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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe, delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR). We observed DRESS to inhibitors of interleukin 1 (IL-1) or IL-6 in a small group of patients with Still's disease with atypical lung disease. We sought to characterise features of patients with Still's disease with DRESS compared with drug-tolerant Still's controls. We analysed human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for association to inhibitor-related DHR, including in a small Kawasaki disease (KD) cohort. METHODS: In a case/control study, we collected a multicentre series of patients with Still's disease with features of inhibitor-related DRESS (n=66) and drug-tolerant Still's controls (n=65). We retrospectively analysed clinical data from all Still's subjects and typed 94/131 for HLA. European Still's-DRESS cases were ancestry matched to International Childhood Arthritis Genetics Consortium paediatric Still's cases (n=550) and compared for HLA allele frequencies. HLA association also was analysed using Still's-DRESS cases (n=64) compared with drug-tolerant Still's controls (n=30). KD subjects (n=19) were similarly studied. RESULTS: Still's-DRESS features included eosinophilia (89%), AST-ALT elevation (75%) and non-evanescent rash (95%; 88% involving face). Macrophage activation syndrome during treatment was frequent in Still's-DRESS (64%) versus drug-tolerant Still's (3%; p=1.2×10-14). We found striking enrichment for HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes in Still's-DRESS cases versus INCHARGE Still's controls (p=7.5×10-13) and versus self-identified, ancestry-matched Still's controls (p=6.3×10-10). In the KD cohort, DRB1*15:01 was present only in those with suspected anakinra reactions. CONCLUSIONS: DRESS-type reactions occur among patients treated with IL-1/IL-6 inhibitors and strongly associate with common HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes. Consideration of preprescription HLA typing and vigilance for serious reactions to these drugs are warranted.

2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633459

RESUMO

The killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules to regulate the cytotoxic and inflammatory responses of natural killer cells. KIR genes are encoded by a rapidly evolving gene family on chromosome 19 and present an unusual variation of presence and absence of genes and high allelic diversity. Although many studies have associated KIR polymorphism with susceptibility to several diseases over the last decades, the high-resolution allele-level haplotypes have only recently started to be described in populations. Here, we use a highly innovative custom next-generation sequencing method that provides a state-of-art characterization of KIR and HLA diversity in 706 individuals from eight unique South American populations: five Amerindian populations from Brazil (three Guarani and two Kaingang); one Amerindian population from Paraguay (Aché); and two urban populations from Southern Brazil (European and Japanese descendants from Curitiba). For the first time, we describe complete high-resolution KIR haplotypes in South American populations, exploring copy number, linkage disequilibrium, and KIR-HLA interactions. We show that all Amerindians analyzed to date exhibit the lowest numbers of KIR-HLA interactions among all described worldwide populations, and that 83-97% of their KIR-HLA interactions rely on a few HLA-C molecules. Using multiple approaches, we found signatures of strong purifying selection on the KIR centromeric region, which codes for the strongest NK cell educator receptors, possibly driven by the limited HLA diversity in these populations. Our study expands the current knowledge of KIR genetic diversity in populations to understand KIR-HLA coevolution and its impact on human health and survival.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of severe outcomes during COVID-19. Antibodies against the virus are thought to offer protection, but a thorough characterization of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune globulin isotypes in kidney transplant recipients following SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been reported. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 49 kidney transplant recipients and 42 immunocompetent controls at early (≤14 days) or late (>14 days) time points after documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using a validated semiquantitative Luminex-based multiplex assay, we determined the abundances of IgM, IgG, IgG1-4, and IgA antibodies against five distinct viral epitopes. RESULTS: Kidney transplant recipients showed lower levels of total IgG antitrimeric spike (S), S1, S2, and receptor binding domain (RBD) but not nucleocapsid (NC) at early versus late time points after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Early levels of IgG antispike protein epitopes were also lower than in immunocompetent controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were predominantly IgG1 and IgG3, with modest class switching to IgG2 or IgG4 in either cohort. Later levels of IgG antispike, S1, S2, RBD, and NC did not significantly differ between cohorts. There was no significant difference in the kinetics of either IgM or IgA antispike, S1, RBD, or S2 on the basis of timing after diagnosis or transplant status. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplant recipients mount early anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgM responses, whereas IgG responses are delayed compared with immunocompetent individuals. These findings might explain the poor outcomes in transplant recipients with COVID-19.

4.
Hum Immunol ; 82(11): 820-828, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479742

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) is being applied for HLA typing in research and clinical settings. NGS HLA typing has made it feasible to sequence exons, introns and untranslated regions simultaneously, with significantly reduced labor and reagent cost per sample, rapid turnaround time, and improved HLA genotype accuracy. NGS technologies bring challenges for cost-effective computation, data processing and exchange of NGS-based HLA data. To address these challenges, guidelines and specifications such as Genotype List (GL) String, Minimum Information for Reporting Immunogenomic NGS Genotyping (MIRING), and Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language (HML) were proposed to streamline and standardize reporting of HLA genotypes. As part of the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW), we implemented standards and systems for HLA genotype reporting that included GL String, MIRING and HML, and found that misunderstanding or misinterpretations of these standards led to inconsistencies in the reporting of NGS HLA genotyping results. This may be due in part to a historical lack of centralized data reporting standards in the histocompatibility and immunogenetics community. We have worked with software and database developers, clinicians and scientists to address these issues in a collaborative fashion as part of the Data Standard Hackathons (DaSH) for NGS. Here we report several categories of challenges to the consistent exchange of NGS HLA genotyping data we have observed. We hope to address these challenges in future DaSH for NGS efforts.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 644838, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211458

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility shows strong genetic associations with HLA alleles and haplotypes. We genotyped 11 HLA genes in 477 non-Hispanic European MS patients and their 954 unaffected parents using a validated next-generation sequencing (NGS) methodology. HLA haplotypes were assigned unequivocally by tracing HLA allele transmissions. We explored HLA haplotype/allele associations with MS using the genotypic transmission disequilibrium test (gTDT) and multiallelic TDT (mTDT). We also conducted a case-control (CC) study with all patients and 2029 healthy unrelated ethnically matched controls. We performed separate analyses of 54 extended multi-case families by reviewing transmission of haplotype blocks. The haplotype fragment including DRB5*01:01:01~DRB1*15:01:01:01 was significantly associated with predisposition (gTDT: p < 2.20e-16; mTDT: p =1.61e-07; CC: p < 2.22e-16) as reported previously. A second risk allele, DPB1*104:01 (gTDT: p = 3.69e-03; mTDT: p = 2.99e-03; CC: p = 1.00e-02), independent from the haplotype bearing DRB1*15:01 was newly identified. The allele DRB1*01:01:01 showed significant protection (gTDT: p = 8.68e-06; mTDT: p = 4.50e-03; CC: p = 1.96e-06). Two DQB1 alleles, DQB1*03:01 (gTDT: p = 2.86e-03; mTDT: p = 5.56e-02; CC: p = 4.08e-05) and DQB1*03:03 (gTDT: p = 1.17e-02; mTDT: p = 1.16e-02; CC: p = 1.21e-02), defined at two-field level also showed protective effects. The HLA class I block, A*02:01:01:01~C*03:04:01:01~B*40:01:02 (gTDT: p = 5.86e-03; mTDT: p = 3.65e-02; CC: p = 9.69e-03) and the alleles B*27:05 (gTDT: p = 6.28e-04; mTDT: p = 2.15e-03; CC: p = 1.47e-02) and B*38:01 (gTDT: p = 3.20e-03; mTDT: p = 6.14e-03; CC: p = 1.70e-02) showed moderately protective effects independently from each other and from the class II associated factors. By comparing statistical significance of 11 HLA loci and 19 haplotype segments with both untruncated and two-field allele names, we precisely mapped MS candidate alleles/haplotypes while eliminating false signals resulting from 'hitchhiking' alleles. We assessed genetic burden for the HLA allele/haplotype identified in this study. This family-based study including the highest-resolution of HLA alleles proved to be powerful and efficient for precise identification of HLA genotypes associated with both, susceptibility and protection to development of MS.


Assuntos
Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-DP , Haplótipos , Esclerose Múltipla , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Antígenos HLA-DP/genética , Antígenos HLA-DP/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 667336, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163474

RESUMO

Genetic susceptibility to myasthenia gravis (MG) associates with specific HLA alleles and haplotypes at the class I and II regions in various populations. Previous studies have only examined alleles at a limited number of HLA loci that defined only broad serotypes or alleles defined at the protein sequence level. Consequently, genetic variants in noncoding and untranslated HLA gene segments have not been fully explored but could also be important determinants for MG. To gain further insight into the role of HLA in MG, we applied next-generation sequencing to analyze sequence variation at eleven HLA genes in early-onset (EO) and late-onset (LO) non-thymomatous MG patients positive for the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies and ethnically matched controls from Italy, Norway, and Sweden. For all three populations, alleles and haplotype blocks present on the ancestral haplotype AH8.1 were associated with risk in AChR-EOMG patients. HLA-B*08:01:01:01 was the dominant risk allele in Italians (OR = 3.28, P = 1.83E-05), Norwegians (OR = 3.52, P = 4.41E-16), and in Swedes HLA-B*08:01 was the primary risk allele (OR = 4.24, P <2.2E-16). Protective alleles and haplotype blocks were identified on the HLA-DRB7, and HLA-DRB13.1 class II haplotypes in Italians and Norwegians, whereas in Swedes HLA-DRB7 exhibited the main protective effect. For AChR-LOMG patients, the HLA-DRB15.1 haplotype and associated alleles were significantly associated with susceptibility in all groups. The HLA-DR13-HLA-DR-HLA-DQ haplotype was associated with protection in all AChR-LOMG groups. This study has confirmed and extended previous findings that the immunogenetic predisposition profiles for EOMG and LOMG are distinct. In addition, the results are consistent with a role for non-coding HLA genetic variants in the pathogenesis of MG.


Assuntos
Alelos , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Miastenia Gravis/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miastenia Gravis/epidemiologia , Miastenia Gravis/imunologia , Noruega , Suécia
7.
Hum Immunol ; 82(7): 505-522, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030896

RESUMO

The primary goal of the unrelated population HLA diversity (UPHD) component of the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop was to characterize HLA alleles at maximum allelic-resolution in worldwide populations and re-evaluate patterns of HLA diversity across populations. The UPHD project included HLA genotype and sequence data, generated by various next-generation sequencing methods, from 4,240 individuals collated from 12 different countries. Population data included well-defined large datasets from the USA and smaller samples from Europe, Australia, and Western Asia. Allele and haplotype frequencies varied across populations from distant geographical regions. HLA genetic diversity estimated at 2- and 4-field allelic resolution revealed that diversity at the majority of loci, particularly for European-descent populations, was lower at the 2-field resolution. Several common alleles with identical protein sequences differing only by intronic substitutions were found in distinct haplotypes, revealing a more detailed characterization of linkage between variants within the HLA region. The examination of coding and non-coding nucleotide variation revealed many examples in which almost complete biunivocal relations between common alleles at different loci were observed resulting in higher linkage disequilibrium. Our reference data of HLA profiles characterized at maximum resolution from many populations is useful for anthropological studies, unrelated donor searches, transplantation, and disease association studies.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674778, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025673

RESUMO

The KIR (killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) region is characterized by structural variation and high sequence similarity among genes, imposing technical difficulties for analysis. We undertook the most comprehensive study to date of KIR genetic diversity in a large population sample, applying next-generation sequencing in 2,130 United States European-descendant individuals. Data were analyzed using our custom bioinformatics pipeline specifically designed to address technical obstacles in determining KIR genotypes. Precise gene copy number determination allowed us to identify a set of uncommon gene-content KIR haplotypes accounting for 5.2% of structural variation. In this cohort, KIR2DL4 is the framework gene that most varies in copy number (6.5% of all individuals). We identified phased high-resolution alleles in large multi-locus insertions and also likely founder haplotypes from which they were deleted. Additionally, we observed 250 alleles at 5-digit resolution, of which 90 have frequencies ≥1%. We found sequence patterns that were consistent with the presence of novel alleles in 398 (18.7%) individuals and contextualized multiple orphan dbSNPs within the KIR complex. We also identified a novel KIR2DL1 variant, Pro151Arg, and demonstrated by molecular dynamics that this substitution is predicted to affect interaction with HLA-C. No previous studies have fully explored the full range of structural and sequence variation of KIR as we present here. We demonstrate that pairing high-throughput sequencing with state-of-art computational tools in a large cohort permits exploration of all aspects of KIR variation including determination of population-level haplotype diversity, improving understanding of the KIR system, and providing an important reference for future studies.


Assuntos
Variação Estrutural do Genoma/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores KIR/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , América do Norte , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(2): 142.e1-142.e11, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053450

RESUMO

Maximizing the probability of antigen presentation to T cells through diversity in HLAs can enhance immune responsiveness and translate into improved clinical outcomes, as evidenced by the association of heterozygosity and supertypes at HLA class I loci with improved survival in patients with advanced solid tumors treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. We investigated the impact of HLA heterozygosity, supertypes, and surface expression on outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent 8/8 HLA-matched, T cell replete, unrelated, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from 2000 to 2015 using patient data reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. HLA class I heterozygosity and HLA expression were not associated with overall survival, relapse, transplant-related mortality (TRM), disease-free survival (DFS), and acute graft-versus-host disease following HCT. The HLA-B62 supertype was associated with decreased TRM in the entire patient cohort (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.90; P = .00053). The HLA-B27 supertype was associated with worse DFS in patients with AML (HR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.32; P = .00005). These findings suggest that the survival benefit of HLA heterozygosity seen in solid tumor patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors does not extend to patients undergoing allogeneic HCT. Certain HLA supertypes, however, are associated with TRM and DFS, suggesting that similarities in peptide presentation between supertype members play a role in these outcomes. Beyond implications for prognosis following HCT, these findings support the further investigation of these HLA supertypes and the specific immune peptides important for transplant outcomes.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Adulto , Criança , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Doadores não Relacionados
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992947

RESUMO

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease of the hair follicle typically presenting recurrent, painful, and inflamed lesions on the inverse areas of the body. Although its pathogenesis remains unknown, the immune system appears to play a potential role. To date, two previous studies have not found any association between the Human Leukocyte Antigen system (HLA) and HS. In this study we analyzed the HLA-A, -B, -C; and DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 allele distribution in 106 HS patients and 262 healthy controls from a Caucasian population in Cantabria (northern Spain). HLA-A*29 and B*50 were significantly more common in HS patients and A*30 and B*37 in controls, but these associations disappeared after statistical correction. DRB1*07, DQA1*02, and DQB1*02 were significantly more common in controls (p 0.026, p 0.0012, and p 0.0005, respectively) and the HLA allele DQB1*03:01 was significantly more common in HS patients (p 0.00007) after the Bonferroni correction. The DRB1*07~DQA1*02~DQB1*02 haplotype was significantly more common in controls (p < 0.0005). This is the first study showing an association between HLA-class II and HS. Our results suggest that HLA-II alleles (DRB1*07, DQA1*02, DQB1*02, and DQB1*03:01) and the DRB1*07~DQA1*02~DQB1*02 haplotype could influence resistance or susceptibility to HS.

12.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766602

RESUMO

During COVID19 and other viral pandemics, rapid generation of host and pathogen genomic data is critical to tracking infection and informing therapies. There is an urgent need for efficient approaches to this data generation at scale. We have developed a scalable, high throughput approach to generate high fidelity low pass whole genome and HLA sequencing, viral genomes, and representation of human transcriptome from single nasopharyngeal swabs of COVID19 patients.

13.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 128S-137S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Law is an important factor in the diffusion of syringe services programs (SSPs). This study measures the current status of, and 5-year change in, state laws governing SSP operations and possession of syringes by participants. METHODS: Legal researchers developed a cross-sectional data set measuring key features of state laws and regulations governing the possession and distribution of syringes across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia in effect on August 1, 2019. We compared these data with previously collected data on laws as of August 1, 2014. RESULTS: Thirty-nine states (including the District of Columbia) had laws in effect on August 1, 2019, that removed legal impediments to, explicitly authorized, and/or regulated SSPs. Thirty-three states had 1 or more laws consistent with legal possession of syringes by SSP participants under at least some circumstances. Changes from 2014 to 2019 included an increase of 14 states explicitly authorizing SSPs by law and an increase of 12 states with at least 1 provision reducing legal barriers to SSPs. Since 2014, the number of states explicitly authorizing SSPs nearly doubled, and the new states included many rural, southern, or midwestern states that had been identified as having poor access to SSPs, as well as states at high risk for HIV and hepatitis C virus outbreaks. Substantial legal barriers to SSP operation and participant syringe possession remained in >20% of US states. CONCLUSION: Legal barriers to effective operation of SSPs have declined but continue to hinder the prevention and reduction of drug-related harm.


Assuntos
Programas de Troca de Agulhas/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Características de Residência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos
14.
J Immunol ; 205(5): 1323-1330, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709660

RESUMO

Immune dysfunction plays a role in the development of Parkinson disease (PD). NK cells regulate immune functions and are modulated by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). KIR are expressed on the surface of NK cells and interact with HLA class I ligands on the surface of all nucleated cells. We investigated KIR-allelic polymorphism to interrogate the role of NK cells in PD. We sequenced KIR genes from 1314 PD patients and 1978 controls using next-generation methods and identified KIR genotypes using custom bioinformatics. We examined associations of KIR with PD susceptibility and disease features, including age at disease onset and clinical symptoms. We identified two KIR3DL1 alleles encoding highly expressed inhibitory receptors associated with protection from PD clinical features in the presence of their cognate ligand: KIR3DL1*015/HLA-Bw4 from rigidity (p c = 0.02, odds ratio [OR] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.69) and KIR3DL1*002/HLA-Bw4i from gait difficulties (p c = 0.05, OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88), as well as composite symptoms associated with more severe disease. We also developed a KIR3DL1/HLA interaction strength metric and found that weak KIR3DL1/HLA interactions were associated with rigidity (pc = 0.05, OR = 9.73, 95% CI 2.13-172.5). Highly expressed KIR3DL1 variants protect against more debilitating symptoms of PD, strongly implying a role of NK cells in PD progression and manifestation.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Receptores KIR3DL1/genética , Alelos , Feminino , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Ligantes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 941, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547543

RESUMO

The highly polymorphic human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) also known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) encodes class I and II genes that are the cornerstone of the adaptive immune system. Their unique diversity (>25,000 alleles) might affect the outcome of any transplant, infection, and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. The recent rapid development of new next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods provides the opportunity to study the influence/correlation of this high level of HLA diversity on allele expression levels in health and disease. Here, we describe the NGS capture RNA-Seq method that we developed for genotyping all 12 classical HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4, and HLA-DRB5) and assessing their allelic imbalance by quantifying their allele RNA levels. This is a target enrichment method where total RNA is converted to a sequencing-ready complementary DNA (cDNA) library and hybridized to a complex pool of RNA-specific HLA biotinylated oligonucleotide capture probes, prior to NGS. This method was applied to 161 peripheral blood mononuclear cells and 48 umbilical cord blood cells of healthy donors. The differential allelic expression of 10 HLA loci (except for HLA-DRA and HLA-DPA1) showed strong significant differences (P < 2.1 × 10-15). The results were corroborated by independent methods. This newly developed NGS method could be applied to a wide range of biological and medical questions including graft rejections and HLA-related diseases.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haplótipos , RNA-Seq , Frequência do Gene , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(12): 2294-2297, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461586

RESUMO

The effects of donor-derived natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity on disease relapse and transplant-related mortality following allogeneic stem cell transplantation have been described while the impact of recipient-derived NK cell alloreactivity on donor engraftment is not well known. Epitopes of HLA Class I molecules act as ligands for NK cell killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) regulating their cytotoxicity. As such, NK cell alloreactivity is predictable from KIR ligand mismatches between donors and recipients. We analyzed the impact of KIR ligand mismatch (KIR-L-MM) on donor engraftment in 70 cord blood transplants (CBT) and 26 haploidentical transplants (HaploSCT). In CBT, host-versus-graft-directed KIR-L-MM predicted primary graft failure; an effect not mitigated by use of ATG. This trend was most significant with HLA-C KIR-L-MM. In addition, graft-versus-host-directed KIR-L-MM predicted the dominant cord blood unit in double CBT. In the limited HaploSCT cohort, host-versus-graft-directed KIR-L-MM did not predict graft failure. Time to neutrophil engraftment was unaffected by KIR-L-MM in either CBT or HaploSCT. The direction of KIR-L mismatch may be a parameter to consider when selecting CBT units to ensure successful engraftment. The role of KIR-L-MM in CBT and HaploSCT engraftment merits further exploration in a large transplant database.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Receptores KIR , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Ligantes , Doadores de Tecidos
17.
JCI Insight ; 5(6)2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213705

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus linked to a variety of lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. In solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, EBV is causally associated with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), a group of heterogeneous lymphoid diseases. EBV+ B cell lymphomas that develop in the context of PTLD are generally attributed to the immunosuppression required to promote graft survival, but little is known regarding the role of EBV genome diversity in the development of malignancy. We deep-sequenced the EBV genome from the peripheral blood of 18 solid organ transplant recipients, including 6 PTLD patients. Sequences from 6 EBV+ spontaneous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (SLCL) were similarly analyzed. The EBV genome from PTLD patients had a significantly greater number of variations than EBV from transplant recipients without PTLD. Importantly, there were 15 nonsynonymous variations, including 8 in the latent cycle gene EBNA3C that were associated with the development of PTLD. One of the nonsynonymous variations in EBNA3C is located within a previously defined T cell epitope. These findings suggest that variations in the EBV genome can contribute to the pathogenesis of PTLD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Antígenos Nucleares do Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3248, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094421

RESUMO

Here we studied HLA blocks and haplotypes in a group of 218 Lacandon Maya Native American using a high-resolution next generation sequencing (NGS) method. We assessed the genetic diversity of HLA class I and class II in this population, and determined the most probable ancestry of Lacandon Maya HLA class I and class II haplotypes. Importantly, this Native American group showed a high degree of both HLA homozygosity and linkage disequilibrium across the HLA region and also lower class II HLA allelic diversity than most previously reported populations (including other Native American groups). Distinctive alleles present in the Lacandon population include HLA-A*24:14 and HLA-B*40:08. Furthermore, in Lacandons we observed a high frequency of haplotypes containing the allele HLA-DRB1*04:11, a relatively frequent allele in comparison with other neighboring indigenous groups. The specific demographic history of the Lacandon population including inbreeding, as well as pathogen selection, may have elevated the frequencies of a small number of HLA class II alleles and DNA blocks. To assess the possible role of different selective pressures in determining Native American HLA diversity, we evaluated the relationship between genetic diversity at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 and pathogen richness for a global dataset and for Native American populations alone. In keeping with previous studies of such relationships we included distance from Africa as a covariate. After correction for multiple comparisons we did not find any significant relationship between pathogen diversity and HLA genetic diversity (as measured by polymorphism information content) in either our global dataset or the Native American subset of the dataset. We found the expected negative relationship between genetic diversity and distance from Africa in the global dataset, but no relationship between HLA genetic diversity and distance from Africa when Native American populations were considered alone.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Alelos , Nativos Estadunidenses , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Geografia , Antígenos HLA-A/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(528)2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996467

RESUMO

Preclinical studies have shown that persistent mixed chimerism is linked to acceptance of organ allografts without immunosuppressive (IS) drugs. Mixed chimerism refers to continued mixing of donor and recipient hematopoietic cells in recipient tissues after transplantation of donor cells. To determine whether persistent mixed chimerism and tolerance can be established in patients undergoing living donor kidney transplantation, we infused allograft recipients with donor T cells and hematopoietic progenitors after posttransplant lymphoid irradiation. In 24 of 29 fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched patients who had persistent mixed chimerism for at least 6 months, complete IS drug withdrawal was achieved without subsequent evidence of rejection for at least 2 years. In 10 of 22 HLA haplotype-matched patients with persistent mixed chimerism for at least 12 months, reduction of IS drugs to tacrolimus monotherapy was achieved. Withdrawal of tacrolimus during the second year resulted in loss of detectable chimerism and subsequent rejection episodes, unless tacrolimus therapy was reinstituted. Posttransplant immune reconstitution of naïve B cells and B cell precursors was more rapid than the reconstitution of naïve T cells and thymic T cell precursors. Robust chimerism was observed only among naïve T and B cells but not among memory T cells. No evidence of rejection was observed in all surveillance graft biopsies obtained from mixed chimeric patients withdrawn from IS drugs, and none developed graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, persistent mixed chimerism established in fully HLA- or haplotype-matched patients allowed for complete or partial IS drug withdrawal without rejection.


Assuntos
Quimerismo , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Transplante de Rim , Suspensão de Tratamento , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Haplótipos/genética , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Isoantígenos/imunologia , Teste de Cultura Mista de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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