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ACS Nano ; 13(4): 3847-3857, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816692


Multifunctional wearable e-textiles have been a focus of much attention due to their great potential for healthcare, sportswear, fitness, space, and military applications. Among them, electroconductive textile yarn shows great promise for use as next-generation flexible sensors without compromising the properties and comfort of usual textiles. However, the current manufacturing process of metal-based electroconductive textile yarn is expensive, unscalable, and environmentally unfriendly. Here we report a highly scalable and ultrafast production of graphene-based flexible, washable, and bendable wearable textile sensors. We engineer graphene flakes and their dispersions in order to select the best formulation for wearable textile application. We then use a high-speed yarn dyeing technique to dye (coat) textile yarn with graphene-based inks. Such graphene-based yarns are then integrated into a knitted structure as a flexible sensor and could send data wirelessly to a device via a self-powered RFID or a low-powered Bluetooth. The graphene textile sensor thus produced shows excellent temperature sensitivity, very good washability, and extremely high flexibility. Such a process could potentially be scaled up in a high-speed industrial setup to produce tonnes (∼1000 kg/h) of electroconductive textile yarns for next-generation wearable electronics applications.

ACS Nano ; 11(12): 12266-12275, 2017 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185706


Graphene-based wearable e-textiles are considered to be promising due to their advantages over traditional metal-based technology. However, the manufacturing process is complex and currently not suitable for industrial scale application. Here we report a simple, scalable, and cost-effective method of producing graphene-based wearable e-textiles through the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to make stable reduced graphene oxide (rGO) dispersion which can then be applied to the textile fabric using a simple pad-dry technique. This application method allows the potential manufacture of conductive graphene e-textiles at commercial production rates of ∼150 m/min. The graphene e-textile materials produced are durable and washable with acceptable softness/hand feel. The rGO coating enhanced the tensile strength of cotton fabric and also the flexibility due to the increase in strain% at maximum load. We demonstrate the potential application of these graphene e-textiles for wearable electronics with activity monitoring sensor. This could potentially lead to a multifunctional single graphene e-textile garment that can act both as sensors and flexible heating elements powered by the energy stored in graphene textile supercapacitors.

Sensors (Basel) ; 15(4): 7742-53, 2015 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25831088


Respiratory and heart failure are conditions that can occur with little warning and may also be difficult to predict. Therefore continuous monitoring of these bio-signals is advantageous for ensuring human health. The car safety belt is mainly designed to secure the occupants of the vehicle in the event of an accident. In the current research a prototype safety belt is developed, which is used to acquire respiratory and heart signals, under laboratory conditions. The current safety belt is constructed using a copper ink based nonwoven material, which works based on the piezo-resistive effect due to the pressure exerted on the sensor as a result of expansion of the thorax/abdomen area of the body for respiration and due to the principle of ballistocardiography (BCG) in heart signal sensing. In this research, the development of a theoretical model to qualitatively describe the piezo-resistive material is also presented in order to predict the relative change in the resistance of the piezo-resistive material due to the pressure applied.

Balistocardiografia/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Cintos de Segurança , Automóveis , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
Med Hypotheses ; 83(3): 410-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25109874


Stillbirth currently affects approximately 1 in every 200 pregnancies in the United Kingdom. Fetuses may exhibit signs of compromise as part of a stress response before stillbirth, including reduced fetal movements (RFM) and fetal heart rate (FHR) alterations. At present, and despite widespread use, current fetal monitoring is not associated with a reduction in perinatal mortality rate (PMR) as signs of fetal compromise are not adequately detected. This may be attributed to inaccuracies resulting from manual interpretation of results or subjective assessment of fetal activity. In addition, signs of compromise often occur only hours or days before fetal death, so may be missed by current monitoring methods, which are performed intermittently. A significant consideration is that correct identification of these signs and consequent intervention can result in the delivery of a healthy baby, thus preventing stillbirth. A hypothesis is presented, proposing prompt detection of fetal compromise with the use of 24-hour continuous objective fetal monitoring. With focus placed on obtaining long-term FHR and fetal movement data, prior interest has been found in developing devices for this purpose. However, introduction into clinical practice has not been achieved. Investigation of the hypothesis will begin with the design of a device to record the mentioned parameters, followed by an appropriate validation process. Should development and testing be successful, an eventual comparison in PMR with the use of continuous fetal monitoring vs current monitoring would address the hypothesis. It is suggested that a timely yet reliable indication of fetal wellbeing obtained via long-term monitoring would allow prompt and appropriate obstetric intervention and consequently reduce PMR.

Monitorização Fetal/métodos , Movimento Fetal/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal , Cardiotocografia/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Morte Fetal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Obstetrícia/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Natimorto , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
Materials (Basel) ; 6(3): 1072-1089, 2013 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28809358


This paper presents a study conducted on the thermo-mechanical properties of knitted structures, the methods of manufacture, effect of contact pressure at the structural binding points, on the degree of heating. The test results also present the level of heating produced as a function of the separation between the supply terminals. The study further investigates the rate of heating and cooling of the knitted structures. The work also presents the decay of heating properties of the yarn due to overheating. Thermal images were taken to study the heat distribution over the surface of the knitted fabric. A tensile tester having constant rate of extension was used to stretch the fabric. The behavior of temperature profile of stretched fabric was observed. A comparison of heat generation by plain, rib and interlock structures was studied. It was observed from the series of experiments that there is a minimum threshold force of contact at binding points of a knitted structure is required to pass the electricity. Once this force is achieved, stretching the fabric does not affect the amount of heat produced.