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2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) expression has been associated with activation and exhaustion of both the CD4 and CD8 populations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). Nevertheless, the impact of the balance between circulating CD8+PD-1+ and CD4+PD-1+ in patients treated with immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) is unknown. METHODS: The CD8+PD-1+ to CD4+PD-1+ ratio (PD-1-Expressing Ratio on Lymphocytes in a Systemic blood sample, or 'PERLS') was determined by cytometry in fresh whole blood from patients with aNSCLC before treatment with single-agent ICB targeting PD-1 or programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 (discovery cohort). A PERLS cut-off was identified by log-rank maximization. Patients treated with ICB (validation cohort) or polychemotherapy (control cohort) were classified as PERLS+/- (above/below cut-off). Circulating immune cell phenotype and function were correlated with PERLS. A composite score (good, intermediate and poor) was determined using the combination of PERLS and senescent immune phenotype as previously described in aNSCLC. RESULTS: In the discovery cohort (N=75), the PERLS cut-off was 1.91, and 11% of patients were PERLS+. PERLS + correlated significantly with median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9.63 months (95% CI 7.82 to not reached (NR)) versus 2.69 months (95% CI 1.81 to 5.52; p=0.03). In an independent validation cohort (N=36), median PFS was NR (95% CI 7.9 to NR) versus 2.00 months (95% CI 1.3 to 4.5; p=0.04) for PERLS + and PERLS-, respectively; overall survival (OS) followed a similar but non-significant trend. In the pooled cohort (N=111), PERLS + correlated significantly with PFS and OS. PERLS did not correlate with outcome in the polychemotherapy cohort. PERLS did not correlate with clinical characteristics but was significantly associated with baseline circulating naïve CD4+ T cells and the increase of memory T cells post-ICB treatment. Accumulation of memory T cells during treatment was linked to CD4+ T cell polyfunctionality. The composite score was evaluated in the pooled cohort (N=68). The median OS for good, intermediate and poor composite scores was NR (95% CI NR to NR), 8.54 months (95% CI 4.96 to NR) and 2.42 months (95% CI 1.97 to 15.5; p=0.001), respectively. The median PFS was 12.60 months (95% CI 9.63 to NR), 2.58 months (95% CI 1.74 to 7.29) and 1.76 months (95% CI 1.31 to 4.57; p<0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated PERLS, determined from a blood sample before immunotherapy, was correlated with benefit from PD-(L)1 blockers in aNSCLC.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053597

RESUMO

(1) Background: In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) remains the only biomarker for candidate patients to immunotherapy (IO). This study aimed at using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) tools to improve response and efficacy predictions in aNSCLC patients treated with IO. (2) Methods: Real world data and the blood microRNA signature classifier (MSC) were used. Patients were divided into responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to determine if the overall survival of the patients was likely to be shorter or longer than 24 months from baseline IO. (3) Results: One-hundred sixty-four out of 200 patients (i.e., only those ones with PD-L1 data available) were considered in the model, 73 (44.5%) were R and 91 (55.5%) NR. Overall, the best model was the linear regression (RL) and included 5 features. The model predicting R/NR of patients achieved accuracy ACC = 0.756, F1 score F1 = 0.722, and area under the ROC curve AUC = 0.82. LR was also the best-performing model in predicting patients with long survival (24 months OS), achieving ACC = 0.839, F1 = 0.908, and AUC = 0.87. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that the integration of multifactorial data provided by ML techniques is a useful tool to select NSCLC patients as candidates for IO.

4.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(1): e17-e28, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly improved outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients. However, their efficacy remains uncertain in uncommon histologies (UH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from ICI treated aNSCLC patients (April,2013-January,2021) in one Institution were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression model, respectively. Objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were assessed. RESULTS: Of 375 patients, 79 (21.1%) had UH: 19 (24.1%) sarcomatoid carcinoma, 15 (19.0%) mucinous adenocarcinoma, 10 (12.6%) enteric adenocarcinoma, 8 (10.1%) adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, 7 (8.9%) large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, 6 (7.6%) mixed histology non-adenosquamous, 5 (6.3%) adenosquamous carcinoma, 9 (11.4%) other UH. In UH group, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) <1%, 1-49%, ≥50% and unknown expression were reported in 27.8%, 22.8%, 31.7% and 17.7% patients respectively and ICI was the second/further-line in the majority of patients. After a median follow-up of 35.64 months (m), median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.5 m in UH [95% CI 2.2-2.9 m] versus (vs.) 2.7 m in CH [95% CI 2.3-3.2 m, P-value = .584]; median overall survival (mOS) was 8.8 m [95% CI 4.9-12.6 m] vs. 9.7 m [95% CI 8.0-11.3 m, P-value = .653]. At multivariate analyses only ECOG PS was a confirmed prognostic factor in UH. ORR and DCR were 25.3% and 40.5% in UH vs. 21.6% and 49.5% in CH [P-value = .493 and .155 respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were detected between UH and CH groups. Prospective trials are needed to understand ICIs role in UH population.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103567, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896250

RESUMO

The development of innovative technologies and the advances in the genetics and genomics, have offered new opportunities for personalized treatment in oncology. Although the selection of the patient based on the molecular characteristics of the neoplasm has the potential to revolutionize the therapeutic scenario of oncology, this approach is extremely challenging. The access, homogeneity, and economic sustainability of the required genomic tests should be warranted in the clinical practice, as well as the specific scientific and clinical expertise for the choice of medical therapies. All these elements make essential the collaboration of different specialists within the Molecular Tumor Boards (MTBs). In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC/IAP-SIBioC-SIC-SIF-SIGU-SIRM Italian Scientific Societies critically discuss the available molecular profiling technologies, the proposed criteria for the selection of patients candidate for evaluation by the MTB, the criteria for the selection and analysis of biological samples, and the regulatory and pharmaco-economic issues.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sociedades Científicas , Genômica , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética
6.
Children (Basel) ; 8(12)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS) is a rare, complex, congenital developmental disorder including cardiovascular manifestations, intellectual disability and a peculiar cognitive and behavior profile. Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is the most frequent cardiovascular abnormality in WS children. Data on WS patients in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. A genetic study is usually required for a definite diagnosis, but genetic testing is often unavailable in developing countries and the combination of a typical clinical phenotype and echocardiographic profile helps to confirm the diagnosis. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 5-year-old Ugandan child admitted to a large no profit hospital after he was initially managed as a case of infective endocarditis. A physical examination revealed the typical features of WS. A cardiac echo showed severe SVAS (peak gradient 80 mmHg) with a normal anatomy and function of the aortic valve and mild valvular pulmonary stenosis. The child also had a moderate intellectual disability and a characteristic facies consistent with WS. CONCLUSION: We present the first reported case of WS in Uganda. Cardiac echo and a characteristic clinical picture could be enough to exclude more common causes of heart failure (i.e., rheumatic heart disease) and to make the diagnosis even when specific genetic tests are not available.

7.
Eur J Intern Med ; 93: 87-94, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research is moving towards a more personalized management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) due to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in the treatment of these clinical manifestations. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed to retrieve data about the use of tocilizumab in the treatment of irAEs. Additionally, data from cancer patients referred to our Immune-related Adverse Event Clinic and treated with tocilizumab were collected. RESULTS: Our literature review identified 20 articles and 11 meeting abstracts. Data about 91 cancer patients who received tocilizumab for the treatment of irAEs were collected. In 85% of cases, this therapy was associated with clinical benefit and no case of disease progression was reported. ICI therapy was continued following irAE onset and biologic therapy initiation in only three patients. Five patients developed irAEs upon ICI initiation and were subsequently treated with tocilizumab at our Centre. At a median follow-up of eight months, tocilizumab was safely continued along with ICI in three out of five patients, and an adequate control of irAE was obtained in all cases. No significant adverse reactions to tocilizumab were reported. Only one patient experienced a disease progression 18 months after ICI discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Both our systematic literature review and case series highlight the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in the treatment of irAEs. Furthermore, they both support the possibility of a combined approach with tocilizumab and ICI, to guarantee an effective irAEs management without losing the oncologic response.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Neoplasias , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(23): 2574-2585, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This meta-analysis aims to combine and analyze randomized clinical trials comparing computed tomography lung screening (CTLS) versus either no screening (NS) or chest x-ray (CXR) in subjects with cigarette smoking history, to provide a precise and reliable estimation of the benefits and harms associated with CTLS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from all published randomized trials comparing CTLS versus either NS or CXR in a highly tobacco-exposed population were collected, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Subgroup analyses by comparator (NS or CXR) were performed. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and relative 95% CIs were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Nine eligible trials (88,497 patients) were included. Pooled analysis showed that CTLS is associated with: a significant reduction of lung cancer-related mortality (overall RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.98; NS RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.92); a significant increase of early-stage tumors diagnosis (overall RR, 2.84; 95% CI 1.76 to 4.58; NS RR, 3.33; 95% CI, 2.27 to 4.89; CXR RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.23); a significant decrease of late-stage tumors diagnosis (overall RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.83; NS RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.80); a significant increase of resectability rate (NS RR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.76 to 3.74); a nonsignificant reduction of all-cause mortality (overall RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.05); and a significant increase of overdiagnosis rate (NS, 38%; 95% CI, 14 to 63). The analysis of lung cancer-related mortality by sex revealed nonsignificant differences between men and women (P = .21; I-squared = 33.6%). CONCLUSION: Despite there still being uncertainty about overdiagnosis estimate, this meta-analysis suggested that the CTLS benefits outweigh harms, in subjects with cigarette smoking history, ultimately supporting the systematic implementation of lung cancer screening worldwide.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos
9.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(6): 2955-2969, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295690

RESUMO

In the immunotherapy era, considering the prolonged survival benefit and responses observed with immunecheckpoint inhibitors (ICI) in many cancer types, the identification of patients with rapid progression (PD) and deaths upon ICI has found some skepticism and resistance among the scientific community. Nevertheless, an acceleration of tumour during ICI, defined as hyperprogressive disease (HPD), has been recognized across different cancer types and evidence regarding rapid PDs and deaths are emerging in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and thymic malignancies and in uncommon non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) populations. Of note, PD and early deaths (ED) rates upon single agent ICI were up to 60% and 30% in MPM and 70% and 38% in SCLC patients, respectively. Similarly, rapid PDs and deaths were observed in clinical trials and retrospective studies including patients with poor performance status (PS), HIV infection and rare NSCLC histologies. Atypical patterns of response, such as pseudoprogression (PsPD) may also occur in other thoracic malignancies (MPM) and in some uncommon populations (i.e., HIV patients), however probably at lower rate compared to HPD. The characterizations of HPD and PsPD mechanisms and the identification of common definition criteria are the next future challenges in this area of cancer research.

10.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069851

RESUMO

(1) Background. The onset of a drug-drug interaction (DDI) may affect treatment efficacy and toxicity of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) use. Here we present the use of Drug-PIN® (Personalized Interactions Network) software to detect DDIs in aNSCLC patients undergoing EGFR-TKIs. (2) Methods. We enrolled patients with Stage IV aNSCLC already treated with or candidates to receive EGFR-TKIs, in any line; ECOG PS 0-2; taking at least one concomitant drug. Cancer treatments, concomitant drugs, and clinical and laboratory data were collected and inserted in Drug-PIN®. (3) Results. Ninety-two patients, median age of 68.5 years (range 43-89), were included. In total, 20 clinically relevant DDIs needing medical intervention in a total of 14 patients were identified; the 14 major DDIs were related to a high-grade interaction between TKIs and SSRIs, antipsychotics, antiepileptics, H2-receptor antagonist and calcium antagonists. A negative association between statin intake and PFS was identified (p = 0.02; HR 0.281, 95% CI 0.096-0.825). (4) Conclusions. This is the first retrospective study assessing the prevalence of DDIs, the clinical need for medical intervention and the impact of concomitant drugs on EGFR-TKIs survival in aNSCLC.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(16): 160501, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961475

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a method that distributes a secret key to a sender and a receiver by the transmission of quantum particles (e.g., photons). Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) is a version of QKD with a stronger notion of security, in that the sender and receiver base their protocol only on the statistics of input and outputs of their devices as inspired by Bell's theorem. We study the rate at which DIQKD can be carried out for a given bipartite quantum state distributed between the sender and receiver or a quantum channel connecting them. We provide upper bounds on the achievable rate going beyond upper bounds possible for QKD. In particular, we construct states and channels where the QKD rate is significant while the DIQKD rate is negligible. This gap is illustrated for a practical case arising when using standard postprocessing techniques for entangled two-qubit states.

12.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 455-463, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822643

RESUMO

The speed and spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the entire world for the past several months. OncoAlert is a social media network made up of more than 140 oncology stakeholders: oncologists (medical, radiation, and surgical), oncology nurses, and patient advocates who share the mission of fighting cancer by means of education and dissemination of information. As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, OncoAlert hosted The Round Table Discussions. We have documented this effort along with further discussion about the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequences on patients living with cancer to disseminate this information to our colleagues worldwide.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Oncologia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Mídias Sociais , Telemedicina/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Epidemias , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermagem Oncológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013257, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have changed the first-line treatment of people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Single-agent pembrolizumab (a PD-1 inhibitor) is currently the standard of care as monotherapy in patients with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy when PD-L1 expression is less than 50%. Atezolizumab (PD-L1 inhibitor) has also been approved in combination with chemotherapy and bevacizumab (an anti-angiogenic antibody) in first-line NSCLC regardless of PD-L1 expression. The combination of first-line PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies has also been shown to improve survival compared to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC, particularly in people with high tumour mutational burden (TMB). The association of ipilimumab (an anti CTLA4) and nivolumab (PD-1 inhibitor) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in all patients with PD-L1 expression ≥1%. Although these antibodies are currently used in clinical practice, some questions remain unanswered, such as the best-treatment strategy, the role of different biomarkers for treatment selection and the effectiveness of immunotherapy according to specific clinical characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), as monotherapy or in combination, compared to platinum-based chemotherapy, with or without bevacizumab for people with advanced NSCLC, according to the level of PD-L1 expression. SEARCH METHODS: We performed an electronic search of the main databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase) from inception until 31 December 2020 and conferences meetings from 2015 onwards. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the efficacy or safety of first-line ICI treatment for adults with advanced NSCLC who had not previously received any anticancer treatment. We included trials comparing single- or double-ICI treatment to standard first-line therapy (platinum-based chemotherapy +/- bevacizumab). All data come from 'international multicentre studies involving adults, age 18 or over, with histologically-confirmed stage IV NSCLC. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed the search results and a fourth review author resolved any disagreements. Primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS); secondary outcomes were overall objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST v 1.1, grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) (CTCAE v 5.0) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We performed meta-analyses where appropriate using the random-effects model for hazard ratios (HRs) or risk ratios (RRs), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and used the I² statistic to investigate heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: Main results We identified 15 trials for inclusion, seven completed and eight ongoing trials. We obtained data for 5893 participants from seven trials comparing first-line single- (six trials) or double- (two trials) agent ICI with platinum-based chemotherapy, one trial comparing both first-line single- and double-agent ICsI with platinum-based chemotherapy. All trials were at low risk of selection and detection bias, some were classified at high risk of performance, attrition or other source of bias. The overall certainty of evidence according to GRADE ranged from moderate-to-low because of risk of bias, inconsistency, or imprecision. The majority of the included trials reported their outcomes by PD-L1 expressions, with PD-L1 ≥ 50 being considered the most clinically useful cut-off level for decision makers. Also, iIn order to avoid overlaps between various PDL-1 expressions we prioritised the review outcomes according to PD-L1 ≥ 50. Single-agent ICI In the PD-L1 expression ≥ 50% group single-agent ICI probably improved OS compared to platinum-based chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR) 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 0.76, 6 RCTs, 2111 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). In this group, single-agent ICI also may improve PFS (HR: 0.68, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.88, 5 RCTs, 1886 participants, low-certainty evidence) and ORR (risk ratio (RR):1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.75, 4 RCTs, 1672 participants, low-certainty evidence). HRQoL data were available for only one study including only people with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%, which suggested that single-agent ICI may improve HRQoL at 15 weeks compared to platinum-based chemotherapy (RR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.10, 1 RCT, 297 participants, low-certainty evidence). In the included studies, treatment-related AEs were not reported according to PD-L1 expression levels. Grade 3-4 AEs may be less frequent with single-agent ICI compared to platinum-based chemotherapy (RR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.50, I² = 62%, 5 RCTs, 3346 participants, low-certainty evidence). More information about efficacy of single-agent ICI compared to platinum-based chemotherapy according to the level of PD-L1 expression and to TMB status or specific clinical characteristics is available in the full text. Double-agent ICI Double-ICI treatment probably prolonged OS compared to platinum-based chemotherapy in people with PD-L1 expression ≥50% (HR: 0.72, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.89 2 RCTs, 612 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). Trials did not report data on HRQoL, PFS and ORR according to PD-L1 groups. Treatment related AEs were not reported according to PD-L1 expression levels. The frequency of grade 3-4 AEs may not differ between double-ICI treatment and platinum-based chemotherapy (RR: 0.78, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.09, I² = 81%, 2 RCTs, 1869 participants, low-certainty evidence). More information about efficacy of double-agent ICI according to the level of PD-L1 expression and to TMB status is available in the full text. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Authors' conclusions The evidence in this review suggests that single-agent ICI in people with NSCLC and PD-L1 ≥50% probably leads to a higher overall survival rate and may lead to a higher progression-free survival and overall response rate when compared to platinum-based chemotherapy and may also lead to a lower rate of adverse events and higher HRQoL. Combined ICI in people with NSCLC and PD-L1 ≥50% also probably leads to a higher overall survival rate when compared to platinum-based chemotherapy, but its effect on progression-free survival, overall response rate and HRQoL is unknown due to a lack of data. The rate of adverse events may not differ between groups. This review used to be a living review. It is transitioned out of living mode because current research is exploring ICI in association with chemotherapy or other immunotherapeutic drugs versus ICI as single agent rather than platinum based chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Viés , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Platina/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 149: 235-248, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) patients with EGFR/HER2 exon 20 insertion mutation (i-mut) remains an unmet clinical need. Poziotinib, a new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is currently under investigation as a potential targeted therapy. This compassionate study of its use aims to describe the activity/toxicity of poziotinib in mNSCLC with EGFR/HER2-exon-20-i-mut. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NSCLC patients who were treated either with EGFR or HER2 exon 20-i-mut within an expanded access program were included in this study. Poziotinib (16 mg or less) was administrated orally quaque die (QD). The primary end-point was the overall response rate (ORR) assessed by central review using RECIST v1.1, and secondary end-points were median progression free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), median overall survival (OS) and toxicity. RESULTS: The median age of all the 30 patients was 58 years (25-80 years), most of them were females (73%); ECOG 0-1 (83%), EGFR i-mut (73%) and pre-treated (83%). 73% started with poziotinib at a dose of 16 mg. At data cut-off, 22 of 33 patients (73%) experienced a progress in the disease and 12 of 30 (40%) died. Median PFS was 5.6 months (95% CI: 3.6-6.7 months) and the mOS 9.5 months (95% CI: 5.3 - not-reached months). The ORR was 30% (EGFR/HER2: 23/50%) and DCR 80%. G3 AEs were reported in 66% of the patients and were found with skin rash (50%), diarrhoea (17.6%), mucositis (7%) and paronychia (3%). G5, possibly associated with pneumonitis might also have occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Poziotinib exhibited effects in mNSCLC patients with EGFR/HER2-exon 20-i-mut. The toxicity rate was high leading to frequent dose interruption and reduction, thereby reducing mPFS in patients with good ORR/DCR. ZENITH20 trial is now being used to evaluate the low dose and new scheduled dose (e.g. bis in die (BID)).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutagênese Insercional , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Quinazolinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803958

RESUMO

First-line immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based therapy has deeply changed the treatment landscape and prognosis in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients with no targetable alterations. Nonetheless, a percentage of patients progressed on ICI as monotherapy or combinations. Open questions remain on patients' selection, the identification of biomarkers of primary resistance to immunotherapy and the treatment strategies to overcome secondary resistance to first-line immunotherapy. Local ablative approaches are the main therapeutic strategies in oligoprogressive disease, and their role is emerging in patients treated with immunotherapy. Many therapeutic strategies can be adapted in aNSCLC patients with systemic progression to personalize the treatment approach according to re-characterization of the tumors, previous ICI response, and type of progression. This review's aim is to highlight and discuss the current and potential therapeutic approaches beyond first-line ICI-based therapy in aNSCLC patients based on the pattern of disease progression (oligoprogression versus systemic progression).

16.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(9): 2429-2438, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797567

RESUMO

Lung is a specialized tissue where metastases from primary lung tumors takeoff and those originating from extra-pulmonary sites land. One commonality characterizing these processes is the supportive role exerted by myeloid cells, particularly neutrophils, whose recruitment is facilitated in this tissue microenvironment. Indeed, neutrophils have important part in the pathophysiology of this organ and the key mechanisms regulating neutrophil expansion and recruitment during infection can be co-opted by tumor cells to promote growth and metastasis. Although neutrophils dominate the myeloid landscape of lung cancer other populations including macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, basophils and eosinophils contribute to the complexity of lung cancer TME. In this review, we discuss the origin and significance of myeloid cells heterogeneity in lung cancer, which translates not only in a different frequency of immune populations but it encompasses state of activation, morphology, localization and mutual interactions. The relevance of such heterogeneity is considered in the context of tumor growth and response to immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos
17.
Immunotherapy ; 13(7): 621-631, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775103

RESUMO

This study is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials involving first-line studies in which immune checkpoint inhibitors were added to chemotherapy and were compared with chemotherapy alone. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). The analyses used random-effects models and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to rate the quality of the evidence. Nine articles were included for qualitative and quantitative synthesis. A meta-analysis of the nine randomized trials showed a significant benefit in terms of OS (hazard ratio: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.66-0.85]; p < 0.01). Only programmed death ligand-1 positive-high cancers derive a significant OS benefit. In this meta-analysis, there is moderate evidence that the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to chemotherapy may improve both OS compared with chemotherapy alone.


Lay abstract We provide a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in first-line studies where immune checkpoint inhibitors were added to chemotherapy (CT) and were compared with CT alone. Nine articles were included for qualitative and quantitative synthesis. A meta-analysis of the nine randomized trials indicated a significant benefit in terms of overall survival (OS; hazard ratio: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.66­0.85]; p < 0.01). Only programmed death ligand-1 positive-high cancers were observed to receive a significant OS benefit. In this meta-analysis, there is moderate evidence that the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to CT may improve OS as compared with CT alone.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos
18.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 160: 103299, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722699

RESUMO

Target therapies completely changed the clinical approach in EGFR mutated and ALK rearranged non-small cell lung cancer, ensuring these patients exceptional outcomes with a better toxicity profile compared to conventional chemotherapy. In recent years, beyond EGFR and ALK alterations, new data are emerging about less common alterations, new drugs have been already approved and others agents have been recently investigated or are currently under investigation. In this review we will discuss some uncommon alterations in non-small cell lung cancer such as ROS1, BRAF, RET, HER2, NTRK, MET and other targets that are in an early evaluation phase. We will summarize the characteristics of patients harboring these alterations, the already approved or under investigation therapies and the related resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas
19.
Cell Immunol ; 362: 104301, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588246

RESUMO

Immuno checkpoint blockade (ICB) targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis is the main breakthrough for the treatment of several cancers. Nevertheless, not all patients benefit from this treatment and clinical response not always correlates with PD-L1 expression by tumor cells. The tumor microenvironment, including myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), can influence therapeutic resistance to ICB. MDSCs also express PD-L1, which contributes to their suppressive activity. Moreover, anticancer therapies including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone- and targeted- therapies can modulate MDSCs recruitment, activity and PD-L1 expression. Such effects can be induced also by innovative anticancer treatments targeting metabolism and lifestyle. The outcome on cancer progression can be either positive or negative, depending on tumor type, treatment schedule and possible combination with ICB. Further studies are needed to better understand the effects of cancer therapies on the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, to identify patients that could benefit from combinatorial regimens including ICB or that rather should avoid it.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/fisiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral
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