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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053839

RESUMO

Experimental evidence suggests that alcohol induces cutaneous carcinogenesis, yet epidemiological studies on the link between alcohol intake and skin cancer have been inconsistent. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were assessed using validated country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in Cox models. A total of 14 037 skin cancer cases (melanoma: n = 2457; basal-cell carcinoma (BCC): n = 8711; squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC): n = 1928; unknown: n = 941) were identified among 450 112 participants (average follow-up: 15 years). Baseline alcohol intake was positively associated with SCC (>15 vs 0.1-4.9 g/day: HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.17-1.77; Ptrend  = .001), BCC (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23; Ptrend  = .04), and melanoma risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.95-1.44; Ptrend  = .17), while associations were more modest in women (SCC: HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.90-1.30; Ptrend  = .13; BCC: HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, Ptrend  = .03; melanoma: HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.80-1.08, Ptrend  = .13). Associations were similar for lifetime alcohol intake, with an attenuated linear trend. Lifetime liquor/spirit intake was positively associated with melanoma (fourth vs first quartile: HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.08-1.99; Ptrend  = .0009) and BCC risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04-1.31; Ptrend  = .14). Baseline and lifetime intakes of wine were associated with BCC risk (HR = 1.25 in men; HR = 1.11-1.12; in women). No statistically significant associations were found between beverage types and SCC risk. Intake of beer was not associated with skin cancer risk. Our study suggests positive relationships between alcohol intake and skin cancer risk, which may have important implications for the primary prevention of skin cancer.

2.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); however, there is limited knowledge on whether changing alcohol drinking habits during adulthood modifies CRC risk. OBJECTIVE: Leveraging longitudinal exposure assessments on alcohol intake at different ages, we examined the relationship between change in alcohol intake and subsequent CRC risk. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, changes in alcohol intake comparing follow-up with baseline assessments were investigated in relation to CRC risk. The analysis included 191,180, participants and 1530 incident CRC cases, with exclusion of the first three years of follow-up to minimize reverse causation. Trajectory profiles of alcohol intake, assessed at ages 20, 30, 40, 50 years, at baseline and during follow-up, were estimated using latent class mixed models and related to CRC risk, including 407,605 participants and 5,008 incident CRC cases. RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 50.2 years and the follow-up assessment occurred on average 7.1 years later. Compared to stable intake, a 12 g/day increase in alcohol intake during follow-up was positively associated with CRC risk (HR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.04, 1.25), while a 12 g/day reduction was inversely associated with CRC risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78, 0.95). Trajectory analysis showed that compared to low alcohol intake, men who increased their alcohol intake from early- to mid- and late-adulthood by up to 30 g/day on average had significantly increased CRC risk (HR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.08, 1.42), while no associations were observed in women. Results were consistent by anatomical subsite. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake during mid-to-late adulthood raised CRC risk, while reduction lowered risk.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830197

RESUMO

It is unclear whether diet, and in particular certain foods or nutrients, are associated with lung cancer risk. We assessed associations of 92 dietary factors with lung cancer risk in 327,790 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) per standard deviation (SD) higher intake/day of each food/nutrient. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate and identified associations were evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). In EPIC, 2,420 incident lung cancer cases were identified during a median of 15 years of follow-up. Higher intakes of fibre (HR per 1 SD higher intake/day=0.91, 95%CI 0.87-0.96), fruit (HR=0.91, 95%CI 0.86-0.96), and vitamin C (HR=0.91, 95%CI 0.86-0.96) were associated with a lower risk of lung cancer, whereas offal (HR=1.08, 95%CI 1.03-1.14), retinol (HR=1.06, 95%CI 1.03-1.10), and beer/cider (HR=1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.07) intakes were positively associated with lung cancer risk. Associations did not differ by sex and there was less evidence for associations among never smokers. None of the six associations with overall lung cancer risk identified in EPIC were replicated in the NLCS (2,861 cases), however in analyses of histological subtypes, inverse associations of fruit and vitamin C with squamous cell carcinoma were replicated in the NLCS. Overall, there is little evidence that intakes of specific foods and nutrients play a major role in primary lung cancer risk, but fruit and vitamin C intakes seem to be inversely associated with squamous cell lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 191, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CM) is an increasing public health and clinical concern. However, predictors for the development and prognosis of CM are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the relation between handgrip strength (HGS) and the risk of CM and to examine the association of HGS with all-cause mortality risk among patients with CM. METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved 493,774 participants from the UK Biobank. CM was defined as the simultaneous occurrence of two or more of the following conditions: type 2 diabetes, stroke, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.1 years, 4701 incident CM cases were documented among participants with none cardiometabolic disease at baseline. Compared with the fourth quartile (Q4), the multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI) value of Q1 of HGS for developing CM was 1.46 (1.34-1.60). In participants with one cardiometabolic disease at baseline, participants in Q1 of HGS also possessed higher risk of CM than those in Q4, with HRs (95% CIs) being 1.35 (1.23-1.49) in patients with type 2 diabetes, 1.23 (1.04-1.46) in patients with stroke, and 1.23 (1.11-1.36) in patients with CHD. For participants with CM at recruitment, HGS was also associated with the risk of all-cause mortality (Q1 vs. Q4 HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.36-1.80). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided novel evidence that HGS could be an independent predictor of morbidity and all-cause mortality of CM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Morbidade , Multimorbidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 546, 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and cardiometabolic comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes have been studied as negative prognostic factors in cancer survival, but possible dependencies in the mechanisms underlying these associations remain largely unexplored. We analysed these associations in colorectal and breast cancer patients. METHODS: Based on repeated BMI assessments of cancer-free participants from four European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study, individual BMI-trajectories reflecting predicted mean BMI between ages 20 to 50 years were estimated using a growth curve model. Participants with incident colorectal or breast cancer after the age of 50 years were included in the survival analysis to study the prognostic effect of mean BMI and cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) prior to cancer. CMD were defined as one or more chronic conditions among stroke, myocardial infarction, and type 2 diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of mean BMI and CMD were derived using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression for mean BMI and CMD separately and both exposures combined, in subgroups of localised and advanced disease. RESULTS: In the total cohort of 159,045 participants, there were 1,045 and 1,620 eligible patients of colorectal and breast cancer. In colorectal cancer patients, a higher BMI (by 1 kg/m2) was associated with a 6% increase in risk of death (95% CI of HR: 1.02-1.10). The HR for CMD was 1.25 (95% CI: 0.97-1.61). The associations for both exposures were stronger in patients with localised colorectal cancer. In breast cancer patients, a higher BMI was associated with a 4% increase in risk of death (95% CI: 1.00-1.08). CMDs were associated with a 46% increase in risk of death (95% CI: 1.01-2.09). The estimates and CIs for BMI remained similar after adjustment for CMD and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cumulative exposure to higher BMI during early to mid-adulthood was associated with poorer survival in patients with breast and colorectal cancer, independent of CMD prior to cancer diagnosis. The association between a CMD diagnosis prior to cancer and survival in patients with breast and colorectal cancer was independent of BMI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Cancer ; 151(5): 708-716, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366005

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that components of one-carbon metabolism, particularly circulating vitamin B6, have an etiological role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in the transsulfuration pathway. We sought to holistically investigate the role of the transsulfuration pathway in RCC risk. We conducted a nested case-control study (455 RCC cases and 455 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Plasma samples from the baseline visit were analyzed for metabolites of the transsulfuration pathway, including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the biologically active form of vitamin B6), homocysteine, serine, cystathionine, and cysteine, in addition to folate. Bayesian conditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations of metabolites with RCC risk as well as interactions with established RCC risk factors. Circulating PLP and cysteine were inversely associated with RCC risk, and these associations were not attenuated after adjustment for other transsulfuration metabolites (odds ratio (OR) and 90% credible interval (CrI) per 1 SD increase in log concentration: 0.76 [0.66, 0.87]; 0.81 [0.66, 0.96], respectively). A comparison of joint metabolite profiles suggested substantially greater RCC risk for the profile representative of low overall transsulfuration function compared to high function (OR 2.70 [90% CrI 1.26, 5.70]). We found some statistical evidence of interactions of cysteine with body mass index, and PLP and homocysteine with smoking status, on their associations with RCC risk. In conclusion, we found evidence suggesting that the transsulfuration pathway may play a role in metabolic dysregulation leading to RCC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cisteína , Homocisteína , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fosfato de Piridoxal , Vitamina B 6
7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(9): 1296-1300, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438160

RESUMO

It is unclear if body weight in early life affects cancer risk independently of adult body weight. To investigate this question for 6 obesity-related cancers, we performed univariable and multivariable analyses using 1) Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis and 2) longitudinal analyses in prospective cohorts. Both the MR and longitudinal analyses indicated that larger early life body size was associated with higher risk of endometrial (odds ratioMR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = 1.23 to 2.11) and kidney (odds ratioMR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.09 to 1.80) cancer. These associations were attenuated after accounting for adult body size in both the MR and cohort analyses. Early life body mass index (BMI) was not consistently associated with the other investigated cancers. The lack of clear independent risk associations suggests that early life BMI influences endometrial and kidney cancer risk mainly through pathways that are common with adult BMI.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 83, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The 6-min walking distance (6MWD) test is a useful tool to obtain a measure of functional exercise capacity. However, reference equations have been mainly based on selected populations or small samples. The purpose of this study was to determine the reference equations to predict the 6MWD in a large Italian population sample of healthy adults of a wide age range. METHODS: In the frame of the multi case-control population-based study Gene Environment Interaction in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD), we studied 530 healthy subjects: 287 females ranging 21-76 and 243 males ranging 21-78 years of age. We measured 6MWD, demographic and anthropometric data and collected the reported physical activity. A multiple linear regression model for the 6MWD included age, age2, height, weight and physical activity for both sex equations. The two-way interaction age-height and age-weight and the quadratic terms of weight and height were also tested for inclusion separately in each model. RESULTS: The mean ± SD for 6MWD was 581.4 ± 66.5 m (range 383-800 m) for females and 608.7 ± 80.1 m (range 410-875 m) for males. The reference equations were 6MWD = 8.10*age + 1.61*heightcm-0.99*weightkg + 22.58*active-0.10*age2 + 222.55 for females (R squared = 0.238) and 6MWD = 26.80*age + 8.46*heightcm-0.45*weightkg-2.54*active-0.06*age2-0.13*age*heightcm-890.18 for males (R squared = 0.159), where "active" is 1 when the subject is physically active, 0 otherwise. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to describe the 6MWD in a large population sample of young, middle aged and elderly healthy Caucasian subjects, and to determine reference equations. These findings will help to improve the evaluation of Italian and European patients with diseases influencing their functional capacity.


Assuntos
Estatura , Caminhada , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Valores de Referência
9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(7): e2952-e2961, 2022 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated reproductive aging, in women indicated by early natural menopause, is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in observational studies. Conversely, an adverse CHD risk profile has been suggested to accelerate menopause. OBJECTIVES: To study the direction and evidence for causality of the relationship between reproductive aging and (non-)fatal CHD and CHD risk factors in a bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, using age at natural menopause (ANM) genetic variants as a measure for genetically determined reproductive aging in women. We also studied the association of these variants with CHD risk (factors) in men. DESIGN: Two-sample MR, using both cohort data as well as summary statistics, with 4 methods: simple and weighted median-based, standard inverse-variance weighted (IVW) regression, and MR-Egger regression. PARTICIPANTS: Data from EPIC-CVD and summary statistics from UK Biobank and publicly available genome-wide association studies were pooled for the different analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CHD, CHD risk factors, and ANM. RESULTS: Across different methods of MR, no association was found between genetically determined reproductive aging and CHD risk in women (relative risk estimateIVW = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.01), or any of the CHD risk factors. Similarly, no associations were found in men. Neither did the reversed analyses show evidence for an association between CHD (risk factors) and reproductive aging. CONCLUSION: Genetically determined reproductive aging is not causally associated with CHD risk (factors) in women, nor were the genetic variants associated in men. We found no evidence for a reverse association in a combined sample of women and men.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Envelhecimento/genética , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(5): 2397-2416, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129646

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diet may play an essential role in the aetiology of bladder cancer (BC). The B group complex vitamins involve diverse biological functions that could be influential in cancer prevention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between various components of the B group vitamin complex and BC risk. METHODS: Dietary data were pooled from four cohort studies. Food item intake was converted to daily intakes of B group vitamins and pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were obtained using Cox-regression models. Dose-response relationships were examined using a nonparametric test for trend. RESULTS: In total, 2915 BC cases and 530,012 non-cases were included in the analyses. The present study showed an increased BC risk for moderate intake of vitamin B1 (HRB1: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.00-1.20). In men, moderate intake of the vitamins B1, B2, energy-related vitamins and high intake of vitamin B1 were associated with an increased BC risk (HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.02-1.26), 1.14 (1.02-1.26), 1.13 (1.02-1.26; 1.13 (1.02-1.26), respectively). In women, high intake of all vitamins and vitamin combinations, except for the entire complex, showed an inverse association (HR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.67-0.97), 0.83 (0.70-1.00); 0.77 (0.63-0.93), 0.73 (0.61-0.88), 0.82 (0.68-0.99), 0.79 (0.66-0.95), 0.80 (0.66-0.96), 0.74 (0.62-0.89), 0.76 (0.63-0.92), respectively). Dose-response analyses showed an increased BC risk for higher intake of vitamin B1 and B12. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of future research on the food sources of B group vitamins in the context of the overall and sex-stratified diet.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Complexo Vitamínico B , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tiamina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/prevenção & controle , Vitamina A , Vitamina B 12
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(6): 1914-1926, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of obesity and weight change in breast-cancer development is complex and incompletely understood. We investigated long-term weight change and breast-cancer risk by body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hormone-receptor status. METHODS: Using data on weight collected at three different time points from women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we investigated the association between weight change from age 20 years until middle adulthood and risk of breast cancer. RESULTS: In total, 150 257 women with a median age of 51 years at cohort entry were followed for an average of 14 years (standard deviation = 3.9) during which 6532 breast-cancer cases occurred. Compared with women with stable weight (±2.5 kg), long-term weight gain >10 kg was positively associated with postmenopausal breast-cancer risk in women who were lean at age 20 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.65] in ever HRT users (HR = 1.23; 1.04-1.44), in never HRT users (HR = 1.40; 1.16-1.68) and in oestrogen-and-progesterone-receptor-positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer (HR = 1.46; 1.15-1.85). CONCLUSION: Long-term weight gain was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in women who were lean at age 20, both in HRT ever users and non-users, and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Aumento de Peso , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(1): 113-123, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause more than 70% of deaths worldwide and share modifiable risk factors including obesity and metabolic abnormalities. Over the past 15 years, many changes in lifestyle, dietary patterns, physical activity, and socioeconomic status have been observed in the Afghan population. This study aims to investigate which specific lifestyle factors, dietary patterns, and characteristics of Westernization are associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese and with poor metabolic health in the Afghan population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted where a total of 729 male and female participants were recruited. Face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained health staff using standardized questionnaires which included information on socio-demographic and housing characteristics, income, occupation, ethnicity, personal and family medical history, stress, anthropometry, diet, and physical activity. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) was used to estimate body composition, including overall body fatness. Physical activity was measured using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). For a comprehensive assessment of dietary intake, a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific to the Afghan population was developed which included all local food items relevant to the population. Lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in a local laboratory. Biospecimens were collected using dried blood spots (DBS) and dried stool cards to perform microbiome and biomarker-based research. DISCUSSION: This is the first study which will assess dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, and their association with obesity and metabolic health in Afghanistan. Such a study will aid the development of dietary and lifestyle guidelines in Afghanistan which will promote better health and educate people to make healthy food choices. The findings will also help in designing and implementing effective public health strategies to promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent the epidemic of overweight and obesity, and, hence, reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Sobrepeso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
13.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(5): 2313-2320, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is existing evidence on the potential role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer (PC) and on how risk may be modulated by dietary factors. Pro-inflammatory diets are suggested to be associated with increased risk of PC but, so far, evidence remains not conclusive. We examined the association between the dietary inflammatory potential and PC risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, which includes 450,112 participants. METHODS: After a 14-year follow-up, a total of 1239 incident PC cases were included in this study. The inflammatory potential of the diet was estimated using an Inflammatory Score of the Diet (ISD). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the ISD and PC were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for known risk factors for PC. RESULTS: Participants with higher ISDs had a higher risk of developing PCs. In the fully adjusted multivariate model, the risk of PC increased by 11% (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) for 1 point each standard deviation increase in the ISD score. Neither obesity nor any other known risk factor for PC showed statistically significant interactions. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective study reporting a positive relationship between the inflammatory potential of diet and PC. Since early diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer might be challenging, prevention remains the major hope for reducing the burden of this disease.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(4): 864-873.e13, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dieta , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(2): 479-490, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings and limitations of previous studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk support conducting further research in prospective cohorts. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Participants were 513 pancreatic cancer cases and 1020 matched controls. Concentrations of 22 POPs were measured in plasma collected at baseline. RESULTS: Some associations were observed at higher concentrations of p, p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, ß-hexachlorocyclohexane and the sum of six organochlorine pesticides and of 16 POPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of trans-nonachlor was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.26; P for trend = 0.025). Associations were stronger in the groups predefined as most valid (participants having fasted >6 h, with microscopic diagnostic confirmation, normal weight, and never smokers), and as most relevant (follow-up ≥10 years). Among participants having fasted >6 h, the ORs were relevant for 10 of 11 exposures. Higher ORs were also observed among cases with microscopic confirmation than in cases with a clinical diagnosis, and among normal-weight participants than in the rest of participants. Among participants with a follow-up ≥10 years, estimates were higher than in participants with a shorter follow-up (for trans-nonachlor: OR = 2.14, 1.01 to 4.53, P for trend = 0.035). Overall, trans-nonachlor, three PCBs and the two sums of POPs were the exposures most clearly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Individually or in combination, most of the 22 POPs analysed did not or only moderately increased the risk of pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes
16.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(5): e1061-e1082, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale, 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5738 cancer-free European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition participants with metabolomics data. Partial least-squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of the WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of increased odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine, and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were inversely associated more strongly with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR, 0.51 per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR, 0.62 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR, 0.93 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared with female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(6): e1338-e1352, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal cancer risk is influenced by the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, previous epidemiologic studies lacked full serological biomarker data for the classification of MetS, and the interaction of MetS with germline cancer risk variants is unknown. METHODS: We investigated the associations between MetS and gastrointestinal cancer risk (overall, colorectal, pancreatic, esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, stomach cardia, stomach non-cardia, hepatocellular carcinoma, and intrahepatic bile duct cancer) in 366,016 United Kingdom Biobank participants with comprehensive serum biomarker and genotype data. MetS status was determined by 3 different definitions at baseline, and, in 15,152 participants, at a repeat assessment after a median of 4.3 years of follow-up. Multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cancer outcomes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses stratified by polygenic risk score were conducted for colorectal and pancreatic cancers. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 7.1 years, 4238 incident cases of a gastrointestinal cancer occurred. MetS at baseline was associated with higher risk of overall gastrointestinal cancer by any definition (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.29, harmonized definition). MetS was associated with increased risks of colorectal cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer in women, and esophageal adenocarcinoma in men. Associations for colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer did not differ by polygenic risk score strata (P-heterogeneity 0.70 and 0.69, respectively), and 80% of participants with MetS at baseline retained this status at the repeat assessment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the importance of maintaining good metabolic health in reducing the burden of gastrointestinal cancers, irrespective of genetic predisposition.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Síndrome Metabólica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Retais , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103572, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954047

RESUMO

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies derived from neuroendocrine cells that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. GEP-NETs incidence has been steadily increasing over the past decades, in parallel with the increasing incidence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is not yet fully known whether the MetS components (such as obesity, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes) could be involved in the etiology of GEP-NETs or could influence their outcomes. In this review, a panel of experts of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM), Italian Association of Medical Diabetologists (AMD), Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), and Italian Society of Pharmacology (SIF) provides a critical view of the experimental and clinical evidence about the association of GEP-NETs risk, outcomes, and therapies with the metabolic disorders typical of MetS. The potential therapeutic strategies for an optimal management of patients with both GEP-NETs and MetS are also discussed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias Intestinais , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Consenso , Humanos , Oncologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003834, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food biodiversity, encompassing the variety of plants, animals, and other organisms consumed as food and drink, has intrinsic potential to underpin diverse, nutritious diets and improve Earth system resilience. Dietary species richness (DSR), which is recommended as a crosscutting measure of food biodiversity, has been positively associated with the micronutrient adequacy of diets in women and young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the relationships between DSR and major health outcomes have yet to be assessed in any population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined the associations between DSR and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 451,390 adults enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study (1992 to 2014, median follow-up: 17 years), free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack, or stroke at baseline. Usual dietary intakes were assessed at recruitment with country-specific dietary questionnaires (DQs). DSR of an individual's yearly diet was calculated based on the absolute number of unique biological species in each (composite) food and drink. Associations were assessed by fitting multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. In the EPIC cohort, 2 crops (common wheat and potato) and 2 animal species (cow and pig) accounted for approximately 45% of self-reported total dietary energy intake [median (P10-P90): 68 (40 to 83) species consumed per year]. Overall, higher DSR was inversely associated with all-cause mortality rate. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing total mortality in the second, third, fourth, and fifth (highest) quintiles (Qs) of DSR to the first (lowest) Q indicate significant inverse associations, after stratification by sex, age, and study center and adjustment for smoking status, educational level, marital status, physical activity, alcohol intake, and total energy intake, Mediterranean diet score, red and processed meat intake, and fiber intake [HR (95% CI): 0.91 (0.88 to 0.94), 0.80 (0.76 to 0.83), 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72), and 0.63 (0.59 to 0.66), respectively; PWald < 0.001 for trend]. Absolute death rates among participants in the highest and lowest fifth of DSR were 65.4 and 69.3 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Significant inverse associations were also observed between DSR and deaths due to cancer, heart disease, digestive disease, and respiratory disease. An important study limitation is that our findings were based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through single baseline food frequency questionnaires (FFQs); thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: In this large Pan-European cohort, higher DSR was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality, independent of sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other known dietary risk factors. Our findings support the potential of food (species) biodiversity as a guiding principle of sustainable dietary recommendations and food-based dietary guidelines.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Causas de Morte , Alimentos , Mortalidade , Adulto , Bebidas , Dieta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(11): e786-e796, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diets, the rise of non-communicable diseases, and the declining health of the planet are highly intertwined, where food production and consumption are major drivers of increases in greenhouse gas emissions, substantial land use, and adverse health such as cancer and mortality. To assess the potential co-benefits from shifting to more sustainable diets, we aimed to investigate the associations of dietary greenhouse gas emissions and land use with all-cause and cause-specific mortality and cancer incidence rates. METHODS: Using data from 443 991 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a multicentre prospective cohort, we estimated associations between dietary contributions to greenhouse gas emissions and land use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality and incident cancers using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The main exposures were modelled as quartiles. Co-benefits, encompassing the potential effects of alternative diets on all-cause mortality and cancer and potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and land use, were estimated with counterfactual attributable fraction intervention models, simulating potential effects of dietary shifts based on the EAT-Lancet reference diet. FINDINGS: In the pooled analysis, there was an association between levels of dietary greenhouse gas emissions and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1·13 [95% CI 1·10-1·16]) and between land use and all-cause mortality (1·18 [1·15-1·21]) when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile. Similar associations were observed for cause-specific mortality. Associations were also observed between all-cause cancer incidence rates and greenhouse gas emissions, when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (adjusted HR 1·11 [95% CI 1·09-1·14]) and between all-cause cancer incidence rates and land use (1·13 [1·10-1·15]); however, estimates differed by cancer type. Through counterfactual attributable fraction modelling of shifts in levels of adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet, we estimated that up to 19-63% of deaths and up to 10-39% of cancers could be prevented, in a 20-year risk period, by different levels of adherence to the EAT-Lancet reference diet. Additionally, switching from lower adherence to the EAT-Lancet reference diet to higher adherence could potentially reduce food-associated greenhouse gas emissions up to 50% and land use up to 62%. INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate that shifts towards universally sustainable diets could lead to co-benefits, such as minimising diet-related greenhouse gas emissions and land use, reducing the environmental footprint, aiding in climate change mitigation, and improving population health. FUNDING: European Commission (DG-SANCO), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), MRC Early Career Fellowship (MR/M501669/1).


Assuntos
Dieta , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
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