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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247384, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278539

RESUMO

Abstract The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Resumo Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247384, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190764

RESUMO

The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Assuntos
Rios , Urbanização , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Peixes , Humanos , Solo
3.
Ecohealth ; 15(3): 619-626, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922961

RESUMO

In Brazil, although a large number of animals are used in traditional medicine (at least 354 species), information about their biological activities is scarce. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal potential of zootherapeutic by-products from animals used in Brazilian traditional medicine and discuss the ecological and cultural consequences of such practices. The species analyzed were: Tupinambis merianae (skin), Iguana iguana (skin and body fat), Crotalus durissus (skin and body fat), Boa constrictor (skin), Euphractus sexcinctus (body fat) and Coendou prehensilis (quills). Experiments were performed with standard clinical strains of Escherichia coli (EC-ATCC10536) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA-ATCC 25923). For the microbiological assay, the zootherapeutics were evaluated using serial microdilutions. The results indicate that none of the samples possess inhibitory activity against standard bacterial strains. The in vitro ineffectiveness of the analyzed products demonstrate a necessity for new pharmacological research that encompass a large number of species of medicinal animals as well as highlight the importance of zootherapy in the context of plans for animal conservation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Vertebrados , Animais , Brasil , Humanos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 602-615, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888769

RESUMO

Abstract Bacanga River Basin faces environmental problems related to urbanization and discharge of untreated domestic sewage, which compromise its ecosystem health. Due to the small number of studies that assessed its water quality, the present study aimed to assess the current status of this ecosystem based on the aquatic life protection index. Samples were carried out every two months, in a total of six events, in six sites along the basin, where the water samples were collected to assess physicochemical parameters and calculate the trophic state index and the index of minimum parameters for the protection of aquatic communities. The data were also compared with values determined by the resolution National Environment Council - CONAMA 357/05. Our results reveal significant changes in the water quality of Bacanga River Basin. An increase in nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentration led it to eutrophication. The surfactant values were high and put in danger the aquatic biota. Dissolved oxygen rates were below the values allowed by the resolution in most sites sampled. The current water quality is terrible for the protection of aquatic life in 61.92% of the sites sampled.


Resumo A Bacia Hidrográfica do rio Bacanga (BHRB) apresenta problemas ambientais relacionados a urbanização e lançamentos de esgoto in natura que comprometem a qualidade desse ecossistema. Devido ao reduzido número de estudos associados à avaliação da qualidade da água no local, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a situação atual desse ecossistema por meio do Índice de Proteção da Vida Aquática. Seis amostragens bimestrais foram realizadas em seis pontos ao longo da bacia, coletando parâmetros físico-químicos para a aplicação do Índice de Estado Trófico e Índice de Parâmetros Mínimos para a Proteção da Vida Aquática, relacionando-os com a resolução Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente - CONAMA/357. Os resultados revelaram alterações significativas na qualidade da água da BHRB, o aumento de nutrientes e das concentrações de clorofila-a conduziram ao um estado geral de eutrofização. Os valores de surfactantes foram altos colocando em risco a biota aquática e as taxas de oxigênio dissolvido estiveram abaixo do permitido pela resolução na maioria dos pontos amostrados. A situação atual da qualidade da água para proteção da vida aquática é péssima em 61,92% dos pontos amostrados.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Água , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Organismos Aquáticos , Urbanização , Brasil
5.
Braz J Biol ; 77(3): 602-615, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27706393

RESUMO

Bacanga River Basin faces environmental problems related to urbanization and discharge of untreated domestic sewage, which compromise its ecosystem health. Due to the small number of studies that assessed its water quality, the present study aimed to assess the current status of this ecosystem based on the aquatic life protection index. Samples were carried out every two months, in a total of six events, in six sites along the basin, where the water samples were collected to assess physicochemical parameters and calculate the trophic state index and the index of minimum parameters for the protection of aquatic communities. The data were also compared with values determined by the resolution National Environment Council - CONAMA 357/05. Our results reveal significant changes in the water quality of Bacanga River Basin. An increase in nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentration led it to eutrophication. The surfactant values were high and put in danger the aquatic biota. Dissolved oxygen rates were below the values allowed by the resolution in most sites sampled. The current water quality is terrible for the protection of aquatic life in 61.92% of the sites sampled.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Urbanização
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(1): 252-256, jan.-fev. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-874992

RESUMO

Acupuncture derives from traditional Chinese medicine, which aims to restore homeostasis. The action mechanism of this technique involves stimulation of certain points on the skin by inserting a needle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of stimulation of acupoints C7 and PC6 on the heart rate variability, heart rate and heart rhythm in healthy dogs. 30 male and female adult dogs were used, with no breed restriction. The animals were analyzed at two different times in weekly intervals. Firstly were applied needles in the true acupoints, and on the second time we applied needles in false acupoints. Previously to the acupuncture an ECG with 2 minutes of recorder was performed, and after an insertion of needles the electrocardiographic recording was maintained during the 30 minutes of acupuncture. Results showed no significant difference between the HR when comparing true and false acupoints (p = 0.890). For heart rate variability a small difference was observed between the groups (p = 0.0051), however, when comparing the baseline with 15 and 25 minutes of monitoring in the false acupoint group, no significant results were found when compared with true acupoint. In conclusion, it is suggested that the stimulation of acupoints C-7 and PC-6 in healthy dogs does not promote change in sympathovagal balance, specifically on the heart rate variability, heart rate and heart rhythm on healthy dogs.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura/veterinária , Frequência Cardíaca , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático , Sistema Nervoso Simpático
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(4): 1025-1032, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-759237

RESUMO

A eletrocardiografia computadorizada é mais precisa e prática quando comparada à convencional e por essa razão vem ganhando espaço na rotina clínica. No entanto os valores de referência devem diferir para os dois métodos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar e comparar o exame eletrocardiográfico computadorizado com o exame obtido pelo método convencional em equinos. O estudo demonstrou diferenças na amplitude da onda P (P<0,0001) com valor médio de 0,21 mV para o método convencional e 0,17 mV para o computadorizado; duração do intervalo PR (p=0,0005), tendo o valor médio de 260,49 ms para o método convencional e 242,37 ms para o informatizado e duração do complexo QRS (p=0,0003), sendo a média de valores para o método convencional de 75,61ms e 84,83 ms para o computadorizado. Essas diferenças devem ser levadas em consideração com o intuito de evitar equívocos na interpretação da eletrocardiografia na espécie equina.


Computerized electrocardiography has been gaining space in clinic routines because it is more practical and precise when compared to the conventional method. However, their reference values may differ from each other. The aim of this paper was to analyze and compare computerized and conventional electrocardiography in horses. Differences were observed between P wave amplitude (P<0001) with a mean of 0.21mV in the conventional method and 0.17mV in the computerized method, PR interval duration (p=0.0005) with a mean of 260.49 ms and 242.37 ms in the conventional and computerized methods respectively, and QRS complex duration (p=0.0003) with a mean of 75.61 ms in the conventional method and 84.83 ms in the computerized method. These differences should be taken into consideration in order to avoid misunderstandings in the interpretation of the electrocardiogram in equine species.


Assuntos
Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Cavalos , Informática Médica/métodos , Informática Médica/tendências , Exames Médicos/análise
8.
Parasitol Res ; 113(11): 3963-72, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25096534

RESUMO

Trophic networks can have architectonic configurations influenced by historical and ecological factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the architecture of networks between lizards, their endoparasites, diet, and micro-habitat, aiming to understand which factors exert an influence on the composition of the species of parasites. All networks showed a compartmentalized pattern. There was a positive relation between diet and the diversity of endoparasites. Our analyses also demonstrated that phylogeny and the use of micro-habitat influenced the composition of species of endoparasites and diet pattern of lizards. The principal factor that explained the modularity of the network was the foraging strategy, with segregation between the "active foragers" and "sit-and-wait" lizards. Our analyses also demonstrated that historical (phylogeny) and ecological factors (use of micro-habitat by the lizards) influenced the composition of parasite communities. These results corroborate other studies with ectoparasites, which indicate phylogeny and micro-habitat as determinants in the composition of parasitic fauna. The influence of phylogeny can be the result of coevolution between parasites and lizards in the Caatinga, and the influence of micro-habitat should be a result of adaptations of species of parasites to occupy the same categories of micro-habitats as hosts, thus favoring contagion.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagartos/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Filogenia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Brasil , Lagartos/classificação
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 593-601, Jan.-Apr. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-709302

RESUMO

Com o objetivo de analisar a intensidade das alterações histológicas em brânquias de Centropomus undecimalis para avaliar a qualidade da água do Parque Ecológico Laguna da Jansen, em São Luís, Estado do Maranhão, coletaram-se exemplares de peixes no período chuvoso de 2012 e amostras de água nos períodos seco de 2011 e chuvoso de 2012 para análises físico-química e bacteriológica. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos e bacteriológicos estava de acordo com os valores estabelecidos pela Resolução do CONAMA nº 357 de 2005. As alterações histológicas observadas foram: elevação do epitélio lamelar; proliferação excessiva de células dos epitélios filamentar e lamelar causando fusão total ou parcial das lamelas; alteração da estrutura das lamelas; hiperplasia das células mucosas; ruptura do epitélio lamelar; espessamento descontrolado do tecido proliferativo filamentar e lamelar e aneurismas de vários tamanhos. Também foi observada a presença de parasito em alguns exemplares. O Índice de Alteração Histológica (IAH) por indivíduo variou de 2 a 114. O valor médio do IAH obtido foi de 40,3, demonstrando que as brânquias dos indivíduos amostrados da espécie C. undecimalis apresentaram alterações de moderadas para severas no tecido. As alterações histológicas encontradas indicam que esses indivíduos desenvolveram mecanismos de defesa contra a ação de estressores presentes na água da laguna e a um provável desequilíbrio parasito-hospedeiro-ambiente associado à baixa qualidade do ambiente...


Aiming to analyze the intensity of the histological changes in the gills of Centropomus undecimalis to assess the water quality at Ecological Park of the Laguna da Jansen, in São Luís, State of Maranhão, specimens of fish were collected during the rainy season of 2012 and water samples during the dry season in 2011 and rainy season in 2012 for physical-chemical and bacteriological analyses. The results showed that most of the physical-chemical and bacteriological parameters analyzed agreed with the values established by CONAMA Resolution nº 357 of 2005. The histological changes were elevation of the lamellar epithelium, excessive cell proliferation of the filamentum and lamellar epithelium causing total or partial melting of the lamellar; changing the structure of the lamellar, hyperplasia of mucous cells, disruption of the lamellar epithelium, uncontrolled proliferative tissue filamentum thickening and lamellar and aneurysms in various sizes. We noted the presence of parasites in some samples. The Index Histological Amendment (IAH) per individual ranged from 2 to 114. The mean IAH obtained was 40.3, demonstrating that the gills of the individuals of the C. undecimalis species showed moderate to severe changes in the tissue. The histological findings indicate that these individuals have developed defense mechanisms against the action of stressors present in the water of the Laguna da Jansen and a probable parasite-host-environment imbalance associated with the environment's low quality...


Assuntos
Animais , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Bass/anatomia & histologia , Bass/fisiologia , Brânquias/fisiopatologia , Brânquias/microbiologia , Características Bacteriológicas da Água , Bass/imunologia , Coliformes
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(6): 1625-1634, Dec. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-696840

RESUMO

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes cargas de exercícios físicos no comportamento da frequência e do ritmo cardíaco de cães saudáveis, ao longo das 24 horas de gravação Holter. Utilizaram-se 23 cães, sem restrição de sexo, idade ou raça, dos quais 15 foram submetidos a atividades físicas e pertenciam ao grupo controle. Os resultados mostraram alterações na frequência cardíaca durante as atividades propostas, em que se alcançaram 174±27bpm durante a caminhada leve, 148±30 durante a atividade com bola e 165±26 durante o Cooper. Ademais, observaram-se arritmias, incluindo bloqueios atrioventriculares e extrassístoles e maior número e duração de pausas (até 5s) em repouso, além de uma menor variação na frequência cardíaca (FC) durante o período de sono dos animais do grupo experimental. Esses eventos não foram observados no grupo controle, o que sugere que o exercício físico extenuante interfere na modulação autonômica do coração, podendo predispor a arritmias importantes.


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different loads of exercises on the heart rate behavior and rhythm in healthy dogs, over the 24-hour Holter recording. Twenty-three dogs were used without gender, age or breed restriction, and 15 animals were submitted to physical activities and 8 were used as control group. The results showed changes in heart rate during the proposed activities, with 174±27 bpm while walking, 148±30 during ball activity and 165±26 during Cooper. Moreover, arrhythmias were observed, including atrioventricular blocks and premature complexes and a larger number and duration of pauses (up to 5 sec) at rest, and provided a smaller variation in the HR during the sleep period of animals from the experimental group. These events were not observed in the control group, suggesting that strenuous physical exercise affects the autonomic modulation of the heart, and may lead to important arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Animais , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Eletrocardiografia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Cães/classificação
11.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(1): 99-114, 2013 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23359029

RESUMO

Maize landraces derived from tropical germplasm represent an important source of genetic variability, which is currently poorly understood and under-exploited by Brazilian crop breeding programs. The aims of our study were to a) estimate the genetic diversity across 48 varieties of maize landraces cultivated at different locations in the States of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Paraná (PR) by means of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), simple sequence repeat (SSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers; b) cluster these varieties based on their genetic similarity estimates, and c) establish possible correlations between genetic similarity and germplasm collection sites. Maize landrace accessions were genotyped through the 30 RAPD, 47 SSR, and 25 combinations of AFLP primers. The results revealed high levels of variability across landraces within and between collection sites. AFLP analysis resulted in amplification of 762 polymorphic fragments and a polymorphic index of 40.3%, followed by RAPD with 335 fragments (81.9%) and SSR with 105 fragments (78.3%). The genetic similarity estimates of the investigated landraces ranged from 41 (SSR) to 74% (AFLP), and the amplitudes of these indices were notably similar between RAPD and SSR, as well as between AFLP and joint analysis. Regarding the RAPD and AFLP dendrograms, groups comprising accessions from RS prevailed, whereas SSR comprised varieties from both collection sites. Groups exclusive to RS or PR support the hypothesis that divergence between groups is possible owing to the fixation of regional adaptation alleles and to spatial barriers hindering genetic flow between locations.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Zea mays/genética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , Biomarcadores , Brasil , Cruzamento/métodos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/métodos
12.
Pharm Biol ; 50(8): 1026-30, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22775420

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Amphibian skins have wide variety of biologically active compounds associated with the natural defenses of these animals. OBJECTIVES: To study the in vitro anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the skin of Rhinella jimi Stevaux (Anura: Bufonidae). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The extract was obtained by cold methanol extraction for 96 h using dried skins (295 mg). The methanol skin extract was dried under reduced pressure, giving a 5.5% yield. In order to test for growth-inhibitory activity, in vitro tests were performed with the following cancer cell lines using concentrations ranging between 0.25-250 µg/mL of the extract by 48 h: K562 (leukemia), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-ADR (breast with MDR phenotype), UACC-62 (melanoma), NCI460 (lung), PCO3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon), OVCAR (ovary), and 786-0 (kidney). RESULTS: The methanol extract of R. jimi produced a growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner against the most of the assayed cell lines. In addition to the growth inhibition, the extract induced the cell death in the ovary and colon lines (EC50 0.125 and 0.2 µg/mL, respectively), demonstrating 100% of inhibition with 2.5 µg/mL. However, prostate and leukemia cell lines demonstrated less sensitivity, with EC50 of 24 and 235 µg/mL, respectively. This is the first report about the anticancer activity by natural products from the skin of R. jimi. CONCLUSIONS: The methanol extracts of R. jimi significantly affected the growth of several cell lines, demonstrating that these compounds are a potential source of substances that could be utilized in cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bufonidae/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/metabolismo , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Metanol/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Solventes/química , Extratos de Tecidos/isolamento & purificação
13.
Braz J Biol ; 72(4): 929-33, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23295524

RESUMO

The parameters of infection by lung parasites from two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara and Anolis brasiliensis, from the Atlantic Rainforest of the lower slope of Chapada do Araripe in Northeastern Brazil were analyzed between September, 2009 and July, 2010. A total of 202 lizards were collected. 125 specimens were from Mabuya arajara and 77 from Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara was infected by the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae while A. brasiliensis was infected by the nematode Rhabdias sp., with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The mean intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. was 3.63 ± 2.58 (range 1-15). The body size and sex of lizards did not influence the intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. The overall prevalence was also not different between males and females hosts in A. brasiliensis. Both Anolis brasiliensis and Mabuya arajara represent a new host to Rhabdias sp. and Raillietiella mottae, respectively.


Assuntos
Lagartos/parasitologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Pentastomídeos , Infecções por Rhabditida/veterinária , Rhabditoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Lagartos/classificação , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Rhabditida/epidemiologia
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 179(1-3): 242-5, 2011 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21377803

RESUMO

Intestinal parasites, both helminths and protozoa, are commonly found in domestic animals, and the possible transmission of enteric parasites from dogs and cats to humans may constitute a global potential health risk worldwide. In the present study, we analysed 148 stool samples from dogs (n=126) and cats (n=22) collected from animal shelters and veterinary clinics, in the district of Évora, Portugal. Microscopic examination confirmed that Giardia was the most frequent parasite in the studied population (34/148; 23%). Other parasites such as Ancylostoma sp., Isospora spp., Toxocara, Trichuris spp., Toxascaris and Toxoplasma were also found. Furthermore, molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis analysis targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu-rRNA) was performed revealing the presence of host-specific (C and D) and zoonotic assemblages (A and B). This work points out to the importance of protozoan parasites in companion animals, and reanalyses the need for parasite prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Portugal/epidemiologia
15.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(3): 305-310, 2011. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-601037

RESUMO

Ensaios para avaliar o potencial antibacteriano de Rhizophora mangle (mangue-vermelho), coletada no município de Conde, Bahia, foram realizados com cepas bacterianas Gram-positivas (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 e Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341) e Gram-negativas (Echerichia coli ATCC 10536, Salmonella Cholerea-suis 10708, Klebsiela pneumoniae ATCC 700603 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442). A atividade antibacteriana foi avaliada pelos métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), e os resultados analisados estatisticamente. Os resultados do ensaio de difusão em disco mostraram diferença significativa quanto à sensibilidade dos micro-organismos frente aos extratos testados (p<0,05). A CIM do extrato da folha (313 µg mL-1) apresentou o melhor desempenho para inibir o crescimento das cepas Gram-positivas, enquanto o extrato da casca foi mais eficaz para as cepas Gram-negativas. De acordo com os dados levantados por este estudo, R. mangle apresentou propriedade antibacteriana para cepas Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, podendo tornar-se alternativa terapêutica tanto para o uso popular quanto para a indústria farmacêutica.


Assays to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), sampled at Conde Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, were performed against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341) and Gram-negative (Echerichia coli ATCC 10536, Salmonella Cholerea-suis 10708, Klebsiela pneumoniae ATCC 700603 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and results were statistically analyzed. The results of disc diffusion assay showed a significant difference as to the sensitivity of microorganisms against the tested extracts (p<0.05). The MIC of leaf extract (313 µg mL-1) indicated the best performance to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive strains, while bark extract had a better efficacy against Gram-negative strains. Based on the presented data, R. mangle showed antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains and can be used as an alternative therapy for popular use or for the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Técnicas In Vitro , Extratos Vegetais , Rhizophoraceae , Brasil , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Micrococcus luteus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella , Staphylococcus aureus
16.
Nanotechnology ; 20(4): 045103, 2009 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19417311

RESUMO

Magnetoliposomes consist of vesicles composed of a phospholipid membrane encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles. These systems have several important applications, such as in MRI contrast agents, drug and gene carriers, and cancer treatment devices. For all of these applications, controlling the number of encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles is a key issue. In this work, we used a magneto-optical technique to obtain information about the efficiency of encapsulation, the number of nanoparticles encapsulated per liposome and also about the formation of the nanoparticle structures. The parameters studied included the effect of the duration of sonication, the presence of cholesterol in the liposome membrane, as well as time-related stability. For the liposomal vesicles prepared in this work, we found between 35 and 300 nanoparticles encapsulated per liposome, depending on the experimental conditions, consisting of small linear chains of nanoparticles, basically trimers and tetramers. The methodology developed might be useful for the investigation and improvement of the properties of several magnetic nanocarrier systems.


Assuntos
Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Lipossomos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Campos Eletromagnéticos
18.
Braz J Biol ; 66(2A): 559-64, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16862312

RESUMO

Cephalobaenidae constitutes one of the main pentastomid groups infecting the respiratory tract of snakes. Six specimens of Liophis lineatus, a colubrid, were collected by active capture and pitfalls installed on the banks of the Batateiras river, close to its source, in the APA - Area de Proteção Ambiental (a protected environmental area of the IBAMA - Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources), and in a remnant of the humid tropical forest FLONA - Floresta Nacional do Araripe, both in the municipality of Crato, state of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Out of the six specimens of L. lineatus examined, only one had its lung infected by the pentastomid Cephalobaena tetrapoda. This represents the first record of C. tetrapoda as a parasite of a snake in Northeast Brazil, as well as the first record of a colubrid, L. lineatus, as a new host for the pentastomid in Brazil.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/classificação , Colubridae/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Animais , Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 66(2a): 559-564, May 2006. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-431545

RESUMO

Os Cephalobaenidae constituem um dos principais grupos de pentastomídeos que parasitam o trato respiratório de serpentes. Foram coletados seis espécimes de Liophis lineatus pela utilização de coleta ativa e pitfalls instalados às margens da nascente do rio Batateiras, próximo à nascente, ‘APA – Área de Proteção Ambiental’ (um ambiente protegido pelo ‘IBAMA – Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Renováveis’), e em um remanescente de floresta úmida, "FLONA – Floresta Nacional do Araripe". Os dois pontos de coleta estão localizados no município de Crato, Estado do Ceará. Dos seis espécimes de L. lineatus examinados apenas um estava infectado por Cephalobaena tetrapoda em seu pulmão. Isso representa o primeiro registro de C. tetrapoda parasitando uma cobra no Nordeste brasileiro, assim como é o primeiro registro de um colubridae servindo de hospedeiro para C. tetrapoda no Brasil.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Artrópodes/classificação , Colubridae/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Brasil
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