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1.
J Asthma ; 57(4): 373-380, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720381

RESUMO

Objective: This study analyzes and describes trends in prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in children 6-7 years old living in Santo Ângelo, Brazil, by comparing data from 2007, 2012, and 2017. Methods: The ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) standardized written questionnaire was used in a three cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was applied between March and May of 2007, 2012 and 2017. Results: A total of 701 children participated in the survey: 225 children in 2007, 229 in 2012, and 247 in 2017. There were no differences in the prevalence of current wheeze in the years of this study. On the other hand, a higher percentage of children were diagnosed with asthma in 2012 (26.2%) than in 2007 (10.2%) and 2017 (10.1%) (p < 0.05); however, the severity of asthma was lower in 2012 when compared to other years. Regarding cases of probable asthma - which included patients with suspected asthma or wheezing and nocturnal cough without a diagnosis of asthma - these corresponded to 15.7, 17.0, and 25.1% of the cases in 2007, 2012 and 2017, respectively. For other allergic diseases, we found no statistical difference in the frequency of symptoms of current rhinitis (55.5%, 54.6%, 51.8% in 2007, 2012, and 2017, respectively), allergic rhinitis (45.3%, 45.0%, 36.4% in 2007, 2012, and 2017, respectively), or pollinosis (17.8%, 12.7%, 14.2% in 2007, 2012, and 2017, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of probable asthma increased from 2007 to 2017. The prevalence of symptoms and diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and pollinosis was relatively high and these allergies must be considered in the pediatric population of the region.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Asma/diagnóstico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Talanta ; 176: 26-33, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28917750

RESUMO

Fuel quality control has gained interest in many countries owing to the potential damage of low-quality fuel to engines, the environment, and economy. Thus, the application of analytical techniques to verify quality control of fuels has become crucial. The portable micro-spectrometer in the near infrared region (microNIR) has gained credibility as a successful analytical technique in several quality control sectors. The possibility of real-time analysis using a nondestructive and reliable method is the main advantage of this methodology. In this work, chemometric models (PLS) were developed using microNIR data to determine the amount of biodiesel in diesel (LODBio = 0.5wt%; LOQBio = 1.8wt%; and RMSEPBio = 1.8wt%); sulfur in diesel (LODS = 2.4mgL-1; LOQS = 8.0mgL-1; and RMSEPS = 13.2mgL-1); gasoline, ethanol, and methanol in C-type gasoline (LODgas = 0.55wt%; LOQgas = 1.84wt%; and RMSEPgas = 0.81wt%; LODeth = 0.75wt%; LOQeth = 2.5wt%; and RMSEPeth = 3.81wt%; and LODmet = 0.85wt%; LOQmet = 2.84wt%; and RMSEPmet = 1.80wt%); and water, methanol, and ethanol in ethanol-hydrated fuel (EHF) (LODH2O = 0.04wt%; LOQH2O = 1.29wt%; and RMSEPH2O = 1.05wt%; LODmet = 0.52wt%; LOQmet = 1.73wt%; and RMSEPmet = 2.78wt%; and LODeth = 1.22wt%; LOQeth = 4.07wt%; and RMSEPeth = 4.41wt%). A total of 181 blends were prepared, with biodiesel and sulfur contents ranging from 0 to 100wt% and 10-500mgL-1, respectively. For gasoline blends, the gasoline, ethanol, and methanol contents ranged from 0.0 to 75.0wt%, 25.0-75.0wt%, and 0.0-50.0wt%, respectively. In the EHF control, the ethanol, water, and methanol contents ranged from 0.0 to 100.0wt%, 0.0-50.0wt%, and 0.0-50.0wt%, respectively. The proposed method presented high precision and accuracy in all cases, and the results showed that the microNIR technique had excellent performance in fuel quality control.

4.
J Sep Sci ; 34(13): 1547-54, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21644251

RESUMO

Combining qualitative data from the chromatographic structure of 2-D gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) and that from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) should result in a more accurate assignment of the peak identities than the simple analysis by GC/MS, where coelution of analytes is unavoidable in highly complex samples (rendering spectra unsuitable for qualitative purposes) or for compounds in very low concentrations. Using data from GC×GC-FID combined with GC/MS can reveal coelutions that were not detected by mass spectra deconvolution software. In addition, some compounds can be identified according to the structure of the GC×GC-FID chromatogram. In this article, the volatile fractions of fresh and dehydrated pineapple pulp were evaluated. The extraction of the volatiles was performed by dynamic headspace extraction coupled to solid-phase microextraction (DHS-SPME), a technique appropriate for slurries or solid matrices. Extracted analytes were then analyzed by GC×GC-FID and GC/MS. The results obtained using both techniques were combined to improve compound identifications.


Assuntos
Ananas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1218(12): 1663-7, 2011 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21316685

RESUMO

The estimation of physicochemical parameters such as distillation points and relative densities still plays an important role in the quality control of gasoline and similar fuels. Their measurements according to standard ASTM procedures demands specific equipments and are time and work consuming. An alternative method to predict distillation points and relativity density by multivariate analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) data is presented here. Gasoline samples, previously tested according to standard methods, were used to build regression models, which were evaluated by external validation. The models for distillation points were built using variable selection methods, while the model for relativity density was built using the whole chromatograms. The root mean square prediction differences (RMSPD) obtained were 0.85%, 0.48%, 1.07% and 1.71% for 10, 50 and 90% v/v of distillation and for the final point of distillation, respectively. For relative density, the RMSPD was 0.24%. These results suggest that GC×GC-FID combined with multivariate analysis can be used to predict these physicochemical properties of gasoline.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Gasolina/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Destilação , Análise Multivariada , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 53(2): 122-127, abr.-jun. 2009. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-522353

RESUMO

Introdução: A asma é uma doença inflamatória crônica, caracterizada por hiper-responsividade das vias aéreas inferiores que se manifesta por episódios recorrentes de sibilância, dispnéia, aperto no peito e tosse. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência de asma e rinite alérgica em adolescentes do município de Santo Ângelo/RS. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, prospectivo e transversal; a amostra foi constituída por estudantes de 13 a 14 anos. Foram investigadas as variáveis: sexo, idade e interferência dos sintomas das doenças nas atividades diárias através da aplicação de um questionário epidemiológico padronizado do ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood). Resultados: O número de questionários aplicados foi de 1.031, sendo considerados válidos 979 (94,9 por cento). A prevalência de asma nos adolescentes foi de 10,5 por cento, baseada na questão “já teve ou tem asma”. A prevalência de rinite alérgica foi de 34,6 por cento, baseada na questão “já teve ou tem rinite alérgica”. Quanto à polinose “alergia ao pólen na primavera” a prevalência foi de 30,4 por cento. Considerando-se o sub-diagnóstico das doenças, a prevalência de prováveis asmáticos foi de 12 por cento e a de adolescentes com provável rinite de 12 por cento. Conclusão: A prevalência de asma no presente estudo mostrou-se entre os valores médios mundiais e nacionais, já as prevalências de rinite alérgica e polinose mostraram-se elevadas de acordo com as médias de outros estudos. Estes dados apontam que em Santo Ângelo/RS essas doenças constituem um problema de saúde pública entre os adolescentes.


Introduction: Asthma is an inflammatory chronic disease, characterized as a hyperresponsivity of the lower airways that manifests itself through recurrent episodes of sibilance, dyspnea, chest pressure, and coughing. Aim: To determine the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis in adolescents living in the municipality of Santo Ângelo/RS. Methods: An observational transversal, prospective study was performed, the sample comprising 13- and 14-year-old students. The variables sex, age, and interference of the symptoms of the disease in the daily activities were investigated through the administration of the standardized epidemiological questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Results: Of the 1,031 questionnaires responded, 979 (94.9 percent) were considered as valid. The prevalence of asthma among the adolescents was 10.5 percent, based on the question: “Have you ever had asthma?”. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 34.6 percent, based on the question “Have you ever had allergic rhinitis?. As for pollen allergy during the spring, the prevalence was 30.4 percent. Considering the underdiagnosis of the diseases, the prevalence of probable asthmatics was 12 percent and of adolescents with probable rhinitis was 12 percent. Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma in the present study was consistent with the reported mean world and national values, but the prevalences of allergic rhinitis and pollen allergies were high as compared to the means reported elsewhere. The data indicate that in Santo Ângelo, RS these conditions are a public health problem among adolescents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Asma/complicações , Asma/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Rinite Alérgica Perene/complicações , Rinite Alérgica Perene/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica Perene/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/complicações , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1201(2): 176-82, 2008 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18571187

RESUMO

A method to detect potential adulteration of commercial gasoline (Type C gasoline, available in Brazil and containing 25% (v/v) ethanol) is presented here. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GCxGC-FID) data and multivariate calibration (multi-way partial least squares regression, N-PLS) were combined to obtain regression models correlating the concentration of gasoline on samples from chromatographic data. Blends of gasoline and white spirit, kerosene and paint thinner (adopted as model adulterants) were used for calibration; the regression models were evaluated using samples of Type C gasoline spiked with these solvents, as well as with ethanol. The method was also checked with real samples collected from gas stations and analyzed using the official method. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for gasoline concentrations on test samples calculated using the regression model ranged from 3.3% (v/v) to 8.2% (v/v), depending on the composition of the blends; in addition, the results for the real samples agree with the official method. These observations suggest that GCxGC-FID and N-PLS can be an alternative for routine monitoring of fuel adulteration, as well as to solve several other similar analytical problems where mixtures should be detected and quantified as single species in complex samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Etanol/análise , Gasolina/análise , Querosene/análise
8.
Anest. analg. reanim ; 21(1): 11-19, ago. 2006. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-694183

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: el objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la capacidad de la evaluación clínica y de la laringoscopía indirecta (LI) para predecir dificultades en la intubación orotraqueal en pacientes coordinados para procedimientos endoscópicos de vía aérea superior. METODOLOGÍA: se realizó un estudio prospectivo de 76 pacientes coordinados para procedimientos endoscópicos de vía aérea superior, con anestesia general y que requerían intubación orotraqueal. La vía aérea se evaluó clínicamente mediante el test de Mallampati, medidas de las distancias mentohioidea, tiromentoneana y rama horizontal del maxilar inferior, características del cuello, dientes, lengua, apertura bucal, y por laringoscopía indirecta. Esta evaluación determinó un diagnóstico de sospecha de intubación dificultosa que se correlacionó con los hallazgos durante las maniobras de laringoscopía e intubación orotraqueal. Se determinó la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y negativo (VPN) de los diferentes métodos de evaluación. RESULTADOS: la evaluación clínica tuvo una sensibilidad del 50% y una especificidad del 81%, con un VPP de 24% y VPN de 93%. La LI tuvo una sensibilidad del 38% y una especificidad de 79%, con un VPP de 18% y VPN de 92%. CONCLUSIONES: la evaluación clínica fue superior que la LI para predecir dificultades en la intubación orotraqueal, pero el valor predictivo de ambos métodos fue bajo.


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the predictive value of clinical evaluation and indirect laryngoscopy (LI) to detect difficult tracheal intubation, in patients coordinated for endoscopic procedures of upper airway. METHODS: We studied 76 patients coordinated for endoscopic procedures of upper airway under general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The airway was clinically evaluated with Mallampati test, hyomental and thyromental distances, horizontal branch of lower jaw distance, neck characteristics, teeth, tongue, mouth opening, and with indirect laryngoscopy. This evaluation was used as a predictor of difficult airway, and was correlated to the findings during direct laryngoscopy and intubation. From this data sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) value were calculated. RESULTS: clinical evaluation had 50% sensitivity and 81% specificity, with a PPV of 24% and a NPV of 93%. Indirect laryngoscopy had 38% sensitivity and 79% specificity, with a PPV of 18% and a NPV of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical evaluation was best predictor of difficult airway than indirect laryngoscopy, but predictive value of both methods was low.

9.
Rev. bras. alergia imunopatol ; 28(1): 47-52, jan.-fev. 2005. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-408020

RESUMO

Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi estabelecer a prevalência de polinose (rinite estacional), em adultos em área com agricultura modificada pela introdução extensiva de Lolium multiflorum (Santo Ângelo) em um polo industrial (Caxias do Sul), localizados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos: Utilizou-se o questionário escrito do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood modificado, previamente validado em Curitiba. A amostra for de 2.943 estudantes, 1.919 pertenciam à Universidade de Caxias do Sul e 1.024 à Universidade Regional Integrada, do Alto Uruguai e Missões, Campus de Santo Ângelo. A análise estatística para cálculo de prevalência foi limitada para residência (maior igual dois anos na região e maior igual quatro dias na cidade/semana). Resultados: Sintomas nasais e oculares nos últimos doze meses, com respostas afirmativas foram, em Caxias do Sul (43,0%) e Santo Ângelo (48,0%). Nos sintomas nasais em outubro e novembro (primavera) a frequencia afirmativa foi, respectivamente, em Caxias do Sul (35,1% e 15,3%) e Santo Ângelo (35,8% e 24,0%). Responderam "sim" sobre a alergia ao pólen na primavera, em Caxias do Sul (37,3%) e Santo Ângelo (46,8%). Conclusões: Os sintomas naso-oculares, associados à resposta afirmativa à alergia ao pólem na primavera, nos meses de outubro e novembro, permitem estabelecer uma prevalência de polinose (14,1%) em Caxias do Sul e (22,1%) para Santo Ângelo. A elevada prevalência de polinose encontrada em Santo Ângelo poderia estar relacionada com a cultura atual extensiva de Lolium multiflorum.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Asma , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/etiologia , Lolium/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição do Ar , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Intervalos de Confiança , Prevalência , Pólen/imunologia
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