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1.
Genet Med ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005041

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), characterized by vascular calcifications that are often fatal shortly after birth, is usually caused by deficiency of ENPP1. A small fraction of GACI cases result from deficiency of ABCC6, a membrane transporter. The natural history of GACI survivors has not been established in a prospective fashion. METHODS: We performed deep phenotyping of 20 GACI survivors. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 subjects presented with arterial calcifications, but only 5 had residual involvement at the time of evaluation. Individuals with ENPP1 deficiency either had hypophosphatemic rickets or were predicted to develop it by 14 years of age; 14/16 had elevated intact FGF23 levels (iFGF23). Blood phosphate levels correlated inversely with iFGF23. For ENPP1-deficient individuals, the lifetime risk of cervical spine fusion was 25%, that of hearing loss was 75%, and the main morbidity in adults was related to enthesis calcification. Four ENPP1-deficient individuals manifested classic skin or retinal findings of PXE. We estimated the minimal incidence of ENPP1 deficiency at ~1 in 200,000 pregnancies. CONCLUSION: GACI appears to be more common than previously thought, with an expanding spectrum of overlapping phenotypes. The relationships among decreased ENPP1, increased iFGF23, and rickets could inform future therapies.

2.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 189, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acroscyphodysplasia has been described as a phenotypic variant of acrodysostosis type 2 and pseudohypoparathyroidism. In acrodysostosis, skeletal features can include brachydactyly, facial hypoplasia, cone-shaped epiphyses, short stature, and advanced bone age. To date, reports on this disorder have focused on phenotypic findings, endocrine changes, and genetic variation. We present a 14-year overview of a patient, from birth to skeletal maturity, with acroscyphodysplasia, noting the significant orthopaedic challenges and the need for a multidisciplinary team, including specialists in genetics, orthopaedics, endocrinology, and otolaryngology, to optimize long-term outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented as a newborn with dysmorphic facial features, including severe midface hypoplasia, malar flattening, nasal stenosis, and feeding difficulties. Radiologic findings were initially subtle, and a skeletal survey performed at age 7 months was initially considered normal. Genetic evaluation revealed a variant in PDE4D and subsequent pseudohypoparathyroidism. The patient presented to the department of orthopaedics, at age 2 years 9 months with a leg length discrepancy, right knee contracture, and severely crouched gait. Radiographs demonstrated cone-shaped epiphyses of the right distal femur and proximal tibia, but no evidence of growth plate changes in the left leg. The child developed early posterior epiphyseal arrest on the right side and required multiple surgical interventions to achieve neutral extension. Her left distal femur developed late posterior physeal arrest and secondary contracture without evidence of schypho deformity, which improved with anterior screw epiphysiodesis. The child required numerous orthopaedic surgical interventions to achieve full knee extension bilaterally. At age 13 years 11 months, she was an independent ambulator with erect posture. The child underwent numerous otolaryngology procedures and will require significant ongoing care. She has moderate intellectual disability. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Key challenges in the management of this case included the subtle changes on initial skeletal survey and the marked asymmetry of her deformity. While cone-shaped epiphyses are a hallmark of acrodysostosis, posterior tethering/growth arrest of the posterior distal femur has not been previously reported. Correction of the secondary knee contracture was essential to improve ambulation. Children with acroscyphodysplasia require a multidisciplinary approach, including radiology, genetics, orthopaedics, otolaryngology, and endocrinology specialties.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(10): 2426-2431, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804429

RESUMO

Glutaric acidemia type 2 (GA2), also called multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid, amino acid, and choline metabolism resulting in excretion of multiple organic acids and glycine conjugates as well as elevation of various plasma acylcarnitine species (C4-C18). It is caused by mutations in the ETFA, ETFB, or ETFDH genes which are involved in the transfer of electrons from 11 flavin-containing dehydrogenases to Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). We report a patient who was originally reported as the first case with primary myopathic CoQ10 deficiency when he presented at 11.5 years with exercise intolerance and myopathy that improved after treatment with ubiquinone and carnitine. At age 23, his symptoms relapsed despite increasing doses of ubiquinone and he was shown to have biallelic mutations in the ETFDH gene. Treatment with riboflavin was started and ubiquinone was changed to ubiquinol. After 4 months, the patient recovered his muscle strength with normalization of laboratory exams and exercise tolerance. Functional studies on fibroblasts revealed decreased levels of ETFDH as well as of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and trifunctional protein α. In addition, the mitochondrial mass was decreased, with increased formation of reactive oxygen species and oxygen consumption rate, but with a decreased spared respiratory capacity, and decreased adenosine triphosphate level. These findings of widespread dysfunction of fatty acid oxidation and ETC enzymes support the impairment of a larger mitochondrial ETC supercomplex in our patient.

4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(9): 2184-2192, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rare lysosomal storage disease nephropathic cystinosis presents with renal Fanconi syndrome that evolves in time to CKD. Although biochemical abnormalities in common causes of CKD-mineral and bone disorder have been defined, it is unknown if persistent phosphate wasting in nephropathic cystinosis is associated with a biochemical mineral pattern distinct from that typically observed in CKD-mineral and bone disorder. METHODS: We assessed and compared determinants of mineral homeostasis in patients with nephropathic cystinosis across the predialysis CKD spectrum to these determinants in age- and CKD stage-matched patients, with causes of CKD other than nephropathic cystinosis. RESULTS: The study included 50 patients with nephropathic cystinosis-related CDK and 97 with CKD from other causes. All major aspects of mineral homeostasis were differentially effected in patients with CKD stemming from nephropathic cystinosis versus other causes. Patients with nephropathic cystinosis had significantly lower percent tubular reabsorption of phosphate and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) at all CKD stages, and lower blood phosphate in CKD stages 3-5. Linear regression analyses demonstrated lower FGF23 levels in nephropathic cystinosis participants at all CKD stages when corrected for eGFR and age, but not when adjusted for serum phosphate. CONCLUSIONS: Nephropathic cystinosis CKD patients have mineral abnormalities that are distinct from those in CKD stemming from other causes. Persistently increased urinary phosphate excretion maintains serum phosphate levels within the normal range, thus protecting patients with nephropathic cystinosis from elevations of FGF23 during early CKD stages. These findings support the notion that phosphate is a significant driver of increased FGF23 levels in CKD and that mineral abnormalities associated with CKD are likely to vary depending on the underlying renal disease.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(9): 2110-2116, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652690

RESUMO

Saul-Wilson syndrome (SWS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by microcephalic primordial dwarfism, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, characteristic facial findings, clubfoot, brachydactyly, bilateral cataracts, and hearing loss. Recently, recurrent mutations in COG4, encoding a component of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, were identified. We created detailed growth curves for stature, weight, and head circumference, as well as weight-for-length and weight velocity charts for younger children, derived from hundreds of data points obtained by retrospective chart review from 14 individuals with molecularly-confirmed SWS. In addition, we performed statistical comparisons of height-for-age model fits before and after initiation of growth hormone supplementation, and found that this therapy does not appear to influence height in individuals with SWS. We hope that these charts will represent valuable tools for clinicians, both in assessing whether SWS seems an appropriate diagnosis, as well as to monitor growth of affected individuals. In particular, we hope that our detailed growth characterization will reduce morbidity resulting from unnecessarily aggressive nutritional interventions by well-intentioned physicians trying to promote weight gain, an unrealistic goal in this genetically-determined cause of primordial dwarfism.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 41(9): 1469-1487, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449975

RESUMO

Farber disease and spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy are a spectrum of rare lysosomal storage disorders characterized by acid ceramidase deficiency (ACD), resulting from pathogenic variants in N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase 1 (ASAH1). Other than simple listings provided in literature reviews, a curated, comprehensive list of ASAH1 mutations associated with ACD clinical phenotypes has not yet been published. This publication includes mutations in ASAH1 collected through the Observational and Cross-Sectional Cohort Study of the Natural History and Phenotypic Spectrum of Farber Disease (NHS), ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03233841, in combination with an up-to-date curated list of published mutations. The NHS is the first to collect retrospective and prospective data on living and deceased patients with ACD presenting as Farber disease, who had or had not undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Forty-five patients representing the known clinical spectrum of Farber disease (living patients aged 1-28 years) were enrolled. The curation of known ASAH1 pathogenic variants using a single reference transcript includes 10 previously unpublished from the NHS and 63 that were previously reported. The publication of ASAH1 variants will be greatly beneficial to patients undergoing genetic testing in the future by providing a significantly expanded reference list of disease-causing variants.

7.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): 1142-1155, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the phenotypic spectrum of phosphatidylinositol glycan class A protein (PIGA)-related congenital disorder of glycosylation (PIGA-CDG) and evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Our cohort encompasses 40 affected males with a pathogenic PIGA variant. We performed a detailed phenotypic assessment, and in addition, we reviewed the available clinical data of 36 previously published cases and assessed the variant pathogenicity using bioinformatical approaches. RESULTS: Most individuals had hypotonia, moderate to profound global developmental delay, and intractable seizures. We found that PIGA-CDG spans from a pure neurological phenotype at the mild end to a Fryns syndrome-like phenotype. We found a high frequency of cardiac anomalies including structural anomalies and cardiomyopathy, and a high frequency of spontaneous death, especially in childhood. Comparative bioinformatical analysis of common variants, found in the healthy population, and pathogenic variants, identified in affected individuals, revealed a profound physiochemical dissimilarity of the substituted amino acids in variant constrained regions of the protein. SIGNIFICANCE: Our comprehensive analysis of the largest cohort of published and novel PIGA patients broadens the spectrum of PIGA-CDG. Our genotype-phenotype correlation facilitates the estimation on pathogenicity of variants with unknown clinical significance and prognosis for individuals with pathogenic variants in PIGA.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420688

RESUMO

Variants in MBTPS1 (membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase, site 1) encoding the protein convertase site-1 protease (S1P) were recently reported in a single individual with skeletal dysplasia and elevated plasma lysosomal enzymes. Here, we report the second individual with this newly described autosomal recessive spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (OMIM #618392), presenting severe growth retardation, cataract and dysmorphic features, mainly retromicrognathia. Epilepsy and craniosynostosis were novel findings in our proband. She was found to be homozygous for a novel nonsense variant p.Trp983Ter in MBTPS1. In addition, she had normal levels of lysosomal enzyme activity in leukocytes but elevated levels in plasma. Our description confirms the existence of this new skeletal dysplasia and expands the phenotype and genotype of the disease.

9.
Clin Genet ; 97(6): 920-926, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157688

RESUMO

A congenital disorder of glycosylation due to biallelic mutations in B4GALT1 has been previously reported in only three patients with two different mutations. Through homozygosity mapping followed by segregation analysis in an extended pedigree, we identified three additional patients homozygous for a novel mutation in B4GALT1, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of the disease. The patients showed a uniform clinical presentation with intellectual disability, marked pancytopenia requiring chronic management, and novel features including pulmonary hypertension and nephrotic syndrome. Notably, affected individuals exhibited a moderate elevation of Man3GlcNAc4Fuc1 on serum N-glycan analysis, yet two of the patients had a normal pattern of transferrin glycosylation in repeated analysis. The novel mutation is the third disease-causing variant described in B4GALT1, and the first one within its transmembrane domain.

10.
Mol Genet Metab ; 130(1): 1-6, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122747

RESUMO

Psychiatric symptoms are common manifestations in many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), ranging from attention deficit, anxiety and mood and behavioral disorders to psychosis. Furthermore, IEMs represent a significant percentage of all autism cases. We reviewed and updated the list of metabolic disorders known to be associated with various psychiatric manifestations and found more than 100 relevant IEMs. This represents the third of a series of articles attempting to create and maintain a comprehensive list of clinical and metabolic differential diagnoses according to organ system involvement.

11.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 18(3): 232-241, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172442

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current understanding of generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), emphasizing pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and approaches and controversies in management. RECENT FINDINGS: Identification of causative ENPP1 mutations revealed that GACI arises from deficiencies in inorganic pyrophosphate (leading to calcifications) and adenosine monophosphate (leading to intimal proliferation). Identification of genotypic and phenotypic overlap with pseudoxanthoma elasticum and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets further advanced understanding of GACI as a complex, multisystemic disease. Clinical data is limited to small, retrospective samples; it is therefore unknown whether commonly used medications, such as bisphosphonates and hypophosphatemia treatment, are therapeutic or potentially harmful. ENPP1-Fc replacement represents a promising approach warranting further study. Knowledge gaps in natural history place clinicians at high risk of assigning causality to interventions that are correlated with changes in clinical status. There is thus a critical need for improved natural history studies to develop and test targeted therapies.

12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(9): e1167, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD, MIM #272200) is an ultrarare congenital disorder caused by SUMF1 mutation and often misdiagnosed due to its complex clinical presentation. Impeded by a lack of natural history, knowledge gained from individual case studies forms the source for a reliable diagnosis and consultation of patients and parents. METHODS: We collected clinical records as well as genetic and metabolic test results from two MSD patients. The functional properties of a novel SUMF1 variant were analyzed after expression in a cell culture model. RESULTS: We report on two MSD patients-the first neonatal type reported in Israel-both presenting with this most severe manifestation of MSD. Our patients showed uniform clinical symptoms with persistent pulmonary hypertension, hypotonia, and dysmorphism at birth. Both patients were homozygous for the same novel SUMF1 mutation (c.1043C>T, p.A348V). Functional analysis revealed that the SUMF1-encoded variant of formylglycine-generating enzyme is highly instable and lacks catalytic function. CONCLUSION: The obtained results confirm genotype-phenotype correlation in MSD, expand the spectrum of clinical presentation and are relevant for diagnosis including the extremely rare neonatal severe type of MSD.

13.
Bone ; 133: 115219, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923704

RESUMO

Catel-Manzke syndrome is characterized by the combination of Pierre Robin sequence and radial deviation, shortening as well as clinodactyly of the index fingers, due to an accessory ossification center. Mutations in TGDS have been identified as one cause of Catel-Manzke syndrome, but cannot be found as causative in every patient with the clinical diagnosis. We performed a chromosome microarray and/or exome sequencing in three patients with hand hyperphalangism, heart defect, short stature, and mild to severe developmental delay, all of whom were initially given a clinical diagnosis of Catel-Manzke syndrome. In one patient, we detected a large deletion of exons 1-8 and the missense variant c.1282C > T (p.Arg428Trp) in KYNU (NM_003937.2), whereas homozygous missense variants in KYNU were found in the other two patients (c.989G > A (p.Arg330Gln) and c.326G > C (p.Trp109Ser)). Plasma and urine metabolomic analysis of two patients indicated a block along the tryptophan catabolic pathway and urine organic acid analysis showed excretion of xanthurenic acid. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in KYNU were recently described as a cause of NAD deficiency with vertebral, cardiac, renal and limb defects; however, no hand hyperphalangism was described in those patients, and Catel-Manzke syndrome was not discussed as a differential diagnosis. In conclusion, we present unrelated patients identified with biallelic variants in KYNU leading to kynureninase deficiency and xanthurenic aciduria as a very likely cause of their hyperphalangism, heart defect, short stature, and developmental delay. We suggest performance of urine organic acid analysis in patients with suspected Catel-Manzke syndrome, particularly in those with cardiac or vertebral defects or without mutations in TGDS.

14.
Genet Med ; 22(5): 857-866, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Four patients with Saul-Wilson syndrome were reported between 1982 and 1994, but no additional individuals were described until 2018, when the molecular etiology of the disease was elucidated. Hence, the clinical phenotype of the disease remains poorly defined. We address this shortcoming by providing a detailed characterization of its phenotype. METHODS: Retrospective chart reviews were performed and primary radiographs assessed for all 14 individuals. Four individuals underwent detailed ophthalmologic examination by the same physician. Two individuals underwent gynecologic evaluation. Z-scores for height, weight, head circumference and body mass index were calculated at different ages. RESULTS: All patients exhibited short stature, with sharp decline from the mean within the first months of life, and a final height Z-score between -4 and -8.5 standard deviations. The facial and radiographic features evolved over time. Intermittent neutropenia was frequently observed. Novel findings included elevation of liver transaminases, skeletal fragility, rod-cone dystrophy, and cystic macular changes. CONCLUSIONS: Saul-Wilson syndrome presents a remarkably uniform phenotype, and the comprehensive description of our cohort allows for improved understanding of the long-term morbidity of the condition, establishment of follow-up recommendations for affected individuals, and documentation of the natural history into adulthood for comparison with treated patients, when therapeutics become available.

15.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(2): 223-233, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420886

RESUMO

Numerous etiologies may lead to nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) including congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Recognition of CDG in NIHF is challenging. This study reviews prenatal and neonatal characteristics of CDG presenting with NIHF. A systematic literature search was performed. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one cases with NIHF associated with a CDG were reported. There were 17 live births, three pregnancy terminations, and one fetal demise. Timing of CDG diagnosis was reported mostly postnatally (90%; 10/11). Postnatal genetic testing was reported in 18 patients; three patients were diagnosed by isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin that showed a type 1 pattern. The genes reported for CDG with NIHF for 15 distinct families include: PMM2 in 47% (7/15), ALG9 in 20% (3/15), ALG8 in 13% (2/15), ALG1 in 7% (1/15), MGAT2 in 7% (1/15), and COG6 7% (1/15). In our review, 81% (17/21) reported facial dysmorphism, 52% (11/21) reported CNS abnormalities, most commonly cerebellar atrophy (64%; 7/11), and 38% (8/21) reported cardiovascular abnormalities, most commonly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (63%; 5/8). Among live births, 71% (12/17) infants died at a median age of 34 days (range 1-185). Thrombocytopenia was reported in 53% (9/17) patients. Of those who survived past the neonatal period, 80% (4/5) had significant reported developmental delays. CDG should be on the differential diagnosis of NIHF in the presence of cerebellar atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or thrombocytopenia. Our review highlights the poor prognosis in infants with NIHF due to CDG and demonstrates the importance of identifying these disorders prenatally to guide providers in their counseling with families regarding pregnancy management. SYNOPSIS: Poor prognosis in fetuses and infants with nonimmune hydrops fetalis due to congenital disorders of glycosylation highlights the importance of prenatal diagnosis of this disorder.

16.
Pediatr Transplant ; 24(1): e13604, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651069

RESUMO

MA is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by episodes of inflammation and periodic fevers. In its most severe form, it can result in facial dysmorphism, growth inhibition, ataxia, liver dysfunction, intellectual disability, and at times can be fatal. A number of case reports exist stating that SCT is curative in these patients. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with MA at birth, who underwent SCT at the age of 14 months with intent to cure. She achieved complete engraftment and urine mevalonate became undetectable. However, 18 months following transplant, she developed frequent episodes of fevers, rashes, arthritis, and a rising urinary mevalonate. She was subsequently diagnosed with relapse. She now requires treatment with steroids and canakinumab to manage her disease. This case is the first report of disease relapse following transplant for MA. It runs contrary to prior reports that SCT is fully curative of MA and suggests that transplant may instead provide a means of decreasing disease severity without entirely eradicating the condition.

17.
Bone ; 131: 115142, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704340

RESUMO

GM1 gangliosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in GLB1 encoding a lysosomal ß-galactosidase. This disease is a continuum from the severe infantile form with rapid neurological decline to the chronic adult form, which is not life-limiting. The intermediate or type 2 form can be further classified into late infantile and juvenile forms. The frequency and severity of skeletal outcomes in late infantile and juvenile patients have not been characterized. Our goals are to describe the radiological skeletal abnormalities, bone mineral density (BMD), and frequency of fractures in patients with intermediate GM1 gangliosidosis. We evaluated 13 late infantile and 21 juvenile patients as part of an ongoing natural history study. Average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 1.9 and 6.3 years for late infantile and juvenile patients, respectively. All late infantile patients had odontoid hypoplasia and pear-shaped vertebral bodies, the frequency of which was significantly different than in patients with juvenile disease (none and 14%, respectively). Juvenile patients had irregular endplates of the vertebral bodies (15/21), central indentation of endplates (10/21), and squared and flat vertebral bodies (10/21); all allowed radiographic differentiation from late infantile patients. Lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip BMD were significantly decreased (-2.1, -2.2, and -1.8 Z-scores respectively). Lumbar spine BMD peaked at 19 years, while distal forearm BMD peaked at 30 years. Despite low BMD, no patients exhibited fractures. We have demonstrated that all late infantile patients have some degree of odontoid hypoplasia suggesting the need for cervical spine evaluation particularly prior to anesthesia, whereas juvenile patients had variable skeletal involvement often affecting activities of daily living. Type 2 GM1 gangliosidosis patients have skeletal abnormalities that are both an early indication of their diagnosis, and require monitoring and management to ensure the highest possible quality of life.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(1): 76-87, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395947

RESUMO

PTPN23 is a His-domain protein-tyrosine phosphatase implicated in ciliogenesis, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, and RNA splicing. Until recently, no defined human phenotype had been associated with alterations in this gene. We identified and report a cohort of seven patients with either homozygous or compound heterozygous rare deleterious variants in PTPN23. Combined with four patients previously reported, a total of 11 patients with this disorder have now been identified. We expand the phenotypic and variation spectrum associated with defects in this gene. Patients have strong phenotypic overlap, suggesting a defined autosomal recessive syndrome caused by reduced function of PTPN23. Shared characteristics of affected individuals include developmental delay, brain abnormalities (mainly ventriculomegaly and/or brain atrophy), intellectual disability, spasticity, language disorder, microcephaly, optic atrophy, and seizures. We observe a broad range of variants across patients that are likely strongly reducing the expression or disrupting the function of the protein. However, we do not observe any patients with an allele combination predicted to result in complete loss of function of PTPN23, as this is likely incompatible with life, consistent with reported embryonic lethality in the mouse. None of the observed or reported variants are recurrent, although some have been identified in homozygosis in patients from consanguineous populations. This study expands the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of PTPN23 associated disease and identifies major shared features among patients affected with this disorder, while providing additional support to the important role of PTPN23 in human nervous and visual system development and function.

19.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 353, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 17q12 deletion syndrome encompasses a broad constellation of clinical phenotypes, including renal magnesium wasting, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), renal cysts, genitourinary malformations, and neuropsychiatric illness. Manifestations outside of the renal, endocrine, and nervous systems have not been well described. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 62-year-old male referred to the Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) who presented with persistent hypermagnesiuric hypomagnesemia and was found to have a 17q12 deletion. The patient exhibited several known manifestations of the syndrome, including severe hypomagnesemia, renal cysts, diabetes and cognitive deficits. Coronary CT revealed extensive coronary calcifications, with a coronary artery calcification score of 12,427. Vascular calcifications have not been previously reported in this condition. We describe several physiologic mechanisms and a review of literature to support the expansion of the 17q12 deletion syndrome to include vascular calcification. CONCLUSION: Extensive coronary and vascular calcifications may be an extension of the 17q12 deletion phenotype, particularly if hypomagnesemia and hyperparathyroidism are prevalent. In patients with 17q12 deletions involving HNF1B, hyperparathyroidism and hypomagnesemia may contribute to significant cardiovascular risk.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2112-2118, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444901

RESUMO

Generalized arterial calcifications of infancy (GACI) is caused by mutations in ENPP1. Other ENPP1-related phenotypes include pseudoxanthoma elasticum, hypophosphatemic rickets, and Cole disease. We studied four children from two Bedouin consanguineous families who presented with severe clinical phenotype including thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, hepatic, and neurologic manifestations. Initial working diagnosis included congenital infection; however, patients remained without a definitive diagnosis despite extensive workup. Consequently, we investigated a potential genetic etiology. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed for affected children and their parents. Following the identification of a novel mutation in the ENPP1 gene, we characterized this novel multisystemic presentation and revised relevant imaging studies. Using WES, we identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.556G > C; p.Gly186Arg) in ENPP1 which affects a highly conserved protein domain (somatomedin B2). ENPP1-associated genetic diseases exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity depending on mutation type and location. Follow-up clinical characterization of these families allowed us to revise and detect new features of systemic calcifications, which established the diagnosis of GACI, expanding the phenotypic spectrum associated with ENPP1 mutations. Our findings demonstrate that this novel ENPP1 founder mutation can cause a fatal multisystemic phenotype, mimicking severe congenital infection. This also represents the first reported mutation affecting the SMB2 domain, associated with GACI.

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