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Atherosclerosis ; 283: 100-105, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826541


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). AAS abuse leads to a remarkable decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plasma concentration, which could be a key factor in the atherosclerotic process. Moreover, not only the concentration of HDL, but also its functionality, plays a pivotal role in CAD. We tested the functionality of HDL by cholesterol efflux and antioxidant capacity. We also evaluated the prevalence of CAD in AAS users. METHODS: Twenty strength-trained AAS users (AASU) age 29 ±â€¯5 yr, 20 age-matched strength-trained AAS nonusers (AASNU), and 10 sedentary controls (SC) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Functionality of HDL was evaluated by 14C-cholesterol efflux and the ability of HDL in inhibiting LDL oxidation. Coronary artery was evaluated with coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: Cholesterol efflux was lower in AASU compared with AASNU and SC (20 vs. 23 vs. 24%, respectively, p < 0.001). However, the lag time for LDL oxidation was higher in AASU compared with AASNU and SC (41 vs 13 vs 11 min, respectively, p < 0.001). We found at least 2 coronary arteries with plaques in 25% of AASU. None of the AASNU and SC had plaques. The time of AAS use was negatively associated with cholesterol efflux. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that AAS abuse impairs the cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL. Long-term AAS use seems to be correlated with lower cholesterol efflux and early subclinical CAD in this population.

J Nutr Biochem ; 32: 91-100, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27142741


Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1ß, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice.

Aterosclerose/etiologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/efeitos adversos , Triglicerídeos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Esterificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ácido Palmítico/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Ácidos Esteáricos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Ácidos Graxos Trans/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Trans/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Desmame