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2.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
3.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(17): 1877-1885, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109187

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations of occupational (OPA) and sport physical activity (SpPA) and job strain on the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) events, and to explore their interplay. METHODS: The study sample included 3310 25-64-year-old employed men, free of CHD at baseline, recruited in three population-based and one factory-based cohorts. OPA and SpPA, and job strain were assessed by the Baecke and the Job Content Questionnaires, respectively. We estimated the associations between different domains of physical activity and job strain with CHD, adjusting for major risk factors using Cox models. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=14 years), 120 CHD events, fatal and non-fatal, occurred. In the entire sample, a higher CHD risk was found for high job strain (hazard ratio=1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-2.31). The joint effect of low OPA and high job strain was estimated as a hazard ratio of 2.53 (1.29-4.97; reference intermediate OPA with non-high strain). With respect to intermediate OPA workers, in stratified analysis when SpPA is none, low OPA workers had a hazard ratio of 2.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.19-3.81), increased to 3.95 (1.79-8.78) by the presence of high job strain. Low OPA-high job strain workers take great advantage from SpPA, reducing their risk up to 90%. In contrast, the protective effect of SpPA on CHD in other OPA-job strain categories was modest or even absent, in particular when OPA is high. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a protective effect of recommended and intermediate SpPA levels on CHD risk among sedentary male workers. When workers are jointly exposed to high job strain and sedentary work their risk further increases, but this group benefits most from regular sport physical activity.

4.
Environ Int ; 119: 558-569, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years of ischaemic heart disease from exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. OBJECTIVES: We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to long working hours (Systematic Review 1) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of long working hours on ischaemic heart disease (Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework. The selection of both, the exposure and the health outcome is justified by substantial scientific evidence on adverse effects of long working hours on ischaemic heart disease risk. DATA SOURCES: Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CISDOC and PsychINFO. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand-search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. STUDY ELIGIBILITY AND CRITERIA: We will include working-age (≥15 years) workers in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of relevant levels of exposure to long working hours (i.e. 35-40, 41-48, 49-54 and ≥55 h/week) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the relative effect of relevant level(s) of long working hours on the prevalence of, incidence of or mortality from ischaemic heart disease, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e. 35-40 h/week). STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017084243.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Carga de Trabalho , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
Arch Public Health ; 76: 31, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988313

RESUMO

Background: Population-based registries implement the comprehensive collection of all disease events that occur in a well-characterized population within a certain time period and represent the preferred tools for disease monitoring at a population level. Main characteristics of a Population-based registry are to provide answers to defined research questions, also related to clinical and health policy purposes, assuring completeness of event identification, and implementing a process of case adjudication (validation) according to standardised diagnostic criteria. Methods: The application of a standard methodology results in the availability of reliable and comparable data and facilitates the transferability of health information for research and evidence-based health policies. Although registries are extremely useful, they require considerable resources to be implemented and maintained, high cost and efforts, to produce stable and reliable indicators. Results: Thanks to available health information and information technology, current administrative databases on hospital admissions and discharges, medication use, in-patient care utilization, surgical operations, drug dispensations, ticket exemption and invasive procedures are increasingly available. They represent basic sources of information for implementing Population-based registries.Main strengths and limitations of Population-based registries are described taking into consideration the example of cardiovascular diseases, as well as future challenges and opportunities for implementing Population-based registries at European level. Conclusions: The integration of population-based registries and current administrative health databases may help to complete the picture of the disease rebuilding the evolution of the disease as a continuum from the onset to the possible consequent complications.

7.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 55(5): 633-639, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prevalence data on abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in women, subjects younger than 65 years and in subgroups carrying specific risk factors are scarce. AAA prevalence was evaluated in an Italian population including women and younger subjects, stratifying for the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and CVD risk score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross-sectional study was conducted between 2013 and 2016. Men aged 50-75 and women aged 60-75 years, resident in the city of Varese (northern Italy), were randomly selected from the civil registry. A vascular surgeon performed an abdominal aortic ultrasound scan at four sites using the leading edge to leading edge method. CVD risk score was computed using the ESC-SCORE algorithm. The age and gender specific prevalence was estimated, stratifying by the presence of CVD and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Among the 3755 subjects with a valid ultrasound measurement, 63 subjects with an AAA were identified (5 referred for surgical intervention), among whom 34 were not previously known (30 men 1.3%, 95% CI 0.9-1.8; 4 women 0.3%, 95% CI 0.1-0.8). Considering age classes in men only, the highest prevalence of screen detected AAA was found in subjects aged 65-70 (1.2%; 95% CI 0.4-2.5) and 70-75 (2.5%; 95% CI 1.4-4.0) years. Among 65-75 year old men, the highest AAA prevalence was found in subjects with a previous myocardial infarction (MI 4.9%, 95% CI 2.0-9.9) and in ever-smokers reporting more than 15 pack years of smoking (4.1%, 95% CI 2.5-6.3). Among the younger subjects, those having an ESC-SCORE higher than 5% or a previous CVD (MI or stroke) showed a prevalence of 1.4% (95% CI 0.3-4.2; prevalence including subaneurysms 6.7%, 95% CI 3.7-11.0%). CONCLUSIONS: In the study population, both a general screening program in 65-75 year old men and an approach targeted to subgroups at higher risk merit evaluation in a cost-effectiveness study. In 50-64 year old men, strategies for population selection should consider CVD risk stratification tools.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
8.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 30(5): 344-350, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474652

RESUMO

Background: Hospital-based registries provide a key contribution in assessing the quality of care in acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients, although some concern on selection bias of included cases has recently arisen. We investigated the feasibility of a retrospective, population-based registry of MIs in monitoring the quality of care. Methods: We identified all the hospitalizations with a diagnosis of acute MI among 35-79 years old residents in the Varese province, Northern Italy, in 2007-2008. Information needed to define performance according to the American Heart Association set was extracted from hospital case histories. To characterize our approach, we focus on data completeness for critical event times and eligibility criteria, and on the analysis of ST-elevated MI (STEMI) patients according to received reperfusion treatment. Results: Exact time of hospital admission and of percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCI) procedure was available in 96% and 77% of MIs, with no difference between non-transferred (n = 1399) and inter-hospital transferred (n = 300) patients. Data completeness for eligibility to action/treatment criteria was >90% for each performance measure except statin prescription at discharge (76%). About 45% of STEMI experienced a delay in PCI-capable hospital arrival, and only one every three ST-elevated MI patients received primary PCI; these were more likely to be younger male cases with less comorbidities than un-treated patients. Conclusions: Complementary to clinical registries, the retrospective population-based is a feasible approach which allows monitoring the entire pattern of care of all hospitalized MI patients independent of their clinical characteristics.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reperfusão Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
9.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 71(12): 1210-1216, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the origins of the social gradient in stroke incidence in different populations is limited. This study aims to estimate the burden of educational class inequalities in stroke incidence and to assess the contribution of risk factors in determining these inequalities across Europe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MORGAM (MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph) Study comprises 48 cohorts recruited mostly in the 1980s and 1990s in four European regions using standardised procedures for baseline risk factor assessment and fatal and non-fatal stroke ascertainment and adjudication during follow-up. Among the 126 635 middle-aged participants, initially free of cardiovascular diseases, generating 3788 first stroke events during a median follow-up of 10 years, we estimated differences in stroke rates and HRs for the least versus the most educated individuals. RESULTS: Compared with their most educated counterparts, the overall age-adjusted excess hazard for stroke was 1.54 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.91) and 1.41 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.71) in least educated men and women, respectively, with little heterogeneity across populations. Educational class inequalities accounted for 86-413 and 78-156 additional stroke events per 100 000 person-years in the least compared with most educated men and women, respectively. The additional events were equivalent to 47%-130% and 40%-89% of the average incidence rates. Inequalities in risk factors accounted for 45%-70% of the social gap in incidence in the Nordic countries, the UK and Lithuania-Kaunas (men), but for no more than 17% in Central and South Europe. The major contributors were cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Social inequalities in stroke incidence contribute substantially to the disease rates in Europe. Healthier lifestyles in the most disadvantaged individuals should have a prominent impact in reducing both inequalities and the stroke burden.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Eur Heart J ; 38(32): 2490-2498, 2017 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449027

RESUMO

Aims: As promising compounds to lower Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are emerging, the need for a precise characterization and comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk is increasing. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Lp(a) concentrations across the European population, to characterize the association with cardiovascular outcomes and to provide high comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk by use of centrally determined Lp(a) concentrations. Methods and results: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE)-project, we analysed data of 56 804 participants from 7 prospective population-based cohorts across Europe with a maximum follow-up of 24 years. All Lp(a) measurements were performed in the central BiomarCaRE laboratory (Biokit Quantia Lp(a)-Test; Abbott Diagnostics). The three endpoints considered were incident major coronary events (MCE), incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, and total mortality. We found lower Lp(a) levels in Northern European cohorts (median 4.9 mg/dL) compared to central (median 7.9 mg/dL) and Southern European cohorts (10.9 mg/dL) (Jonckheere-Terpstra test P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves showed the highest event rate of MCE and CVD events for Lp(a) levels ≥90th percentile (log-rank test: P < 0.001 for MCE and CVD). Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors revealed a significant association of Lp(a) levels with MCE and CVD with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.30 for MCE [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15‒1.46] and of 1.25 for CVD (95% CI 1.12‒1.39) for Lp(a) levels in the 67‒89th percentile and a HR of 1.49 for MCE (95% CI 1.29‒1.73) and of 1.44 for CVD (95% CI 1.25‒1.65) for Lp(a) levels ≥ 90th percentile vs. Lp(a) levels in the lowest third (P < 0.001 for all). There was no significant association between Lp(a) levels and total mortality. Subgroup analysis for a continuous version of cube root transformed Lp(a) identified the highest Lp(a)-associated risk in individuals with diabetes [HR for MCE 1.31 (95% CI 1.15‒1.50)] and for CVD 1.22 (95% CI 1.08‒1.38) compared to those without diabetes [HR for MCE 1.15 (95% CI 1.08‒1.21; HR for CVD 1.13 (1.07-1.19)] while no difference of the Lp(a)- associated risk were seen for other cardiovascular high risk states. The addition of Lp(a) levels to a prognostic model for MCE and CVD revealed only a marginal but significant C-index discrimination measure increase (0.001 for MCE and CVD; P < 0.05) and net reclassification improvement (0.010 for MCE and 0.011 for CVD). Conclusion: In this large dataset on harmonized Lp(a) determination, we observed regional differences within the European population. Elevated Lp(a) was robustly associated with an increased risk for MCE and CVD in particular among individuals with diabetes. These results may lead to better identification of target populations who might benefit from future Lp(a)-lowering therapies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Lipoproteína(a)/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lipoproteína(a)/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco
12.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 18(5): 318-324, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151772

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the clinical utility of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification based on a combined use of short-term and long-term risk scores in the primary prevention setting. METHODS: CVD-free participants 40-65 years old initially to seven population-based cohorts enrolled in northern and central Italy were stratified as 'low' (ESC-SCORE ≤ 1%), 'intermediate' (SCORE 1-4%) and 'moderate/high' short-term CVD risk (SCORE ≥ 4% or diabetes). The long-term CVD risk was estimated using the CAMUNI-MATISS model, validated for the Italian population. Participants were followed up for a median time of 16 years to ascertain the first major CVD event, fatal or nonfatal. To compare the 'combined' (SCORE + CAMUNI-MATISS) with the 'current' (SCORE alone) stratification, we estimated the difference in Net Benefit between the two strategies. RESULTS: Study sample included 3935 men (468 CVD events) and 4393 women (210 events). Under the 'current' stratification, 76% of men and 21% of women were at 'intermediate' risk and eligible to treatment. Only 40% of them had elevated predicted long-term risk and could have received indication to treatment under the 'combined' strategy. The latter would have saved 3 and 3.5 unnecessary treatments per every CVD case in men and women, respectively, and the Net Benefit significantly increased [men: 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-5.6; women: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.7-6.9].Similarly, among the 74% of women not receiving indication for prevention because at 'low' short-term risk, the 'combined' stratification significantly increased the Net Benefit (1.4, 95% CI: 0.6-2.1) and reduced from 40 to 10% the proportion of events occurring among women not eligible to any preventive action. CONCLUSION: In the Italian population, a combination of validated short-term and long-term CVD risk scores has the potential to select for prevention women whose risk is currently not fully addressed and to reduce unnecessary costly treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
13.
BMJ Open ; 7(1): e014119, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between job strain (JS) and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in North Italian employed men, adopting a stratified analysis by occupational class (OC). METHODS: The study was conducted on 4103 working men, CHD-free at baseline, enrolled in population-based and factory-based cohorts. Risk factor measurements and follow-up procedures were carried out adopting the WHO MONICA standardised procedures. OCs were derived from the Erikson-Goldthorpe-Portocarero classification. JS categories were defined based on overall sample medians of psychological job demand (PJD) and decision latitude (DL) derived from items of the Job Content Questionnaire, satisfying construct validity criteria. Age-adjusted and risk factors-adjusted CHD HRs were estimated from Cox models, contrasting high-strain (high PJD and low DL) versus non-high-strain categories. RESULTS: In a median follow-up of 14.6 years, 172 CHD events occurred, corresponding to a CHD incidence rate of 2.78/1000 person-years. In the overall sample, high-strain compared with non-high-strain workers evidenced a 39% excess CHD risk, not statistically significant. No association was found among managers and proprietors. Conversely, the HR of high strain versus non-high strain was 1.78 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.66) among non-manual and manual workers, with no substantial differences between them. The exclusion of the events occurring in the first 3 years of follow-up did not change the results. Adopting the quadrant-term JS groupings, among manual and non-manual workers, high-strain and active (high PJD and high DL) categories in comparison to the low strain one (low PJD and high DL) showed HRs of 2.92 and 2.47, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the association of JS and CHD incidence among manual and non-manual workers. The non-high strain may not be the best reference category, when assessing the contribution of JS in determining CHD incidence.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Tomada de Decisões , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 24(4): 437-445, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27837152

RESUMO

Background The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention. Methods We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35-74 years at baseline, from 38 cohorts covering Nordic and Baltic countries, the UK and Central Europe, for a median of 12 years. Using Fine-Gray models in a competing-risks framework we estimated the effect of the interaction of education with smoking, blood pressure and body weight on the cumulative risk of incident acute coronary heart disease and stroke. Results Compared with more educated smokers, the less educated had an added increase in absolute risk of cardiovascular disease of 3.1% (95% confidence interval + 0.1%, +6.2%) in men and of 1.5% (-1.9%, +5.0%) in women, consistent across smoking categories. Conversely, the interaction was negative for overweight: -2.6% (95% CI: -5.6%, +0.3%) and obese: -3.6% (-7.6%, +0.4%) men, suggesting that the more educated would benefit more from the same reduction in body weight. A weaker interaction was observed for body weight in women, and for blood pressure in both genders. Less educated men and women with a cluster of two or more risk factors had an added cardiovascular disease risk of 3.6% (+0.1%, +7.0%) and of 2.6% (-0.5%, +5.6%), respectively, compared with their more educated counterparts. Conclusions Socially disadvantaged subjects have more to gain from lifestyle and blood pressure modification, hopefully reducing both their risk and also social inequality in disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
15.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 42(10): 740-747, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27820794

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey with a longitudinal follow-up. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pain, which is localized to the low back, differs epidemiologically from that which occurs simultaneously or close in time to pain at other anatomical sites SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Low back pain (LBP) often occurs in combination with other regional pain, with which it shares similar psychological and psychosocial risk factors. However, few previous epidemiological studies of LBP have distinguished pain that is confined to the low back from that which occurs as part of a wider distribution of pain. METHODS: We analyzed data from CUPID, a cohort study that used baseline and follow-up questionnaires to collect information about musculoskeletal pain, associated disability, and potential risk factors, in 47 occupational groups (office workers, nurses, and others) from 18 countries. RESULTS: Among 12,197 subjects at baseline, 609 (4.9%) reported localized LBP in the past month, and 3820 (31.3%) nonlocalized LBP. Nonlocalized LBP was more frequently associated with sciatica in the past month (48.1% vs. 30.0% of cases), occurred on more days in the past month and past year, was more often disabling for everyday activities (64.1% vs. 47.3% of cases), and had more frequently led to medical consultation and sickness absence from work. It was also more often persistent when participants were followed up after a mean of 14 months (65.6% vs. 54.1% of cases). In adjusted Poisson regression analyses, nonlocalized LBP was differentially associated with risk factors, particularly female sex, older age, and somatizing tendency. There were also marked differences in the relative prevalence of localized and nonlocalized LBP by occupational group. CONCLUSION: Future epidemiological studies should distinguish where possible between pain that is limited to the low back and LBP that occurs in association with pain at other anatomical locations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Sleep Med ; 21: 126-32, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the prospective associations of sleep disturbances and sleep duration with the long-term incidence of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, in a large cohort of Italian adult men. METHODS: A total of 2277 men aged 35-74 years of age and CVD free at baseline from the MONICA-Brianza and PAMELA population-based cohorts were followed up for a median of 17 years, for first coronary heart disease (CHD) or ischemic stroke events (fatal or nonfatal; n = 293). Sleep disturbances, based on the Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire, were categorized as none/some, moderate, or severe. Sleep durations were ≤6 hours (short), seven to eight hours, and ≥9 hours (long) per night. RESULTS: At baseline, 855 men (38%) either reported sleep disturbances or were short or long sleepers. The presence of severe sleep disturbances increased the risk of first CVD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-3.03) and CHD events (HR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.09-3.56), in particular from the age of 48 years onward. In comparison to men sleeping seven to eight hours, long sleepers experienced a higher CVD risk (HR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.10-2.22), due mainly to ischemic strokes, and starting at older ages (≥60 years). A joint effect between disturbed sleep and short sleep duration on CVD and CHD events was also observed. Adjustments for physical activity and depression did not substantially modify these associations. CONCLUSION: Severe sleep disturbances and long sleep duration were associated with specific CVD endpoints and age at onset, potentially suggesting distinct underlying mechanisms. A short questionnaire discriminating different levels of sleep disturbances and sleep duration should be routinely adopted in CVD prevention programs to identify men at increased risk for early-onset events.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
17.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0153748, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27128094

RESUMO

Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.


Assuntos
Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Transtornos Somatoformes/epidemiologia , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , América Central , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , América do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Heart ; 102(12): 958-65, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26849899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of social inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and to identify their major determinants in 15 European populations. METHODS: The MORGAM (MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph) study comprised 49 cohorts of middle-aged European adults free of CHD (110 928 individuals) recruited mostly in the mid-1980s and 1990s, with comparable assessment of baseline risk and follow-up procedures. We derived three educational classes accounting for birth cohorts and used regression-based inequality measures of absolute differences in CHD rates and HRs (ie, Relative Index of Inequality, RII) for the least versus the most educated individuals. RESULTS: N=6522 first CHD events occurred during a median follow-up of 12 years. Educational class inequalities accounted for 343 and 170 additional CHD events per 100 000 person-years in the least educated men and women compared with the most educated, respectively. These figures corresponded to 48% and 71% of the average event rates in each gender group. Inequalities in CHD mortality were mainly driven by incidence in the Nordic countries, Scotland and Lithuania, and by 28-day case-fatality in the remaining central/South European populations. The pooled RIIs were 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) in men and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.4) in women, consistently across population. Risk factors accounted for a third of inequalities in CHD incidence; smoking was the major mediator in men, and High-Density-Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in women. CONCLUSIONS: Social inequalities in CHD are still widespread in Europe. Since the major determinants of inequalities followed geographical and gender-specific patterns, European-level interventions should be tailored across different European regions.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adulto , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Pain ; 157(5): 1028-36, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26761390

RESUMO

To inform case definition for neck/shoulder pain in epidemiological research, we compared levels of disability, patterns of association, and prognosis for pain that was limited to the neck or shoulders (LNSP) and more generalised musculoskeletal pain that involved the neck or shoulder(s) (GPNS). Baseline data on musculoskeletal pain, disability, and potential correlates were collected by questionnaire from 12,195 workers in 47 occupational groups (mostly office workers, nurses, and manual workers) in 18 countries (response rate = 70%). Continuing pain after a mean interval of 14 months was ascertained through a follow-up questionnaire in 9150 workers from 45 occupational groups. Associations with personal and occupational factors were assessed by Poisson regression and summarised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). The 1-month prevalence of GPNS at baseline was much greater than that of LNSP (35.1% vs 5.6%), and it tended to be more troublesome and disabling. Unlike LNSP, the prevalence of GPNS increased with age. Moreover, it showed significantly stronger associations with somatising tendency (PRR 1.6 vs 1.3) and poor mental health (PRR 1.3 vs 1.1); greater variation between the occupational groups studied (prevalence ranging from 0% to 67.6%) that correlated poorly with the variation in LNSP; and was more persistent at follow-up (72.1% vs 61.7%). Our findings highlight important epidemiological distinctions between subcategories of neck/shoulder pain. In future epidemiological research that bases case definitions on symptoms, it would be useful to distinguish pain that is localised to the neck or shoulder from more generalised pain that happens to involve the neck/shoulder region.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Cervicalgia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Dor de Ombro , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cervicalgia/complicações , Cervicalgia/epidemiologia , Cervicalgia/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Dor de Ombro/complicações , Dor de Ombro/epidemiologia , Dor de Ombro/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 28(1): 42-51, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26159946

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Modifications of hearth rate variability (HRV) constitute a marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) deregulation, a promising pathway linking job strain (JS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The study objective is to assess whether exposures to recent and prolonged JS reduce time-domain HRV parameters on working days (WD) among CVD-susceptible nurses and whether the association also persists on resting days (RD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 313 healthy nurses were investigated twice with one year interval to assess JS based on the demand-control and the effort-reward models. 36, 9 and 16 CVD-susceptible nurses were classified as low JS in both surveys (stable low strain - SLS), recent high JS (high JS at the second screening only-RHS) and prolonged high JS (high strain in both surveys-PHS), respectively. In 9, 7 and 10 of them, free from comorbidities/treatments interfering with HRV, two 24-h ECG recordings were performed on WD and RD. Differences in the time domain HRV metrics among JS categories were assessed using ANCOVA, adjusted for age and smoking. RESULTS: In the entire sample (mean age: 39 years, 83% females) the prevalence of high job strain was 38.7% in the second survey. SDNN (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals) on WD significantly declined among JS categories (p = 0.02), with geometric mean values of 169.1, 145.3 and 128.9 ms in SLS, RHS, PHS, respectively. In the PHS group, SDNN remained lower on RD as compared to the low strain subjects (142.4 vs. 171.1 ms, p = 0.02). Similar findings were found for the SDNN_Index, while SDANN (standard deviation of average RR intervals in all 5 min segments of registration) mean values reduced in the PHS group during WD only. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that persistent JS lowers HRV time-domain parameters, supporting the hypothesis that the ANS disorders may play an intermediate role in the relationship between work stress and CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/fisiopatologia , Enfermagem , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
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