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1.
Elife ; 102021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941312

RESUMO

Extreme longevity is the paradigm of healthy aging as individuals who reached the extreme decades of human life avoided or largely postponed all major age-related diseases. In this study, we sequenced at high coverage (90X) the whole genome of 81 semi-supercentenarians and supercentenarians [105+/110+] (mean age: 106.6 ± 1.6) and of 36 healthy unrelated geographically matched controls (mean age 68.0 ± 5.9) recruited in Italy. The results showed that 105+/110+ are characterized by a peculiar genetic background associated with efficient DNA repair mechanisms, as evidenced by both germline data (common and rare variants) and somatic mutations patterns (lower mutation load if compared to younger healthy controls). Results were replicated in a second independent cohort of 333 Italian centenarians and 358 geographically matched controls. The genetics of 105+/110+ identified DNA repair and clonal haematopoiesis as crucial players for healthy aging and for the protection from cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Reparo do DNA , Longevidade/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Patrimônio Genético , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
2.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 51, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cline of human genetic diversity observable across Europe is recapitulated at a micro-geographic scale by variation within the Italian population. Besides resulting from extensive gene flow, this might be ascribable also to local adaptations to diverse ecological contexts evolved by people who anciently spread along the Italian Peninsula. Dissecting the evolutionary history of the ancestors of present-day Italians may thus improve the understanding of demographic and biological processes that contributed to shape the gene pool of European populations. However, previous SNP array-based studies failed to investigate the full spectrum of Italian variation, generally neglecting low-frequency genetic variants and examining a limited set of small effect size alleles, which may represent important determinants of population structure and complex adaptive traits. To overcome these issues, we analyzed 38 high-coverage whole-genome sequences representative of population clusters at the opposite ends of the cline of Italian variation, along with a large panel of modern and ancient Euro-Mediterranean genomes. RESULTS: We provided evidence for the early divergence of Italian groups dating back to the Late Glacial and for Neolithic and distinct Bronze Age migrations having further differentiated their gene pools. We inferred adaptive evolution at insulin-related loci in people from Italian regions with a temperate climate, while possible adaptations to pathogens and ultraviolet radiation were observed in Mediterranean Italians. Some of these adaptive events may also have secondarily modulated population disease or longevity predisposition. CONCLUSIONS: We disentangled the contribution of multiple migratory and adaptive events in shaping the heterogeneous Italian genomic background, which exemplify population dynamics and gene-environment interactions that played significant roles also in the formation of the Continental and Southern European genomic landscapes.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Arqueologia , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Itália
3.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153609

RESUMO

Helianthus tuberosus L., known as the Jerusalem artichoke, is a hexaploid plant species, adapted to low-nutrient soils, that accumulates high levels of inulin in its tubers. Inulin is a fructose-based polysaccharide used either as dietary fiber or for the production of bioethanol. Key enzymes involved in inulin biosynthesis are well known. However, the gene networks underpinning tuber development and inulin accumulation in H. tuberous remain elusive. To fill this gap, we selected 6,365 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from an H. tuberosus library to set up a microarray platform and record their expression across three tuber developmental stages, when rhizomes start enlarging (T0), at maximum tuber elongation rate (T3), and at tuber physiological maturity (Tm), in "VR" and "K8-HS142"clones. The former was selected as an early tuberizing and the latter as a late-tuberizing clone. We quantified inulin and starch levels, and qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of critical genes accounting for inulin biosynthesis. The microarray analysis revealed that the differences in morphological and physiological traits between tubers of the two clones are genetically determined since T0 and that is relatively low the number of differentially expressed ESTs across the stages shared between the clones (93). The expression of ESTs for sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT), the two critical genes for fructans polymerization, resulted to be temporarily synchronized and mirror the progress of inulin accumulation and stretching. The expression of ESTs for starch biosynthesis was insignificant throughout the developmental stages of the clones in line with the negligible level of starch into their mature tubers, where inulin was the dominant polysaccharide. Overall, our study disclosed candidate genes underpinning the development and storage of carbohydrates in the tubers of two H. tuberosus clones. A model according to which the steady-state levels of 1-SST and 1-FFT transcripts are developmentally controlled and might represent a limiting factor for inulin accumulation has been provided. Our finding may have significant repercussions for breeding clones with improved levels of inulin for food and chemical industry.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11769, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409808

RESUMO

With approximately 450 species, spiny Solanum species constitute the largest monophyletic group in the Solanaceae family, but a high-quality genome assembly from this group is presently missing. We obtained a chromosome-anchored genome assembly of eggplant (Solanum melongena), containing 34,916 genes, confirming that the diploid gene number in the Solanaceae is around 35,000. Comparative genomic studies with tomato (S. lycopersicum), potato (S. tuberosum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) highlighted the rapid evolution of miRNA:mRNA regulatory pairs and R-type defense genes in the Solanaceae, and provided a genomic basis for the lack of steroidal glycoalkaloid compounds in the Capsicum genus. Using parsimony methods, we reconstructed the putative chromosomal complements of the key founders of the main Solanaceae clades and the rearrangements that led to the karyotypes of extant species and their ancestors. From 10% to 15% of the genes present in the four genomes were syntenic paralogs (ohnologs) generated by the pre-γ, γ and T paleopolyploidy events, and were enriched in transcription factors. Our data suggest that the basic gene network controlling fruit ripening is conserved in different Solanaceae clades, and that climacteric fruit ripening involves a differential regulation of relatively few components of this network, including CNR and ethylene biosynthetic genes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Solanum melongena/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo
6.
Transl Oncol ; 12(1): 116-121, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Translocations of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) can be effectively targeted in advanced non-small cell lung cancer by ALK-TKI inhibitors including Crizotinib. However, the development of acquired resistance often limits the duration of these therapies. While several mechanisms of secondary resistance have been already identified, little is known about molecular determinants of primary resistance. In our brief report we investigated the tumor molecular profile of a patient who failed to respond to Crizotinib. METHODS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were run on tumor specimen as well as search and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood. Confirmation of clinical findings was achieved using a translational cell-line in vitro model. RESULTS: We identified the amplification of MYC as a potential new mechanism of primary resistance to ALK inhibition. Human EML4-ALK rearranged cells infected with a lentiviral vector carrying full-length human MYC cDNA were treated in vitro with crizotinib and alectinib. Overexpression of MYC overexpression was associated with a reduced sensitivity to both ALK-inhibitors. MYC-overexpressing clones displayed also increased levels of both cyclin D and E and their growth was reduced by using Cdk4/6 inhibitors such as Palbociclib. CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that the MYC gene may be implicated in the mechanism of primary resistance to ALK inhibitors. We also suggest potential MYC-directed inhibition strategies to overcome primary resistance in advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC.

7.
Mol Cancer Res ; 16(9): 1385-1395, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784668

RESUMO

Centrosome anomalies contribute to tumorigenesis, but it remains unclear how they are generated in lethal cancer phenotypes. Here, it is demonstrated that human microsatellite instable (MSI) and BRAFV600E-mutant colorectal cancers with a lethal rhabdoid phenotype are characterized by inactivation of centrosomal functions. A splice site mutation that causes an unbalanced dosage of rootletin (CROCC), a centrosome linker component required for centrosome cohesion and separation at the chromosome 1p36.13 locus, resulted in abnormally shaped centrosomes in rhabdoid cells from human colon tissues. Notably, deleterious deletions at 1p36.13 were recurrent in a subgroup of BRAFV600E-mutant and microsatellite stable (MSS) rhabdoid colorectal cancers, but not in classical colorectal cancer or pediatric rhabdoid tumors. Interfering with CROCC expression in near-diploid BRAFV600E-mutant/MSI colon cancer cells disrupts bipolar mitotic spindle architecture, promotes tetraploid segregation errors, resulting in a highly aggressive rhabdoid-like phenotype in vitro Restoring near-wild-type levels of CROCC in a metastatic model harboring 1p36.13 deletion results in correction of centrosome segregation errors and cell death, revealing a mechanism of tolerance to mitotic errors and tetraploidization promoted by deleterious 1p36.13 loss. Accordingly, cancer cells lacking 1p36.13 display far greater sensitivity to centrosome spindle pole stabilizing agents in vitro These data shed light on a previously unknown link between centrosome cohesion defects and lethal cancer phenotypes providing new insight into pathways underlying genome instability.Implications: Mis-segregation of chromosomes is a prominent feature of chromosome instability and intratumoral heterogeneity recurrent in metastatic tumors for which the molecular basis is unknown. This study provides insight into the mechanism by which defects in rootletin, a centrosome linker component causes tetraploid segregation errors and phenotypic transition to a clinically devastating form of malignant rhabdoid tumor. Mol Cancer Res; 16(9); 1385-95. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Centrossomo/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Tetraploidia , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenótipo
9.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193689, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494651

RESUMO

Chromosomal instability and associated chromosomal aberrations are hallmarks of cancer and play a critical role in disease progression and development of resistance to drugs. Single-cell genome analysis has gained interest in latest years as a source of biomarkers for targeted-therapy selection and drug resistance, and several methods have been developed to amplify the genomic DNA and to produce libraries suitable for Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). However, most protocols require several enzymatic and cleanup steps, thus increasing the complexity and length of protocols, while robustness and speed are key factors for clinical applications. To tackle this issue, we developed a single-tube, single-step, streamlined protocol, exploiting ligation mediated PCR (LM-PCR) Whole Genome Amplification (WGA) method, for low-pass genome sequencing with the Ion Torrent™ platform and copy number alterations (CNAs) calling from single cells. The method was evaluated on single cells isolated from 6 aberrant cell lines of the NCI-H series. In addition, to demonstrate the feasibility of the workflow on clinical samples, we analyzed single circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) isolated from the blood of patients affected by prostate cancer or lung adenocarcinoma. The results obtained show that the developed workflow generates data accurately representing whole genome absolute copy number profiles of single cell and allows alterations calling at resolutions down to 100 Kbp with as few as 200,000 reads. The presented data demonstrate the feasibility of the Ampli1™ WGA-based low-pass workflow for detection of CNAs in single tumor cells which would be of particular interest for genome-driven targeted therapy selection and for monitoring of disease progression.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/instrumentação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/instrumentação , Fluxo de Trabalho
10.
Plant J ; 93(2): 270-285, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160608

RESUMO

Fruits stored at low temperature can exhibit different types of chilling injury. In apple, one of the most serious physiological disorders is superficial scald, which is characterized by discoloration and brown necrotic patches on the fruit exocarp. Although this phenomenon is widely ascribed to the oxidation of α-farnesene, its physiology is not yet fully understood. To elucidate the mechanism of superficial scald development and possible means of prevention, we performed an integrated metabolite screen, including an analysis of volatiles, phenols and lipids, together with a large-scale transcriptome study. We also determined that prevention of superficial scald, through the use of an ethylene action inhibitor, is associated with the triggering of cold acclimation-related processes. Specifically, the inhibition of ethylene perception stimulated the production of antioxidant compounds to scavenge reactive oxygen species, the synthesis of fatty acids to stabilize plastid and vacuole membranes against cold temperature, and the accumulation of the sorbitol, which can act as a cryoprotectant. The pattern of sorbitol accumulation was consistent with the expression profile of a sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, MdS6PDH, the overexpression of which in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants confirmed its involvement in the cold acclimation and freezing tolerance.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Etilenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Malus/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/antagonistas & inibidores , Transcriptoma , Aclimatação , Temperatura Baixa , Resistência à Doença , Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/imunologia , Frutas/metabolismo , L-Iditol 2-Desidrogenase/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/imunologia , Modelos Biológicos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Metabolismo Secundário , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sorbitol/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11701, 2017 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916825

RESUMO

Dinoflagellates are phytoplanktonic organisms found in both freshwater and marine habitats. They are often studied because related to harmful algal blooms but they are also known to produce bioactive compounds for the treatment of human pathologies. The aim of this study was to sequence the full transcriptome of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae in both nitrogen-starved and -replete culturing conditions (1) to evaluate the response to nitrogen starvation at the transcriptional level, (2) to look for possible polyketide synthases (PKSs) in the studied clone (genes that may be involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds), (3) if present, to evaluate if nutrient starvation can influence PKS expression, (4) to look for other possible enzymes of biotechnological interest and (5) to test strain cytotoxicity on human cell lines. Results showed an increase in nitrogen metabolism and stress response in nitrogen-starved cells and confirmed the presence of a type I ß-ketosynthase. In addition, L-asparaginase (used for the treatment of Leukemia and for acrylamide reduction in food industries) and cellulase (useful for biofuel production and other industrial applications) have been identified for the first time in this species, giving new insights into possible biotechnological applications of dinoflagellates.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Dinoflagelados/genética , Enzimas/genética , Transcriptoma , Asparaginase/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Celulase/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/enzimologia , Humanos , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/deficiência , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise
12.
Plant J ; 88(6): 963-975, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27531564

RESUMO

Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is a model species for studying the metabolic changes that occur at the onset of ripening in fruit crops, and the physiological mechanisms that are governed by the hormone ethylene. In this study, to dissect the climacteric interplay in apple, a multidisciplinary approach was employed. To this end, a comprehensive analysis of gene expression together with the investigation of several physiological entities (texture, volatilome and content of polyphenolic compounds) was performed throughout fruit development and ripening. The transcriptomic profiling was conducted with two microarray platforms: a dedicated custom array (iRIPE) and a whole genome array specifically enriched with ripening-related genes for apple (WGAA). The transcriptomic and phenotypic changes following the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene inhibitor leading to important modifications in overall fruit physiology, were also highlighted. The integrative comparative network analysis showed both negative and positive correlations between ripening-related transcripts and the accumulation of specific metabolites or texture components. The ripening distortion caused by the inhibition of ethylene perception, in addition to affecting the ethylene pathway, stimulated the de-repression of auxin-related genes, transcription factors and photosynthetic genes. Overall, the comprehensive repertoire of results obtained here advances the elucidation of the multi-layered climacteric mechanism of fruit ripening, thus suggesting a possible transcriptional circuit governed by hormones and transcription factors.


Assuntos
Etilenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Ciclopropanos , Etilenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
ISME J ; 10(7): 1656-68, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26859770

RESUMO

The intricacies of cooperation and competition between microorganisms are poorly investigated for particular components of the gut microbiota. In order to obtain insights into the manner by which different bifidobacterial species coexist in the mammalian gut, we investigated possible interactions between four human gut commensals, Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010, Bifidobacterium adolescentis 22L, Bifidobacterium breve 12L and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC15697, in the intestine of conventional mice. The generated information revealed various ecological/metabolic strategies, including glycan-harvesting, glycan-breakdown and cross-feeding behavior, adopted by bifidobacteria in the highly competitive environment of the mammalian intestine. Introduction of two or multiple bifidobacterial strains caused a clear shift in the microbiota composition of the murine cecum. Whole-genome transcription profiling coupled with metagenomic analyses of single, dual or multiple associations of bifidobacterial strains revealed an expansion of the murine gut glycobiome toward enzymatic degradation of plant-derived carbohydrates, such as xylan, arabinoxylan, starch and host-derived glycan substrates. Furthermore, these bifidobacterial communities evoked major changes in the metabolomic profile of the microbiota as observed by shifts in short chain fatty acid production and carbohydrate availability in the murine cecum. Overall, these data support an ecological role of bifidobacteria acting directly or through cross-feeding activities in shaping the gut murine microbiome to instigate an enrichment of saccharolytic microbiota.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 16: 53, 2016 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26920134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is one of the most destructive necrotrophic pathogens affecting tomato crops, causing considerable field and greenhouse yield losses. Despite such major economic impact, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici resistance in tomato. RESULTS: A transcriptomic experiment was carried out in order to investigate the main mechanisms of FORL response in resistant and susceptible isogenic tomato lines. Microarray analysis at 15 DPI (days post inoculum) revealed a distinct gene expression pattern between the two genotypes in the inoculated vs non-inoculated conditions. A model of plant response both for compatible and incompatible reactions was proposed. In particular, in the incompatible interaction an activation of defense genes related to secondary metabolite production and tryptophan metabolism was observed. Moreover, maintenance of the cell osmotic potential after the FORL challenging was mediated by a dehydration-induced protein. As for the compatible interaction, activation of an oxidative burst mediated by peroxidases and a cytochrome monooxygenase induced cell degeneration and necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our work allowed comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of the tomato-FORL interaction. The result obtained emphasizes a different transcriptional reaction between the resistant and the susceptible genotype to the FORL challenge. Our findings could lead to the improvement in disease control strategies.


Assuntos
Fusarium/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
16.
Am J Hematol ; 91(4): 420-5, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799139

RESUMO

Hereditary hemochromatosis, one of the commonest genetic disorder in Caucasians, is mainly associated to homozygosity for the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene, which is highly prevalent (allele frequency up to near 10% in Northern Europe) and easily detectable through a widely available "first level" molecular test. However, in certain geographical regions like the Mediterranean area, up to 30% of patients with a HH phenotype has a negative or non-diagnostic (i.e. simple heterozygosity) test, because of a known heterogeneity involving at least four other genes (HAMP, HJV, TFR2, and SLC40A1). Mutations in such genes are generally rare/private, making the diagnosis of atypical HH essentially a matter of exclusion in clinical practice (from here the term of "non-HFE" HH), unless cumbersome traditional sequencing is applied. We developed a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based test targeting the five HH genes, and applied it to patients with clinically relevant iron overload (IO) and a non-diagnostic first level genetic test. We identified several mutations, some of which were novel (i.e. HFE W163X, HAMP R59X, and TFR2 D555N) and allowed molecular reclassification of "non-HFE" HH clinical diagnosis, particularly in some highly selected IO patients without concurring acquired risk factors. This NGS-based "second level" genetic test may represent a useful tool for molecular diagnosis of HH in patients in whom HH phenotype remains unexplained after the search of common HFE mutations.


Assuntos
Hemocromatose/diagnóstico , Hemocromatose/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Sobrecarga de Ferro/diagnóstico , Sobrecarga de Ferro/etiologia , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Hemocromatose/complicações , Proteína da Hemocromatose , Hepcidinas/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Humanos , Itália , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Receptores da Transferrina/química , Receptores da Transferrina/genética
17.
Plant Physiol ; 169(4): 2513-25, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26468518

RESUMO

The structure of the cell wall has a major impact on plant growth and development, and alteration of cell wall structural components is often detrimental to biomass production. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these negative effects are largely unknown. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with altered pectin composition because of either the expression of the Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase II (AnPGII; 35S:AnPGII plants) or a mutation in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene that encodes a putative pectin methyltransferase (qua2-1 plants), display severe growth defects. Here, we show that expression of Arabidopsis PEROXIDASE71 (AtPRX71), encoding a class III peroxidase, strongly increases in 35S:AnPGII and qua2-1 plants as well as in response to treatments with the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben, which also impairs cell wall integrity. Analysis of atprx71 loss-of-function mutants and plants overexpressing AtPRX71 indicates that this gene negatively influences Arabidopsis growth at different stages of development, likely limiting cell expansion. The atprx71-1 mutation partially suppresses the dwarf phenotype of qua2-1, suggesting that AtPRX71 contributes to the growth defects observed in plants undergoing cell wall damage. Furthermore, AtPRX71 seems to promote the production of reactive oxygen species in qua2-1 plants as well as plants treated with isoxaben. We propose that AtPRX71 contributes to strengthen cell walls, therefore restricting cell expansion, during normal growth and in response to cell wall damage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Botrytis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Genótipo , Mutação , Pectinas/metabolismo , Peroxidases/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/citologia , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
J Neurol ; 262(10): 2373-81, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26410747

RESUMO

Recurrent focal neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies is a relatively frequent autosomal-dominant demyelinating neuropathy linked to peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene deletions. The combination of PMP22 gene mutations with other genetic variants is known to cause a more severe phenotype than expected. We present the case of a patient with severe orthostatic hypotension since 12 years of age, who inherited a PMP22 gene deletion from his father. Genetic double trouble was suspected because of selective sympathetic autonomic disturbances. Through exome-sequencing analysis, we identified two novel mutations in the dopamine beta hydroxylase gene. Moreover, with interactome analysis, we excluded a further influence on the origin of the disease by variants in other genes. This case increases the number of unique patients presenting with dopamine-ß-hydroxylase deficiency and of cases with genetically proven double trouble. Finding the right, complete diagnosis is crucial to obtain adequate medical care and appropriate genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/congênito , Dopamina beta-Hidroxilase/deficiência , Neuropatias Hereditárias Sensoriais e Autônomas/genética , Proteínas da Mielina/genética , Norepinefrina/deficiência , Adulto , Disautonomia Familiar/genética , Humanos
19.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 28(11): 1167-80, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267356

RESUMO

Mature grapevine berries at the harvesting stage (MB) are very susceptible to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, while veraison berries (VB) are not. We conducted simultaneous microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of the pathogen and the host to investigate the infection process developed by B. cinerea on MB versus VB, and the plant defense mechanisms deployed to stop the fungus spreading. On the pathogen side, our genome-wide transcriptomic data revealed that B. cinerea genes upregulated during infection of MB are enriched in functional categories related to necrotrophy, such as degradation of the plant cell wall, proteolysis, membrane transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and detoxification. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction on a set of representative genes related to virulence and microscopic observations further demonstrated that the infection is also initiated on VB but is stopped at the penetration stage. On the plant side, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and metabolic data revealed a defense pathway switch during berry ripening. In response to B. cinerea inoculation, VB activated a burst of ROS, the salicylate-dependent defense pathway, the synthesis of the resveratrol phytoalexin, and cell-wall strengthening. On the contrary, in infected MB, the jasmonate-dependent pathway was activated, which did not stop the fungal necrotrophic process.


Assuntos
Botrytis/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Frutas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Vitis/genética , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/microbiologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Resveratrol , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Salicilatos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Virulência/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0132180, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26147798

RESUMO

Genetic testing, which is now a routine part of clinical practice and disease management protocols, is often based on the assessment of small panels of variants or genes. On the other hand, continuous improvements in the speed and per-base costs of sequencing have now made whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) viable strategies for targeted or complete genetic analysis, respectively. Standard WGS/WES data analytical workflows generally rely on calling of sequence variants respect to the reference genome sequence. However, the reference genome sequence contains a large number of sites represented by rare alleles, by known pathogenic alleles and by alleles strongly associated to disease by GWAS. It's thus critical, for clinical applications of WGS and WES, to interpret whether non-variant sites are homozygous for the reference allele or if the corresponding genotype cannot be reliably called. Here we show that an alternative analytical approach based on the analysis of both variant and non-variant sites from WGS data allows to genotype more than 92% of sites corresponding to known SNPs compared to 6% genotyped by standard variant analysis. These include homozygous reference sites of clinical interest, thus leading to a broad and comprehensive characterization of variation necessary to an accurate evaluation of disease risk. Altogether, our findings indicate that characterization of both variant and non-variant clinically informative sites in the genome is necessary to allow an accurate clinical assessment of a personal genome. Finally, we propose a highly efficient extended VCF (eVCF) file format which allows to store genotype calls for sites of clinical interest while remaining compatible with current variant interpretation software.


Assuntos
Alelos , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homozigoto , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Exoma , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino
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