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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2154, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089142

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and has a strong heritable basis. We report a genome-wide association analysis of 34,627 CRC cases and 71,379 controls of European ancestry that identifies SNPs at 31 new CRC risk loci. We also identify eight independent risk SNPs at the new and previously reported European CRC loci, and a further nine CRC SNPs at loci previously only identified in Asian populations. We use in situ promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C), gene expression, and in silico annotation methods to identify likely target genes of CRC SNPs. Whilst these new SNP associations implicate target genes that are enriched for known CRC pathways such as Wnt and BMP, they also highlight novel pathways with no prior links to colorectal tumourigenesis. These findings provide further insight into CRC susceptibility and enhance the prospects of applying genetic risk scores to personalised screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
2.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 19, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several hundred susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical, but unresolved, issue concerns the extent to which the mechanisms through which these diverse signals influencing T2D predisposition converge on a limited set of biological processes. However, the causal variants identified by GWAS mostly fall into a non-coding sequence, complicating the task of defining the effector transcripts through which they operate. METHODS: Here, we describe implementation of an analytical pipeline to address this question. First, we integrate multiple sources of genetic, genomic and biological data to assign positional candidacy scores to the genes that map to T2D GWAS signals. Second, we introduce genes with high scores as seeds within a network optimization algorithm (the asymmetric prize-collecting Steiner tree approach) which uses external, experimentally confirmed protein-protein interaction (PPI) data to generate high-confidence sub-networks. Third, we use GWAS data to test the T2D association enrichment of the "non-seed" proteins introduced into the network, as a measure of the overall functional connectivity of the network. RESULTS: We find (a) non-seed proteins in the T2D protein-interaction network so generated (comprising 705 nodes) are enriched for association to T2D (p = 0.0014) but not control traits, (b) stronger T2D-enrichment for islets than other tissues when we use RNA expression data to generate tissue-specific PPI networks and (c) enhanced enrichment (p = 3.9 × 10- 5) when we combine the analysis of the islet-specific PPI network with a focus on the subset of T2D GWAS loci which act through defective insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses reveal a pattern of non-random functional connectivity between candidate causal genes at T2D GWAS loci and highlight the products of genes including YWHAG, SMAD4 or CDK2 as potential contributors to T2D-relevant islet dysfunction. The approach we describe can be applied to other complex genetic and genomic datasets, facilitating integration of diverse data types into disease-associated networks.

3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(7): 1191-1200, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of mitochondrial genome variation on the DNA methylome of articular cartilage. METHODS: DNA methylation profiling was performed using data deposited in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database (accession no. GSE43269). Data were obtained for 14 cartilage samples from subjects with haplogroup J and 20 cartilage samples from subjects with haplogroup H. Subsequent validation was performed in an independent subset of 7 subjects with haplogroup J and 9 with haplogroup H by RNA-seq. Correlated genes were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction in an independent cohort of 12 subjects with haplogroup J and 12 with haplogroup H. Appropriate analyses were performed using R Bioconductor and qBasePlus software, and gene ontology analysis was conducted using DAVID version 6.8. RESULTS: DNA methylation profiling revealed 538 differentially methylated loci, while whole-transcriptome profiling identified 2,384 differentially expressed genes, between cartilage samples from subjects with haplogroup H and those with haplogroup J. Seventeen genes showed an inverse correlation between methylation and expression. In terms of gene ontology, differences in correlations between methylation and expression were also detected between cartilage from subjects with haplogroup H and those with haplogroup J, highlighting a significantly enhanced apoptotic process in cartilage from subjects with haplogroup H (P = 0.007 for methylation and P = 0.019 for expression) and repressed apoptotic process in cartilage from subjects with haplogroup J (P = 0.021 for methylation), as well as a significant enrichment of genes related to metabolic processes (P = 1.93 × 10-4 for methylation and P = 6.79 x 10-4 for expression) and regulation of gene expression (P = 0.012 for methylation) in cartilage from subjects with haplogroup H, and to developmental processes (P = 0.015 for methylation and P = 8.25 x 10-12 for expression) in cartilage from subjects with haplogroup J. CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial DNA variation differentially associates with the methylation status of articular cartilage by acting on key mechanisms involved in osteoarthritis, such as apoptosis and metabolic and developmental processes.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007813, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566500

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology. Affected women frequently have metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. PCOS is diagnosed with two different sets of diagnostic criteria, resulting in a phenotypic spectrum of PCOS cases. The genetic similarities between cases diagnosed based on the two criteria have been largely unknown. Previous studies in Chinese and European subjects have identified 16 loci associated with risk of PCOS. We report a fixed-effect, inverse-weighted-variance meta-analysis from 10,074 PCOS cases and 103,164 controls of European ancestry and characterisation of PCOS related traits. We identified 3 novel loci (near PLGRKT, ZBTB16 and MAPRE1), and provide replication of 11 previously reported loci. Only one locus differed significantly in its association by diagnostic criteria; otherwise the genetic architecture was similar between PCOS diagnosed by self-report and PCOS diagnosed by NIH or non-NIH Rotterdam criteria across common variants at 13 loci. Identified variants were associated with hyperandrogenism, gonadotropin regulation and testosterone levels in affected women. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis revealed genetic correlations with obesity, fasting insulin, type 2 diabetes, lipid levels and coronary artery disease, indicating shared genetic architecture between metabolic traits and PCOS. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested variants associated with body mass index, fasting insulin, menopause timing, depression and male-pattern balding play a causal role in PCOS. The data thus demonstrate 3 novel loci associated with PCOS and similar genetic architecture for all diagnostic criteria. The data also provide the first genetic evidence for a male phenotype for PCOS and a causal link to depression, a previously hypothesized comorbid disease. Thus, the genetics provide a comprehensive view of PCOS that encompasses multiple diagnostic criteria, gender, reproductive potential and mental health.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo
6.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 572-580, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632379

RESUMO

Individual risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is modified by perturbations to the mass, distribution and function of adipose tissue. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations, we explored the molecular, cellular and whole-body effects of T2D-associated alleles near KLF14. We show that KLF14 diabetes-risk alleles act in adipose tissue to reduce KLF14 expression and modulate, in trans, the expression of 385 genes. We demonstrate, in human cellular studies, that reduced KLF14 expression increases pre-adipocyte proliferation but disrupts lipogenesis, and in mice, that adipose tissue-specific deletion of Klf14 partially recapitulates the human phenotype of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and T2D. We show that carriers of the KLF14 T2D risk allele shift body fat from gynoid stores to abdominal stores and display a marked increase in adipocyte cell size, and that these effects on fat distribution, and the T2D association, are female specific. The metabolic risk associated with variation at this imprinted locus depends on the sex both of the subject and of the parent from whom the risk allele derives.

7.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 137, 2017 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28273936

RESUMO

Currently there are no sufficiently sensitive biomarkers able to reflect changes in joint remodelling during osteoarthritis (OA). In this work, we took an affinity proteomic approach to profile serum samples for proteins that could serve as indicators for the diagnosis of radiographic knee OA. Antibody suspension bead arrays were applied to analyze serum samples from patients with OA (n = 273), control subjects (n = 76) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 244). For verification, a focused bead array was built and applied to an independent set of serum samples from patients with OA (n = 188), control individuals (n = 83) and RA (n = 168) patients. A linear regression analysis adjusting for sex, age and body mass index (BMI) revealed that three proteins were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in serum from OA patients compared to controls: C3, ITIH1 and S100A6. A panel consisting of these three proteins had an area under the curve of 0.82 for the classification of OA and control samples. Moreover, C3 and ITIH1 levels were also found to be significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in OA patients compared to RA patients. Upon validation in additional study sets, the alterations of these three candidate serum biomarker proteins could support the diagnosis of radiographic knee OA.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho/sangue , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Nature ; 538(7624): 248-252, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27680694

RESUMO

Birth weight (BW) has been shown to be influenced by both fetal and maternal factors and in observational studies is reproducibly associated with future risk of adult metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. These life-course associations have often been attributed to the impact of an adverse early life environment. Here, we performed a multi-ancestry genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of BW in 153,781 individuals, identifying 60 loci where fetal genotype was associated with BW (P < 5 × 10-8). Overall, approximately 15% of variance in BW was captured by assays of fetal genetic variation. Using genetic association alone, we found strong inverse genetic correlations between BW and systolic blood pressure (Rg = -0.22, P = 5.5 × 10-13), T2D (Rg = -0.27, P = 1.1 × 10-6) and coronary artery disease (Rg = -0.30, P = 6.5 × 10-9). In addition, using large -cohort datasets, we demonstrated that genetic factors were the major contributor to the negative covariance between BW and future cardiometabolic risk. Pathway analyses indicated that the protein products of genes within BW-associated regions were enriched for diverse processes including insulin signalling, glucose homeostasis, glycogen biosynthesis and chromatin remodelling. There was also enrichment of associations with BW in known imprinted regions (P = 1.9 × 10-4). We demonstrate that life-course associations between early growth phenotypes and adult cardiometabolic disease are in part the result of shared genetic effects and identify some of the pathways through which these causal genetic effects are mediated.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feto/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Antropometria , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Impressão Genômica/genética , Genótipo , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicogênio/biossíntese , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Cell Metab ; 23(1): 179-93, 2016 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626461

RESUMO

Pancreatic ß cells are mostly post-mitotic, but it is unclear what locks them in this state. Perturbations including uncontrolled hyperglycemia can drive ß cells into more pliable states with reduced cellular insulin levels, increased ß cell proliferation, and hormone mis-expression, but it is unknown whether reduced insulin production itself plays a role. Here, we define the effects of ∼50% reduced insulin production in Ins1(-/-):Ins2(f/f):Pdx1Cre(ERT):mTmG mice prior to robust hyperglycemia. Transcriptome, proteome, and network analysis revealed alleviation of chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, indicated by reduced Ddit3, Trib3, and Atf4 expression; reduced Xbp1 splicing; and reduced phospho-eIF2α. This state was associated with hyper-phosphorylation of Akt, which is negatively regulated by Trib3, and with cyclinD1 upregulation. Remarkably, ß cell proliferation was increased 2-fold after reduced insulin production independently of hyperglycemia. Eventually, recombined cells mis-expressed glucagon in the hyperglycemic state. We conclude that the normally high rate of insulin production suppresses ß cell proliferation in a cell-autonomous manner.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/biossíntese , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Metaboloma , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
10.
PeerJ ; 3: e1429, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26618092

RESUMO

Background. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) responsible for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) represent a major threat for human consumers of shellfish. The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA), a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the primary cause of acute DSP intoxications. Although several studies have described the molecular effects of high OA concentrations on sentinel organisms (e.g., bivalve molluscs), the effect of prolonged exposures to low (sublethal) OA concentrations is still unknown. In order to fill this gap, this work combines Next-Generation sequencing and custom-made microarray technologies to develop an unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic response of mussels during early stages of a DSP bloom. Methods. Mussel specimens were exposed to a HAB episode simulating an early stage DSP bloom (200 cells/L of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima for 24 h). The unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic responses triggered by OA was carried out using two complementary methods of cDNA library preparation: normalized and Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). Libraries were sequenced and read datasets were mapped to Gene Ontology and KEGG databases. A custom-made oligonucleotide microarray was developed based on these data, completing the expression analysis of digestive gland and gill tissues. Results. Our findings show that exposure to sublethal concentrations of OA is enough to induce gene expression modifications in the mussel Mytilus. Transcriptomic analyses revealed an increase in proteasomal activity, molecular transport, cell cycle regulation, energy production and immune activity in mussels. Oppositely, a number of transcripts hypothesized to be responsive to OA (notably the Serine/Threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A) failed to show substantial modifications. Both digestive gland and gill tissues responded similarly to OA, although expression modifications were more dramatic in the former, supporting the choice of this tissue for future biomonitoring studies. Discussion. Exposure to OA concentrations within legal limits for safe consumption of shellfish is enough to disrupt important cellular processes in mussels, eliciting sharp transcriptional changes as a result. By combining the study of cDNA libraries and a custom-made OA-specific microarray, our work provides a comprehensive characterization of the OA-specific transcriptome, improving the accuracy of the analysis of expresion profiles compared to single-replicated RNA-seq methods. The combination of our data with related studies helps understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying molecular responses to DSP episodes in marine organisms, providing useful information to develop a new generation of tools for the monitoring of OA pollution.

11.
J Proteome Res ; 13(12): 6096-106, 2014 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25383958

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common rheumatic pathology and is characterized primarily by articular cartilage degradation. Despite its high prevalence, there is no effective therapy to slow disease progression or regenerate the damaged tissue. Therefore, new diagnostic and monitoring tests for OA are urgently needed, which would also promote the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we have performed an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of secretomes from healthy human articular cartilage explants, comparing their protein profile to those from unwounded (early disease) and wounded (advanced disease) zones of osteoarthritic tissue. This strategy allowed us to identify a panel of 76 proteins that are distinctively released by the diseased tissue. Clustering analysis allowed the classification of proteins according to their different profile of release from cartilage. Among these proteins, the altered release of osteoprotegerin (decreased in OA) and periostin (increased in OA), both involved in bone remodelling processes, was verified in further analyses. Moreover, periostin was also increased in the synovial fluid of OA patients. Altogether, the present work provides a novel insight into the mechanisms of human cartilage degradation and a number of new cartilage-characteristic proteins with possible biomarker value for early diagnosis and prognosis of OA.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
12.
J Proteome Res ; 13(11): 5218-29, 2014 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25227461

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common rheumatic disease and one of the most disabling pathologies worldwide. To date, the diagnostic methods of OA are very limited, and there are no available medications capable of halting its characteristic cartilage degeneration. Therefore, there is a significant interest in new biomarkers useful for the early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic monitoring. In the recent years, protein microarrays have emerged as a powerful proteomic tool to search for new biomarkers. In this study, we have used two concepts for generating protein arrays, antigen microarrays, and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein arrays), to characterize differential autoantibody profiles in a set of 62 samples from OA, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and healthy controls. An untargeted screen was performed on 3840 protein fragments spotted on planar antigen arrays, and 373 antigens were selected for validation on bead-based arrays. In the NAPPA approach, a targeted screening was performed on 80 preselected proteins. The autoantibody targeting CHST14 was validated by ELISA in the same set of patients. Altogether, nine and seven disease related autoantibody target candidates were identified, and this work demonstrates a combination of these two array concepts for biomarker discovery and their usefulness for characterizing disease-specific autoantibody profiles.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Osteoartrite/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sulfotransferases/imunologia
13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 73(4): 668-77, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23505229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alterations in DNA methylation patterns have been found to correlate with several diseases including osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to identify, for the first time, the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of human articular chondrocytes from OA cartilage and healthy control cartilage samples. METHODS: DNA methylation profiling was performed using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 in 25 patients with OA and 20 healthy controls. Subsequent validation was performed by genome-wide expression analysis using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.1 ST array in an independent cohort of 24 patients with OA. Finally, the most consistent genes in both assays were amplified by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in a validation cohort of 48 patients using microfluidic real-time quantitative PCR. Appropriate bioinformatics analyses were carried out using R bioconductor software packages and qBase plus software from Biogazelle. RESULTS: We found 91 differentially methylated (DM) probes, which permitted us to separate patients with OA from healthy controls. Among the patients with OA, we detected 1357 DM probes that identified a tight cluster of seven patients who were different from the rest. This cluster was also identified by genome-wide expression in which 450 genes were differentially expressed. Further validation of the most consistent genes in an independent cohort of patients with OA permitted us to identify this cluster, which was characterised by increased inflammatory processes. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to identify a tight subgroup of patients with OA, characterised by an increased inflammatory response that could be regulated by epigenetics. The identification and isolation of this subgroup may be critical for the development of effective treatment and disease prevention.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Osteoartrite do Joelho/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
14.
Mar Drugs ; 11(11): 4370-89, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24189277

RESUMO

The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal groups, relatively unexplored and without representation within the narrow collection of well established model organisms. Within this Phylum, bivalve molluscs play a fundamental role in the functioning of the marine ecosystem, constitute very valuable commercial resources in aquaculture, and have been widely used as sentinel organisms in the biomonitoring of marine pollution. Yet, it has only been very recently that this complex group of organisms became a preferential subject for omic studies, posing new challenges for their integrative characterization. The present contribution aims to give a detailed insight into the state of the art of the omic studies and functional information analysis of bivalve molluscs, providing a timely perspective on the available data resources and on the current and prospective applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds.


Assuntos
Bivalves/genética , Bivalves/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos
15.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 29(3): 189-97, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23657590

RESUMO

Okadaic acid (OA), produced by dinoflagellates during harmful algal blooms (HAB), belongs to the Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning toxins that cause gastrointestinal symptoms in humans after consumption. In the present work, Ruditapes decussatus haemocytes were selected to evaluate the effect of OA on cell viability, enzymatic status and immune capacity through the measure by flow cytometry of apoptosis-cell death, non-specific esterase activity and phagocytosis. In order to compare different exposure conditions, two experiments were developed: in vitro exposure to OA and HAB simulation by feeding clams with the OA producer, Prorocentrum lima. Apoptosis was not OA dose-dependent and cell death increased in both assays. Phagocytosis of latex beads and esterase activity decreased in haemocytes incubated with OA. In contrast, esterases increased during the feeding with P. lima. Our results showed that OA and the simulated HAB caused damages on haemocyte functions and viability.


Assuntos
Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/fisiologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Okadáico/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioensaio , Bivalves/citologia , Bivalves/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterases/antagonistas & inibidores , Esterases/metabolismo , Hemócitos/citologia , Humanos , Microesferas , Ácido Okadáico/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 92: 303-11, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23561263

RESUMO

Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most common and highly distributed marine toxins. It can be accumulated in several molluscs and other marine organisms and cause acute gastrointestinal symptoms after oral consumption by humans, called diarrheic shellfish poisoning. However other toxic effects beyond these gastrointestinal symptoms were also reported. Thus, OA was found to induce important chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic injuries that can lead to severe pathologies, including cancer. Furthermore, the relationship between OA and carcinogenic processes has been previously demonstrated in in vivo studies with rodents, and also suggested in human epidemiological studies. In this context, further research is required to better understand the underlying mechanisms of OA-related tumourigenesis. In a previous study, we identified 247 genes differentially expressed in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to 100nM OA at different times (3, 24 and 48h) by means of suppression subtractive hybridization. These genes were involved in relevant cell functions such as signal transduction, cell cycle, metabolism, and transcription and translation processes. However, due to the high potential percentage of false positives that may be obtained by this approach, results from SSH are recommended to be analyzed by an independent method. In the present study, we selected ten genes related to cancer initiation or progression, directly or indirectly, for further quantitative PCR analysis (ANAPC13, PTTG1, CALM2, CLU, HN1, MALAT1, MAPRE2, MLLT11, SGA-81M and TAX1BP1). Results obtained showed important alterations in the expression patterns of all the genes evaluated at one or more treatment times, providing, for the first time, a possible explanation at the molecular level of the potential relationship between the consumption of OA-contaminated shellfish and the incidence of different cancers in humans. Nevertheless, given the complexity of this process, more exhaustive studies are required before drawing any final conclusion.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Okadáico/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar
17.
Mar Drugs ; 11(3): 830-41, 2013 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23481679

RESUMO

Okadaic Acid (OA) constitutes the main active principle in Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins produced during Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), representing a serious threat for human consumers of edible shellfish. Furthermore, OA conveys critical deleterious effects for marine organisms due to its genotoxic potential. Many efforts have been dedicated to OA biomonitoring during the last three decades. However, it is only now with the current availability of detailed molecular information on DNA organization and the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of genome integrity, that a new arena starts opening up for the study of OA contamination. In the present work we address the links between OA genotoxicity and chromatin by combining Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies and bioinformatics. To this end, we introduce CHROMEVALOAdb, a public database containing the chromatin-associated transcriptome of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (a sentinel model organism) in response to OA exposure. This resource constitutes a leap forward for the development of chromatin-based biomarkers, paving the road towards the generation of powerful and sensitive tests for the detection and evaluation of the genotoxic effects of OA in coastal areas.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Mutagênicos/análise , Mytilus/genética , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Animais , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/isolamento & purificação , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Cromatina/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Mutagênicos/isolamento & purificação , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Ácido Okadáico/toxicidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma
18.
J Transl Med ; 10: 186, 2012 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22954417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are aberrantly expressed and correlate with tumourigenesis and the progression of solid tumours. The miR-200 family determines the epithelial phenotype of cancer cells and regulates invasiveness and migration. Thus, we hypothesised that the quantitative detection of the miR-200 family as epithelial-specific microRNAs in the blood could be a useful clinical biomarker for gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We initially validated the expression levels of miR-200a, 200b, 200c and 141 in GC cell lines (n = 2) and blood from healthy controls (n = 19) using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The microarray expression profiles of the miR-200 family in 160 paired samples of non-tumour gastric mucosae and GC were downloaded through ArrayExpress and analysed. MiR-200c was selected for clinical validation. The qRT-PCR prospective assessment of miR-200c was performed using 67 blood samples (52 stage I-IV GC patients and 15 controls); the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) was estimated. The Kaplan-Meier and Breslow-Wilcoxon tests were used to assess the correlation of miR-200c with overall and progression-free survival (OS and PFS). Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox model. RESULTS: The miR-200c blood expression levels in GC patients were significantly higher than in normal controls (p = 0.018). The AUC-ROC was 0.715 (p = 0.012). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rates of 65.4%, 100% and 73.1%, respectively, were observed. The levels of miR-200c in the blood above the cutoff defined by the ROC curve was found in 17.6% of stage I-II GC patients, 20.6% of stage III patients and 67.7% of stage IV patients (p < 0.001). The miR-200c expression levels were not associated with clinical or pathological characteristics or recent surgical procedures. There was a correlation (p = 0.016) with the number of lymph node metastases and the increased expression levels of miR-200c in blood were significantly associated with a poor OS (median OS, 9 vs 24 months; p = 0.016) and PFS (median PFS, 4 vs 11 months; p = 0.044). Multivariate analyses confirmed that the upregulation of miR-200c in the blood was associated with OS (HR = 2.24; p = 0.028) and PFS (HR = 2.27; p = 0.028), independent of clinical covariates. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that increased miR-200c levels are detected in the blood of gastric cancer patients. MiR-200c has the potential to be a predictor of progression and survival.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 81: 90-3, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23000349

RESUMO

Individuals of Mytilus galloprovincialis, contaminated with Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins, were studied with the aim to correlate the okadaic acid (OA) body burden and the percentage of damaged haemocytes by quantifying annexin V positive cells by flow cytometry. Results showed less percentage of damaged haemocytes in high OA contaminated samples. These data were compared with results of in vitro assays of mussel haemocytes exposed to increased concentrations of OA. Similarly, haemocytes exposed to the most concentrated OA solution were less damaged.


Assuntos
Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Okadáico/farmacologia , Animais , Anexina A5/análise , Anexina A5/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
20.
J AOAC Int ; 95(3): 820-3, 2012 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22816274

RESUMO

European Council Regulation 104/2000 states that fishery products must be labeled to indicate commercial designation of species, the production method, and the catch area. Therefore, traceability of seafood implies knowledge of the species offered to retail and their origin. Ensis siliqua is a bivalve intensively fished in Europe and sold in fresh and canned forms. Although several published methods clearly differentiate Ensis genus species, none of those assess the origin of the commercial samples. In the present study, a microsatellite marker (Esi-UDC3055F) was developed to establish the catch area of E. siliqua samples. Amplification yielded a fragment of 275 or 302 base pairs, depending on whether they were Iberian or Irish populations. The usefulness of this method was also assessed in commercial samples. The results of this study provide a reliable methodology for the identification of catch area in European E. siliqua commercial samples. The coupling of this methodology with existing techniques for razor clam species identification provides a powerful tool for traceability and labeling enforcement.


Assuntos
Bivalves/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie
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