) had a median follow-up of 4 years (range, 2 months-25 years). The overall survival after HSCT was 73.2% (95% CI, 59.4-83.0) and after IS was 65.1% (95% CI, 62.8-95.8). The pretreatment OI score was the only significant predictor of overall survival after transplant (P = .035) but not under IS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving chronic IS were hampered by disease recurrence or complications, impacting long-term disease-free survival. When performed in patients with a low OI score, HSCT resulted in disease resolution with better quality of life, independent of age, donor source, or conditioning regimen.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/congênito , Diarreia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/congênito , Imunossupressão , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/mortalidade , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/terapia , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Pediatr Transplant ; 19(3): 316-25, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25677170

RESUMO

OM is a painful inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa, derived from the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. High OM severity is frequently present in HSCT pediatric patients, who exhibit multiple painful ulcers that limit their mastication and swallowing, leading to poor nutritional status. Few studies have demonstrated OM clinical outcomes in young patients undergoing HSCT. Feasibility of oral care and LLLT on OM prophylaxis and treatment is also poorly discussed. The aim of this study was to describe a specialized oral care protocol that included LLLT for pediatric patients undergoing transplantation and to demonstrate the clinical outcomes after OM prevention and treatment. Data from OM-related morbidity were collected from 51 HSCT pediatric patients treated daily with LLLT, followed by standard oral care protocols. All the patients, even infants and young children, accepted the daily oral care and LLLT well. The majority (80.0%) only exhibited erythema in the oral mucosa, and the maximum OM degree was WHO II. Patients who had undergone autologous and HLA-haploidentical transplants showed OM with the lowest severity. The frequency of total body irradiation and methotrexate prescriptions was higher in adolescents when compared with infants (p = 0.044), and adolescents also exhibited OM more severely than infants and young children. We found that good clinical outcomes were obtained using this therapy, mainly in regard to the control of OM severity and pain reduction in the oral cavity. Specialized oral care, including LLLT, is feasible and affordable for HSCT pediatric patients, although some adaptation in the patient's oral hygiene routine must be adopted with help from parents/companions and clinical staff.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Lasers , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Estomatite/diagnóstico , Estomatite/etiologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Hum Immunol ; 75(7): 662-6, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24759676

RESUMO

B+NK+SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) due to IL7Rα deficiency represents approximately 10% of American SCID cases. To better understand the spectrum of autoimmune disorders associated with IL7Rα deficiency, we describe two unrelated IL7Rα-deficient female SCID infants whose clinical picture was dominated by autoimmune manifestations: one with intrauterine Omenn syndrome (OS) and another with persistent thrombocytopenic purpura since 4months of age. The OS baby harbored a homozygous p.C118Y mutation in IL7R. She presented dense eosinophilic infiltrates in several organs, including pancarditis, which may have contributed to her death (on the 2nd day of life). B cells were observed in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and thymus. The second patient harbored compound heterozygous p.C118Y and p.I121NfsX8 mutations. She underwent a successful unrelated cord blood transplant. In conclusion, early OS can be observed in patients with IL7R mutations, and autoimmune cytopenias could also complicate the clinical course of SCID babies with this type of defect.


Assuntos
Mutação , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-7/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Sequência de Bases , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/patologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia , Receptores de Interleucina-7/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 9(2)abr.-jun. 2011. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-594921

RESUMO

Objective: To report the experience of a tertiary care hospital with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with primary immunodeficiencies. Methods: Seven pediatric patients with primary immunodeficiencies (severe combined immunodeficiency: n = 2; combined immunodeficiency: n = 1; chronic granulomatous disease: n = 1; hyper-IgM syndrome: n = 2; and IPEX syndrome: n = 1) who underwent eight hematopoietic stem cell transplants in a single center, from 2007 to 2010, were studied. Results: Two patients received transplants from HLA-identical siblings; the other six transplants were done with unrelated donors (bone marrow: n = 1; cord blood:n = 5). All patients had pre-existing infections before hematopoietic stem cell transplants. One patient received only anti-thymocyte globulin prior to transplant, three transplants were done with reduced intensity conditioning regimens and four transplants were done after myeloablative therapy. Two patients were not evaluated for engraftmentdue to early death. Three patients engrafted, two had primary graft failure and one received a second transplant with posterior engraftment. Two patients died of regimen related toxicity (hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome); one patient died of progressive respiratory failure due to Parainfluenza infection present prior to transplant. Four patients are alive and well from 60 days to 14 months after transplant. Conclusion: Patients' status prior to transplant is the most important risk factor on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplants in the treatment of these diseases. Early diagnosis and the possibility of a faster referral of these patients for treatment in reference centers may substantially improve their survival and quality of life.


Objetivo: Relatar a experiência de um hospital terciário no tratamento de pacientes pediátricos com imunodeficiências primárias com transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas. Métodos: De 2007 a 2010, foram realizados oito transplantes em sete pacientes pediátricos com imunodeficiências primárias: imunodeficiência combinada grave (n = 2); imunodeficiência combinada (n = 1); doença granulomatosa crônica (n = 1); síndrome hiper-IgM (n = 2); síndrome IPEX (n=1). Resultados: Dois pacientes foram transplantados com medula óssea de irmãos HLA-idênticos; seis transplantes foram feitos com doadores não aparentados (medula óssea: n = 1; sangue de cordão umbilical: n = 5). Todos os pacientes haviam tido episódios de infecção grave previamente ao tratamento. Um paciente recebeu apenas globulina antitimocítica antes do transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas, três transplantes foram feitos com quimioterapia de intensidade reduzida e quatro após quimioterapia mieloablativa. Dois pacientes morreram precocemente e não foram avaliados em relação à enxertia. Três pacientes tiveram enxertia completa, dois evoluíram com falha primária de pega, um deles recebeu um segundo transplante com pega do enxerto. Dois pacientes morreram de toxicidade do transplante (síndrome da obstrução sinusoidal hepática), um paciente morreu de insuficiência respiratória por infecção por parainfluenza já existente antes do transplante. Quatro pacientes estão vivos e bem entre 60 dias e 14 meses após o transplante. Conclusão: A condição do paciente ao transplante é o fator mais importante no sucesso do tratamento. O diagnóstico precoce dos pacientes e a possibilidade de encaminhá-los mais rapidamente para tratamento em centros de referência podem melhorar substancialmente a sobrevida e a qualidade de vida deles.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas
13.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 9(2): 140-4, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26760806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the experience of a tertiary care hospital with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with primary immunodeficiencies. METHODS: Seven pediatric patients with primary immunodeficiencies (severe combined immunodeficiency: n = 2; combined immunodeficiency: n = 1; chronic granulomatous disease: n = 1; hyper-IgM syndrome: n = 2; and IPEX syndrome: n = 1) who underwent eight hematopoietic stem cell transplants in a single center, from 2007 to 2010, were studied. RESULTS: Two patients received transplants from HLA-identical siblings; the other six transplants were done with unrelated donors (bone marrow: n = 1; cord blood: n = 5). All patients had pre-existing infections before hematopoietic stem cell transplants. One patient received only anti-thymocyte globulin prior to transplant, three transplants were done with reduced intensity conditioning regimens and four transplants were done after myeloablative therapy. Two patients were not evaluated for engraftment due to early death. Three patients engrafted, two had primary graft failure and one received a second transplant with posterior engraftment. Two patients died of regimen related toxicity (hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome); one patient died of progressive respiratory failure due to Parainfluenza infection present prior to transplant. Four patients are alive and well from 60 days to 14 months after transplant. CONCLUSION: Patients' status prior to transplant is the most important risk factor on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplants in the treatment of these diseases. Early diagnosis and the possibility of a faster referral of these patients for treatment in reference centers may substantially improve their survival and quality of life.

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