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1.
Pain ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332251

RESUMO

Spontaneous and pharmacologically-provoked migraine attacks are frequently preceded by nonheadache symptoms called premonitory symptoms. Here, we systematically evaluated premonitory symptoms in migraine patients and healthy controls following glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) infusion. In women with migraine without aura (n=34) and age-matched female controls (n=24) we conducted systematically a semi-structured interview assessing 21 possible premonitory symptoms every 15 minutes in the 5 hours following GTN infusion (0.5 µg/kg/min over 20 min). Migraine-like headaches occurred in 28/34 (82.4%) migraineurs (GTN responders). After GTN, 26/28 (92.9%) responders, 6/6 (100%) non-responders, and 13/24 (54.2%) controls reported at least one possible premonitory symptom. Concentration difficulties (p=0.011), yawning (p=0.009), nausea (p=0.028), and photophobia (p=0.001) were more frequently reported by those migraineurs who developed a migraine-like attack versus healthy controls. Importantly, concentration difficulties were exclusively reported by those who developed a migraine-like attack. Thus, our findings support the view that GTN is able to provoke the naturally occurring premonitory symptoms, and show that yawning, nausea, photophobia, and concentration difficulties are most specific for an impending GTN-induced migraine-like headache. We suggest that these symptoms may also be helpful as early warning signals in clinical practice with concentration difficulties exclusively reported by those who develop a migraine-like attack.

3.
CNS Drugs ; 34(2): 171-184, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997136

RESUMO

Cluster headache is characterised by attacks of excruciating unilateral headache or facial pain lasting 15 min to 3 h and is seen as one of the most intense forms of pain. Cluster headache attacks are accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic symptoms such as ptosis, miosis, redness or flushing of the face, nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, peri-orbital swelling and/or restlessness or agitation. Cluster headache treatment entails fast-acting abortive treatment, transitional treatment and preventive treatment. The primary goal of prophylactic and transitional treatment is to achieve attack freedom, although this is not always possible. Subcutaneous sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen are the most proven abortive treatments for cluster headache attacks, but other treatment options such as intranasal triptans may be effective. Verapamil and lithium are the preventive drugs of first choice and the most widely used in first-line preventive treatment. Given its possible cardiac side effects, electrocardiogram (ECG) is recommended before treating with verapamil. Liver and kidney functioning should be evaluated before and during treatment with lithium. If verapamil and lithium are ineffective, contraindicated or discontinued because of side effects, the second choice is topiramate. If all these drugs fail, other options with lower levels of evidence are available (e.g. melatonin, clomiphene, dihydroergotamine, pizotifen). However, since the evidence level is low, we also recommend considering one of several neuromodulatory options in patients with refractory chronic cluster headache. A new addition to the preventive treatment options in episodic cluster headache is galcanezumab, although the long-term effects remain unknown. Since effective preventive treatment can take several weeks to titrate, transitional treatment can be of great importance in the treatment of cluster headache. At present, greater occipital nerve injection is the most proven transitional treatment. Other options are high-dose prednisone or frovatriptan.

5.
Cephalalgia ; : 333102419881657, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Migraine and vasovagal syncope are comorbid conditions that may share part of their pathophysiology through autonomic control of the systemic circulation. Nitroglycerin can trigger both syncope and migraine attacks, suggesting enhanced systemic sensitivity in migraine. We aimed to determine the cardiovascular responses to nitroglycerin in migraine. METHODS: In 16 women with migraine without aura and 10 age- and gender-matched controls without headache, intravenous nitroglycerin (0.5 µg·kg-1·min-1) was administered. Finger photoplethysmography continuously assessed cardiovascular parameters (mean arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume and total peripheral resistance) before, during and after nitroglycerin infusion. RESULTS: Nitroglycerin provoked a migraine-like attack in 13/16 (81.2%) migraineurs but not in controls (p = .0001). No syncope was provoked. Migraineurs who later developed a migraine-like attack showed different responses in all parameters vs. controls (all p < .001): The decreases in cardiac output and stroke volume were more rapid and longer lasting, heart rate increased, mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance were higher and decreased steeply after an initial increase. DISCUSSION: Migraineurs who developed a migraine-like attack in response to nitroglycerin showed stronger systemic cardiovascular responses compared to non-headache controls. The stronger systemic cardiovascular responses in migraine suggest increased systemic sensitivity to vasodilators, possibly due to insufficient autonomic compensatory mechanisms.

6.
Cephalalgia ; 39(12): 1475-1487, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522546

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS; gammaCore®) has the potential to prevent migraine days in patients with migraine on the basis of mechanistic rationale and pilot clinical data. METHODS: This multicentre study included a 4-week run-in period, a 12-week double-blind period of randomised treatment with nVNS or sham, and a 24-week open-label period of nVNS. Patients were to administer two 120-second stimulations bilaterally to the neck three times daily (6-8 hours apart). RESULTS: Of 477 enrolled patients, 332 comprised the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Mean reductions in migraine days per month (primary outcome) were 2.26 for nVNS (n = 165; baseline, 7.9 days) and 1.80 for sham (n = 167; baseline, 8.1 days) (p = 0.15). Results were similar across other outcomes. Upon observation of suboptimal adherence rates, post hoc analysis of patients with ≥ 67% adherence per month demonstrated significant differences between nVNS (n = 138) and sham (n = 140) for outcomes including reduction in migraine days (2.27 vs. 1.53; p = 0.043); therapeutic gains were greater in patients with aura than in those without aura. Most nVNS device-related adverse events were mild and transient, with application site discomfort being the most common. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive nVNS treatment in episodic migraine was not superior to sham stimulation in the ITT population. The "sham" device inadvertently provided a level of active vagus nerve stimulation. Post hoc analysis showed significant effects of nVNS in treatment-adherent patients. Study identification and registration: PREMIUM; NCT02378844; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02378844.

7.
Lancet ; 394(10203): 1030-1040, 2019 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor have shown efficacy in the prevention of migraine attacks. We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of fremanezumab, a fully humanised CGRP antibody, in patients with migraine who had previously not responded to two to four classes of migraine preventive medications. METHODS: The randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3b FOCUS trial was done at 104 sites (including hospitals, medical centres, research institutes, and group practice clinics) across Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK, and the USA. We enrolled participants aged 18-70 years with episodic or chronic migraine who had documented failure to two to four classes of migraine preventive medications in the past 10 years. Failure was defined as no clinically meaningful improvement after at least 3 months of therapy at a stable dose, as per the treating physician's judgment; discontinuation because of adverse events that made treatment intolerable; or treatment contraindicated or unsuitable for the preventive treatment of migraine for the patient. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by electronic interactive response technology to subcutaneously administered quarterly fremanezumab (month 1, 675 mg; months 2 and 3: placebo), monthly fremanezumab (month 1: 225 mg in episodic migraine and 675 mg in chronic migraine; months 2 and 3: 225 mg in both migraine subgroups), or matched monthly placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was mean change from baseline in the monthly average number of migraine days during the 12-week treatment period. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03308968, and is now completed. FINDINGS: Between Nov 10, 2017, and July 6, 2018, 838 participants with episodic (329 [39%]) or chronic (509 [61%]) migraine were randomly assigned to placebo (n=279), quarterly fremanezumab (n=276), or monthly fremanezumab (n=283). Reductions from baseline in monthly average migraine days over 12 weeks were greater versus placebo (least-squares mean [LSM] change -0·6 [SE 0·3]) with quarterly fremanezumab (LSM change -3·7 [0·3]; LSM difference vs placebo -3·1 [95% CI -3·8 to -2·4]; p<0·0001) and with monthly fremanezumab (LSM change -4·1 [0·34]; LSM difference vs placebo -3·5 [-4·2 to -2·8]; p<0·0001). Adverse events were similar for placebo and fremanezumab. Serious adverse events were reported in four (1%) of 277 participants with placebo, two (<1%) of 276 with quarterly fremanezumab, and four (1%) of 285 with monthly fremanezumab. INTERPRETATION: Fremanezumab was effective and well tolerated in patients with difficult-to-treat migraine who had previously not responded to up to four classes of migraine preventive medications. FUNDING: Teva Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/agonistas , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Neuroscience ; 415: 1-9, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299346

RESUMO

Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) is the electrophysiological substrate of migraine aura, and a putative trigger of trigeminovascular activation and migraine headache. Many migraineurs report stress or relief after a stress triggers an attack. We tested whether various stress conditions might modulate CSD susceptibility and whether this is dependent on genetic factors. Male and female wild type and familial hemiplegic migraine type1 (FHM1) knock-in mice heterozygous for the S218L missense mutation were subjected to acute or chronic stress, or chronic stress followed by relief (36 h). Acute stress was induced by restraint and exposure to bright light and white noise (3 h). Chronic stress was induced for 28 days by two cycles of repeated exposure of mice to a rat (7 days), physical restraint (3 days), and forced swimming (3 days). Electrical CSD threshold and KCl-induced (300 mM) CSD frequency were determined in occipital cortex in vivo at the end of each protocol. Relief after chronic stress reduced the electrical CSD threshold and increased the frequency of KCl-induced CSDs in FHM1 mutants only. Acute or chronic stress without relief did not affect CSD susceptibility in either strain. Stress status did not affect CSD propagation speed, duration or amplitude. In summary, relief after chronic stress, but not acute or chronic stress alone, augments CSD in genetically susceptible mice. Therefore, enhanced CSD susceptibility may explain why, in certain patients, migraine attacks typically occur during a period of stress relief such as weekends or holidays.

9.
Neurology ; 93(7): e688-e694, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We used magnetization transfer imaging to assess white matter tissue integrity in migraine, to explore whether white matter microstructure was more diffusely affected beyond visible white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), and to explore whether focal invisible microstructural changes precede visible focal WMHs in migraineurs. METHODS: We included 137 migraineurs (79 with aura, 58 without aura) and 74 controls from the Cerebral Abnormalities in Migraine, an Epidemiological Risk Analysis (CAMERA) study, a longitudinal population-based study on structural brain lesions in migraine patients, who were scanned at baseline and at a 9-year follow-up. To assess microstructural brain tissue integrity, baseline magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) values were calculated for whole brain white matter. Baseline MTR values were determined for areas of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) that had progressed into MRI-detectable WMHs at follow-up and compared to MTR values of contralateral NAWM. RESULTS: MTR values for whole brain white matter did not differ between migraineurs and controls. In migraineurs, but not in controls, NAWM that later progressed to WMHs at follow-up had lower mean MTR (mean [SD] 0.354 [0.009] vs 0.356 [0.008], p = 0.047) at baseline as compared to contralateral white matter. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence for widespread microstructural white matter changes in migraineurs compared to controls. However, our findings suggest that a gradual or stepwise process might be responsible for evolution of focal invisible microstructural changes into focal migraine-related visible WMHs.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Leucoaraiose/patologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Headache ; 59(7): 1032-1041, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cluster headache attacks follow a striking circadian rhythm with an intriguing influence of sleep. We aim to investigate differences in sleep quality, chronotype, and the ability to alter individual sleep rhythms in episodic and chronic cluster headache patients vs controls. METHODS: Cluster headache patients and non-headache controls from the Dutch Leiden University Cluster headache neuro-Analysis program aged 18 and above completed web-based questionnaires in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: A total of 478 episodic, 147 chronic cluster headache patients and 367 controls participated. Chronic cluster headache patients had more often early chronotypes than controls, as measured by mid-sleep phase (P = .021 adjusted B -15.85 minutes CI -29.30; -2.40). Compared to controls, chronic cluster headache participants were less able to alter their sleep rhythms (P < .001 adjusted B -1.65 CI -2.55; 0.74), while episodic cluster headache participants reported more difficulty in coping with reduced sleep (P = .025 adjusted B 0.75 CI 0.09; 1.40). Sleep quality was reduced in both types of cluster headache compared to controls ("poor sleepers": 71.4% (105/147) in chronic and 48.3% (235/367) in episodic cluster headache vs 25.6% (94/367) in controls; both P < .001; episodic adjusted B -1.71 CI 0.10; 0.32; chronic adjusted B -0.93 CI 0.24; 0.65). CONCLUSION: Sleep quality is decreased in both episodic and chronic cluster headache, most likely caused by cluster headache attacks that strike during the night. Episodic cluster headache patients report more difficulty in coping with reduced sleep, while chronic patients are less able to alter their sleep rhythm. Although not directly proven, cluster headache patients will likely benefit from a structured, regular daily schedule.

11.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X19857810, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213163

RESUMO

Although white matter lesions are frequently detected in migraine patients, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Low carotid artery endothelial shear stress has been associated with white matter lesions. We aimed to investigate the association between carotid artery endothelial shear stress and white matter lesions in migraine. In 40 elderly migraine patients (n = 29 females, 75 years [SD 3]) and 219 controls (n = 80 females, 74 years [SD 3]) from the PROSPER-MRI study, carotid artery endothelial shear stress was estimated on 1.5 T gradient-echo phase contrast MRI. White matter lesion volumes were calculated from structural MRI scans. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Migraine patients had lower mean endothelial shear stress compared to controls (0.90 [SD 0.15] vs. 0.98 [SD 0.16] Pa; P = 0.03). The association between mean endothelial shear stress and white matter lesion volume was greater for the migraine group than control group (P for interaction = 0.05). Within the migraine group, white matter lesion volume increased with decreasing endothelial shear stress (ß-0.421; P = 0.01). In conclusion, migraine patients had lower endothelial shear stress which was associated with higher white matter lesion volume.

12.
Neurology ; 93(4): e398-e403, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pharmacologic treatment options for visual snow and to report prevalence of comorbid diseases. METHODS: Medical charts of patients with a diagnosis of visual snow at the neurology outpatient clinic were reviewed on prescribed medication, and comorbid migraine, tinnitus, and psychiatric conditions including depression and anxiety. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2018, 58 patients were diagnosed with visual snow. Comorbid migraine was present in 51.7% of patients, lifetime depression in 41.4%, and lifetime anxiety in 44.8%. Lamotrigine was prescribed most frequently (26/58) and resulted in partial remission of symptoms in 5/26 (19.2%). No patients reported complete remission. Adverse events occurred in 13/26 (50.0%) patients. None of the other prescribed drugs (valproate [n = 7], topiramate [n = 4], acetazolamide [n = 2], flunarizine [n = 1]) led to improvement except for topiramate in one patient, who discontinued, however, because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Of medication prescribed (lamotrigine, valproate, acetazolamide, flunarizine), only lamotrigine afforded some improvement in a small minority of patients. Migraine, depression, anxiety, and tinnitus were common comorbid diseases. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that for some patients with visual snow, lamotrigine resulted in partial remission of symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Neurologistas , Anticonvulsivantes , Humanos , Neve , Ácido Valproico
13.
Cephalalgia ; 39(8): 967-977, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trials (ACT1, ACT2) evaluated non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) as acute treatment for cluster headache. We analyzed pooled ACT1/ACT2 data to increase statistical power and gain insight into the differential efficacy of nVNS in episodic and chronic cluster headache. METHODS: Data extracted from ACT1 and ACT2 were pooled using a fixed-effects model. Main outcome measures were the primary endpoints of each study. This was the proportion of participants whose first treated attack improved from moderate (2), severe (3), or very severe (4) pain intensity to mild (1) or nil (0) for ACT1 and the proportion of treated attacks whose pain intensity improved from 2-4 to 0 for ACT2. RESULTS: The pooled population included 225 participants (episodic: n = 112; chronic: n = 113) from ACT1 (n = 133) and ACT2 (n = 92) in the nVNS (n = 108) and sham (n = 117) groups. Interaction was shown between treatment group and cluster headache subtype (p < 0.05). nVNS was superior to sham in episodic but not chronic cluster headache (both endpoints p < 0.01). Only four patients discontinued the studies due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: nVNS is a well-tolerated and effective acute treatment for episodic cluster headache. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The studies were registered at clinicaltrials.gov (ACT1: NCT01792817; ACT2: NCT01958125).

14.
Cephalalgia ; 39(8): 1058-1066, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042062

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the definition of chronic migraine as a new disease entity in 2004, numerous clinical trials have examined the efficacy of preventive treatments in chronic migraine. Our aim was to assess the adherence of these trials to the Guidelines of the International Headache Society published in 2008. METHODS: We searched PubMed for controlled clinical trials investigating preventive treatment for chronic migraine in adults designed after the release of the Guidelines and published until December 2017. Trial quality was evaluated with a 13-item scoring system enlisting essential recommendations adapted from the Guidelines. RESULTS: Out of 3352 retrieved records, we included 16 papers in the analysis dealing with pharmacological treatment of chronic migraine. The median score was 6.5 (range 2-13). All trials were randomized, the large majority (81.25%) were placebo-controlled and double-blinded (87.5%). Adherence was lowest on i) a priori definition of outcomes (31.25%), ii) primary endpoint definition (37.5%%) and iii) trial registration (37.5%). DISCUSSION: Most clinical trials adhered to the recommendations of the IHS, whereas adherence to migraine-specific recommendations was lower. Greater awareness and adherence to the guidelines are essential to improve the quality of clinical trials, validity of publications and the generalizability of the results.

15.
Int J Stroke ; 14(9): 946-955, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with migraine might be more susceptible of spreading depolarizations, which are known to affect vascular and neuronal function and penumbra recovery after stroke. We investigated whether these patients have more severe stroke progression and less favorable outcomes after recanalization therapy. METHODS: We included patients from a prospective multicenter ischemic stroke cohort. Lifetime migraine history was based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria. Patients without confirmed migraine diagnosis were excluded. Patients underwent CT angiography and CT perfusion <9 h of onset and follow-up CT after three days. On admission, presence of a perfusion deficit, infarct core and penumbra volume, and blood brain barrier permeability (BBBP) were assessed. At follow-up we assessed malignant edema, hemorrhagic transformation, and final infarct volume. Outcome at three months was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We calculated adjusted relative risks (aRR) or difference of means (aB) with regression analyses. RESULTS: We included 600 patients of whom 43 had migraine. There were no differences between patients with or without migraine in presence of a perfusion deficit on admission (aRR: 0.98, 95%CI: 0.77-1.25), infarct core volume (aB: -10.8, 95%CI: -27.04-5.51), penumbra volume (aB: -11.6, 95%CI: -26.52-3.38), mean blood brain barrier permeability (aB: 0.08, 95%CI: -3.11-2.96), malignant edema (0% vs. 5%), hemorrhagic transformation (aRR: 0.26, 95%CI: 0.04-1.73), final infarct volume (aB: -14.8, 95%CI: 29.9-0.2) or outcome after recanalization therapy (mRS > 2, aRR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.21-1.22). CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with a history of migraine do not seem to have more severe stroke progression and have similar treatment outcomes compared with patients without migraine.

16.
Cephalalgia ; 39(14): 1855-1866, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the putative role of light, sleep, and the biological clock in cluster headache. DISCUSSION: Cluster headache attacks are believed to be modulated in the hypothalamus; moreover, the severe pain and typical autonomic cranial features associated with cluster headache are caused by abnormal activity of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex. The temporal pattern of cluster headache attacks suggests involvement of the biological clock, and the seasonal pattern is influenced by the number of daylight hours. Although sleep is often reported as a trigger for cluster headache attacks, to date no clear correlation has been established between these attacks and sleep stage. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that light, sleep, and the biological clock can change the brain's state, thereby lowering the threshold for activating the trigeminal-autonomic reflex, resulting in a cluster headache attack. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the daily and seasonal fluctuations in cluster headache attacks may provide new therapeutic targets.

17.
Neurology ; 92(16): e1899-e1911, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify a plasma metabolomic biomarker signature for migraine. METHODS: Plasma samples from 8 Dutch cohorts (n = 10,153: 2,800 migraine patients and 7,353 controls) were profiled on a 1H-NMR-based metabolomics platform, to quantify 146 individual metabolites (e.g., lipids, fatty acids, and lipoproteins) and 79 metabolite ratios. Metabolite measures associated with migraine were obtained after single-metabolite logistic regression combined with a random-effects meta-analysis performed in a nonstratified and sex-stratified manner. Next, a global test analysis was performed to identify sets of related metabolites associated with migraine. The Holm procedure was applied to control the family-wise error rate at 5% in single-metabolite and global test analyses. RESULTS: Decreases in the level of apolipoprotein A1 (ß -0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.16, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) and free cholesterol to total lipid ratio present in small high-density lipoprotein subspecies (HDL) (ß -0.10; 95% CI -0.15, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) were associated with migraine status. In addition, only in male participants, a decreased level of omega-3 fatty acids (ß -0.24; 95% CI -0.36, -0.12; adjusted p = 0.033) was associated with migraine. Global test analysis further supported that HDL traits (but not other lipoproteins) were associated with migraine status. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic profiling of plasma yielded alterations in HDL metabolism in migraine patients and decreased omega-3 fatty acids only in male migraineurs.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Brain ; 142(5): 1203-1214, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982843

RESUMO

Botulinum toxin A (BTA) is widely used as treatment of chronic migraine. Efficacy in studies, however, was only modest and likely influenced by unblinding due to BTA-induced removal of forehead wrinkles. Moreover, most study participants were overusing acute headache medications and might have benefitted from withdrawal. We assessed in a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial whether add-on therapy with BTA enhances efficacy of acute withdrawal. Participants were enrolled between December 2012 and February 2015, with follow-up to January 2016, in a single academic hospital in the Netherlands. A total of 179 participants, male and female, aged 18-65, diagnosed with chronic migraine and overuse of acute headache medication were included. All participants were instructed to withdraw acutely from all medication for a 12-week period, in an outpatient setting. In addition, they were randomly assigned (1:1) to 31 injections with BTA (155 units) or placebo (saline); to prevent unblinding, placebo-treated participants received low doses of BTA (17.5 units in total) in the forehead, along with saline injections outside the forehead region. Primary endpoint was percentage change in monthly headache days from baseline to the last 4 weeks of double-blind treatment (Weeks 9-12). Among 179 randomized patients, 90 received BTA and 89 received placebo, and 175 (98%) completed the double-blind phase. All 179 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analyses. BTA did not reduce monthly headache days versus placebo (-26.9% versus -20.5%; difference -6.4%; 95% confidence interval: -15.2 to 2.4; P = 0.15). Absolute changes in migraine days at 12 weeks for BTA versus placebo were -6.2 versus -7.0 (difference: 0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.0 to 2.7; P = 0.38). Other secondary endpoints, including measures for disability and quality of life, did also not differ. Withdrawal was well tolerated and blinding was successful. Thus, in patients with chronic migraine and medication overuse, BTA does not afford any additional benefit over acute withdrawal alone. Acute withdrawal should be tried first before initiating more expensive treatment with BTA.

19.
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 93: 102-112, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy and migraine are paroxysmal neurological conditions associated with disturbances of cortical excitability. No useful biomarkers to monitor disease activity in these conditions are available. Phase clustering was previously described in electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to photic stimulation and may be a potential epilepsy biomarker. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate EEG phase clustering in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), compare it with photic stimulation in controls, and explore its potential as a biomarker of genetic generalized epilepsy or migraine with aura. METHODS: People with (possible) juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), migraine with aura, and healthy controls underwent single-pulse TMS with concomitant EEG recording during the interictal period. We compared phase clustering after TMS with photic stimulation across the groups using permutation-based testing. RESULTS: We included eight people with (possible) JME (five off medication, three on), 10 with migraine with aura, and 37 controls. The TMS and photic phase clustering spectra showed significant differences between those with epilepsy without medication and controls. Two phase clustering-based indices successfully captured these differences between groups. One participant was tested multiple times. In this case, the phase clustering-based indices were inversely correlated with the dose of antiepileptic medication. Phase clustering did not differ between people with migraine and controls. CONCLUSION: We present methods to quantify phase clustering using TMS-EEG and show its potential value as a measure of brain network activity in genetic generalized epilepsy. Our results suggest that the higher propensity to phase clustering is not shared between genetic generalized epilepsy and migraine.

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