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1.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 10-14, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603836

RESUMO

Preterm birth is one of the main country health indicators. It is associated with high mortality and significant morbidity in preterm newborns with cerebral palsy and potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities like cognitive and learning problems. The main lesions could be: a) white matter injuries, generally associated with cortical and other regions of grey matter neuronal-axonal disturbances; b) intracranial hemorrhage that includes germinal matrix, intraventricular and parenchymal, c) cerebellum injuries. The white matter lesions include cystic and non-cystic (with microscopic focal necrosis) periventricular leukomalacia and non-necrotic diffuse white matter injury. Multiple etiologic factors are associated with these injuries. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of periventricular vascular structures predispose white matter to cerebral ischemia and, interacting with infection/inflammation factors, activate microglia, generating oxidative stress (mediated by free oxygen and nitrogen radicals), pro-inflammatory cytokine and glutamate toxicity, energetic failure and vascular integrity disturbances. All these factors lead to a particular vulnerability of pre-oligodendrocytes that will affect myelination. Hypoxia-ischemia also may produce selective neuronal necrosis in different cerebral regions. Germinal matrix is a highly vascularized zone beneath ependymal or periventricular region that constitutes a capillary bed with a particular structural fragility that predispose it to hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/etiologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leucomalácia Periventricular/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Paralisia Cerebral/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido , Leucomalácia Periventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucomalácia Periventricular/mortalidade , Substância Branca/patologia
2.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 60-65, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603846

RESUMO

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, inflammatory and de myelinat ing disorder of the central nervous system with a predilection for the optic nerves and spinal cord. In 2004 the association of NMO with an antibody against the water channel aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) was published as a different pathology from multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently the term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is proposed, because the manifestations of the disease can be more extensive, affecting in addition to the optic nerve and spinal cord, the area postrema of the dorsal medulla, brainstem, diencephalon and typical brain areas (periependymal, corpus callosum, internal capsule and subcortical white matter). NMOSD is also applied to patients who meet the NMO criteria and are negative for AQP4-IgG. Within the latter group, the presence of another antibody, anti-MOG, has been detected in 20%, with a different physiopathological mechanism, but with a similar clinic and a better prognosis. The immunosuppressive treatment in the attack, as well as the long-term treatment in the cases that are indicated, is fundamental to avoid sequelaes and recurrences. The correct diagnosis of this entity is essential since it can be aggravated with the use of drugs useful in the treatment of MS. In this publication we will review the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria of NMOSD, and discuss the different therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Neuromielite Óptica/diagnóstico , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Autoanticorpos/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Neuromielite Óptica/imunologia , Neuromielite Óptica/fisiopatologia
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 10-14, set. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1040542

RESUMO

Los nacimientos prematuros son uno de los principales indicadores de salud de un país. Están asociados a una alta mortalidad e importante morbilidad en niños con parálisis cerebral y otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo, incluyendo problemas cognitivos y del aprendizaje. Los principales tipos de lesión encefálica en los recién nacidos prematuros son: a) las lesiones de la sustancia blanca, generalmente asociadas a alteraciones neuronales y axonales en la corteza cerebral y otras zonas de sustancia gris; b) hemorragias intracraneanas que incluyen las de la matriz germinal, intraventriculares e intraparenquimatosas y c) del cerebelo. Las lesiones de sustancia blanca incluyen la leucomalacia periventricular quística, no quística (con focos de necrosis microscópicos) y lesiones difusas de sustancia blanca, no necróticas. Estas lesiones tienen múltiples factores etiológicos. Las características anatómicas y fisiológicas de las estructuras vasculares periventriculares predisponen a la sustancia blanca a ser muy vulnerable a las situaciones de isquemia cerebral y, en interacción con factores infecciosos/inflamatorios, activan a las microglías generando estrés oxidativo (por liberación de radicales libres del oxígeno y del nitrógeno), liberación de citoquinas proinflamatorias, liberación de glutamato, fallo energético y alteración de la integridad vascular. Todo lo anteriormente mencionado genera una particular vulnerabilidad de los pre-oligodendrocitos que termina alterando la mielinización. La hipoxia-isquemia también puede producir necrosis neuronal selectiva en diferentes regiones encefálicas. La matriz germinal es un área altamente vascularizada en la región subependimaria periventricular con una estructura capilar muy frágil que la predispone a las hemorragias.


Preterm birth is one of the main country health indicators. It is associated with high mortality and significant morbidity in preterm newborns with cerebral palsy and potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities like cognitive and learning problems. The main lesions could be: a) white matter injuries, generally associated with cortical and other regions of grey matter neuronal-axonal disturbances; b) intracranial hemorrhage that includes germinal matrix, intraventricular and parenchymal, c) cerebellum injuries. The white matter lesions include cystic and non-cystic (with microscopic focal necrosis) periventricular leukomalacia and non-necrotic diffuse white matter injury. Multiple etiologic factors are associated with these injuries. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of periventricular vascular structures predispose white matter to cerebral ischemia and, interacting with infection/inflammation factors, activate microglia, generating oxidative stress (mediated by free oxygen and nitrogen radicals), pro-inflammatory cytokine and glutamate toxicity, energetic failure and vascular integrity disturbances. All these factors lead to a particular vulnerability of pre-oligodendrocytes that will affect myelination. Hypoxia-ischemia also may produce selective neuronal necrosis in different cerebral regions. Germinal matrix is a highly vascularized zone beneath ependymal or periventricular region that constitutes a capillary bed with a particular structural fragility that predispose it to hemorrhage.

4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 60-65, set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1040552

RESUMO

La neuromielitis óptica (NMO) es un trastorno autoinmune, inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central con predilección por los nervios ópticos y médula espinal. En el año 2004 se publicó la asociación de NMO con un anticuerpo contra el canal de agua acuaporina 4 (anti-AQP4), como una enfermedad diferente de la esclerosis múltiple (EM). Actualmente se propone el término trastornos del espectro NMO (NMOSD), debido a que las manifestaciones de la enfermedad pueden ser más extensas, afectando además del nervio óptico y médula espinal, al área postrema del bulbo raquídeo, tronco encefálico, diencéfalo y áreas cerebrales típicas (periependimarias, cuerpo calloso, cápsula interna y sustancia blanca subcortical). NMOSD se aplica también a pacientes que cumplen los criterios de NMO y son negativos para anti-AQP4. Dentro de este último grupo se ha detectado en un 20% la presencia de otro anticuerpo, anti-MOG (Glicoproteína oligodendrocítica de mielina) con un mecanismo fisiopatológico diferente pero con una clínica, en algunos casos, similar, y en general con mejor pronóstico. El tratamiento inmunosupresor en la crisis, así como el tratamiento a largo plazo en los casos que esté indicado, es fundamental para evitar secuelas y recidivas. El diagnóstico correcto de esta entidad es fundamental ya que puede ser agravado con el uso de fármacos útiles en el tratamiento de EM. En esta publicación haremos una revisión de la fisiopatología, clínica y criterios diagnósticos de NMOSD, y discutiremos las distintas opciones terapéuticas.


Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, inflammatory and de myelinat ing disorder of the central nervous system with a predilection for the optic nerves and spinal cord. In 2004 the association of NMO with an antibody against the water channel aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) was published as a different pathology from multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently the term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is proposed, because the manifestations of the disease can be more extensive, affecting in addition to the optic nerve and spinal cord, the area postrema of the dorsal medulla, brainstem, diencephalon and typical brain areas (periependymal, corpus callosum, internal capsule and subcortical white matter). NMOSD is also applied to patients who meet the NMO criteria and are negative for AQP4-IgG. Within the latter group, the presence of another antibody, anti-MOG, has been detected in 20%, with a different physiopathological mechanism, but with a similar clinic and a better prognosis. The immunosuppressive treatment in the attack, as well as the long-term treatment in the cases that are indicated, is fundamental to avoid sequelaes and recurrences. The correct diagnosis of this entity is essential since it can be aggravated with the use of drugs useful in the treatment of MS. In this publication we will review the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria of NMOSD, and discuss the different therapeutic options.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 4(3): 243-56, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27247952

RESUMO

Medical genetics and genomic medicine in the Dominican Republic: challenges and opportunities.

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