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2.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(1): 95-122, mar. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094225

RESUMO

Resumen: La enfermedad renal crónica tiene una prevalencia estimada de 6,5% a 8% en los adultos mayores de 18 años en Uruguay. A pesar de los esfuerzos por realizar un diagnóstico temprano y retrasar su progresión un porcentaje de pacientes requiere terapia de reemplazo renal (TRR) mediante diálisis, con una tasa de incidencia anual de 166 pacientes/millón de población. A pesar de las mejoras en el cuidado nefrológico y en las técnicas de hemodiálisis, la mortalidad anual de los pacientes en esta técnica es elevada en nuestro país (16,5%) y en todo el mundo. Con el objetivo de mejorar estos aspectos se han ensayado técnicas dialíticas que asocian la convección como estrategia para depurar moléculas de mayor tamaño que habitualmente no se depuran en la hemodiálisis convencional. La hemodiafiltración en línea (HDF-OL) es una técnica convectiva. Cuando se utiliza como TRR crónica se asocia a una reducción de la mortalidad de 30%-35% comparada con la hemodiálisis convencional. En el año 2014 se instrumentó esta técnica en el Hospital de Clínicas, siendo el centro pionero en el país en contar con ella como TRR crónico. El proceso de implementación implicó cambios de la infraestructura (monitores de diálisis, centro de tratamiento del agua), formación de recursos humanos, cambios en el funcionamiento y controles microbiológicos programados. El control de calidad sistemático y los diferentes estudios realizados en este período de cinco años han mostrado que es una técnica segura, capaz de remover solutos de tamaño medio y de disminuir los requerimientos de eritropoyetina. No se encuentra aún financiada por el sistema de salud, lo que puede constituir una barrera en su difusión a nivel nacional. En el presente trabajo se revisan las características fundamentales de la hemodiafiltración, su beneficio comparado con la hemodiálisis convencional, y el proceso de implementación de la técnica junto con algunos resultados iniciales en el Hospital de Clínicas.


Summary: Chronic kidney disease has an estimated prevalence of 6.5% to 8% in adults older than 18 years old in Uruguay. Despite efforts to make an early diagnosis and delay its progression, a percentage of patients require renal replacement therapy (RRT) with dialysis, the annual incidence rate being 166 patients per million population. Regardless of improvements in nephrology care and hemodialysis techniques, annual mortality ratex for this technique is high in our country (16.5%) and around the world. In order to improve these aspects, different dialysis techniques associating convection as a strategy to purify larger molecules that are rarely purified in conventional hemodialysis have been tried out. Online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) is a convective technique. When used as a chronic RRT it is associated to a 30-35% reduction in mortality compared to conventional hemodialysis. In 2014 this technique was introduced in the University Hospital, being it the first center that offered it as chronic renal replacement therapy. The implementation process implied changes in infrastructure (dialysis computer screens, water treatment center), the training of human resources, changes in the operation system and programmed microbiological controls. A systematic quality control and the different studies conducted in this 5-year period have proved it is a safe technique that removes average size solutes and reduces the erythropoietin requirements. This technique is still not funded by the health system, what may result in an obstacle for it to be applied nationally. This study reviews the main features of haemodiafiltration, its benefits when compared to conventional hemodialysis and the process needed to implement the technique, along with initial results in the University Hospital.


Resumo: No Uruguai a doença renal crônica tem uma prevalência estimada de 6.5 a 8% nos adultos maiores de 18 anos. Apesar dos esforços para realizar um diagnóstico precoce e retardar sua progressão uma porcentagem de pacientes requer terapia de substituição da função renal (TSFR) mediante diálise, com uma taxa de incidência anual de 166 pacientes/milhão de habitantes. Independentemente das melhorias na atenção nefrológica e nas técnicas de hemodiálise, a mortalidade anual dos pacientes em tratamento com esta técnica é elevada no Uruguai (16.5%) e no mundo todo. Buscando melhorar esses aspectos foram ensaiadas varias técnicas dialíticas que associam a convecção como estratégia para depurar moléculas de maior tamanho que habitualmente não são depuradas na hemodiálise convencional. A hemodiafiltração on line (HDF-OL) é uma técnica convectiva. Quando é utilizada como TSFR crônica está associada a uma redução da mortalidade de 30-35% comparada com a hemodiálise convencional. Esta técnica foi instrumentada em 2014 no Hospital de Clínicas, sendo este o centro pioneiro no Uruguai em utilizá-la como TSFR crônico. O processo de implementação impôs mudanças na infraestrutura (monitores de diálise, centro de tratamento da água), formação de Recursos Humanos e mudanças no funcionamento e controles microbiológicos programados. O controle de qualidade sistemático e os diferentes estudos realizados neste período de 5 anos mostraram que é uma técnica segura, capaz de remover solutos de tamanho médio e de reduzir os requerimentos de eritropoietina. A atual falta de financiamento pelo sistema de saúde pode ser uma barreira para sua difusão no país. Neste trabalho faz-se uma revisão das características fundamentais da hemodiafiltração, seu beneficio comparado com a hemodiálise convencional, o processo de implementação da técnica e alguns resultados iniciais do Hospital de Clínicas.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) is highly dependent on patient characteristics, context and geography. Considering the limited information in Latin America and the Caribbean, we performed a study with the aim to contribute to improve its better understanding. METHODS: Observational, prospective, longitudinal, multinational cohort study addressed to determine risk factors, clinical profile, process of care and outcomes of AKI in the region. Patients meeting KDIGO AKI definition were included over a 9-month period and designated community or hospital-acquired. De-identified clinical and lab data were entered in a specifically designed on-line platform. Co-variables potentially linked to AKI onset, in-hospital and 90-days mortality, were recorded and correlated using a multiple logistic regression model. RESULTS: Fifty-seven physicians from 15 countries provided data on 905 patients, most with acceptable basic needs coverage. Median age 64 (50-74) yrs; most of them were male (61%) and mestizos (42%). Comorbidities were present in 77%. AKI was community-acquired in 62%. Dehydration, shock and nephrotoxic drugs were the commonest causes. During their process of care, 77% of patients were assessed by nephrologists. Kidney replacement therapy (KRT) was performed in 29% of cases. In-hospital mortality was 26.5% and independently associated to older age, chronic liver disease, hypotension, shock, cardiac disturbances, hospital-acquired sepsis, KRT and mechanical ventilation. At 90-days follow up partial or complete renal recovery was 81% and mortality 24%. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was mainly community-acquired, in patients with comorbidities and linked to fluid loss and nephrotoxic drugs. Mortality was high and long-term follow up poor. Notwithstanding, the study shows partially the situation in the participant countries rather than the actual epidemiology of AKI in Latin America and Caribbean, a pending and needed task.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Kidney Int Rep ; 3(6): 1416-1423, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450468

RESUMO

Introduction: Raising awareness of acute kidney injury (AKI) is an essential strategy for minimizing the burden of this lethal syndrome. The AKI Commission of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension conducted an educational program based on networked learning. Methods: Two online courses with similar methodologies were developed, 1 course for nephrologists and the other for primary care physicians (PCP). The courses were developed as a distance education, asynchronous online modality with multiple educational strategies: written lessons, videos, e-rounds, and clinical simulation. Knowledge gain was explored through a 10-question test before and after course completion. Results: The course for nephrologists had 779 participants from 21 countries; 52% were male, and 46% were <35 years of age. Mean qualification increased from 5.87 to 8.01 (36% gain of knowledge). The course for PCPs had 2011 participants, 81% of whom were physicians. The time from graduation was <5 years in 52%. In both courses, clinical simulation was considered the best part and lack of time the main limitation for learning. Because 48% of the nephrologist course attendees were interested in AKI activities, a Latin American AKI Network site (RedIRA) composed of a brief review, a clinical forum, a self-assessment, and a bibliography on AKI was launched on a monthly basis in November 2016. To date there are 335 users from 18 countries. Conclusions: Distance education techniques were effective for learning about AKI and are a potential tool for the development of a sustainable structure for communication, exchange, and integration of physicians involved in the care of patients with AKI.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190944, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324793

RESUMO

Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR) from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ) network and paleontological records. We found 17 polymorphic sites resulting in 15 haplotypes. Two new geographic records that expand known distribution of the species are presented; one of them links the distributions of recently synonimized species C. nationi and C. vellerosus. Screaming hairy armadillo phylogeographic pattern can be addressed as category V of Avise: common widespread linages plus closely related lineages confined to one or a few nearby locales each. The older linages are distributed in the north-central area of the species distribution range in Argentina (i.e. ancestral area of distribution). C. vellerosus seems to be a low vagility species that expanded, and probably is expanding, its distribution range while presents signs of genetic structuring in central areas. To explain the disjunct distribution, a hypothesis of extinction of the species in intermediate areas due to quaternary climatic shift to more humid conditions was proposed. We offer an alternative explanation: long distance colonization, based on null genetic variability, paleontological record and evidence of alternance of cold/arid and temperate/humid climatic periods during the last million years in southern South America.


Assuntos
Tatus/genética , Clima , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial , Extinção Biológica , Haplótipos , Umidade , Periodicidade , Filogeografia , América do Sul
6.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181158, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700753

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) in cardiac surgery is associated with complications, early and late mortality and increased health care expenditures. The overall dynamic comorbidity-adjusted contributions of an episode of AKI on mortality during long-term follow-up have not been fully explored. A longitudinal cohort of 7075 adult patients admitted for cardiac surgery were enrolled in the study. Follow-up data were obtained through telephonic survey after 1, 5, 10, and 15 years or from the National Mortality Registry. All-cause mortality was assessed at five time intervals: I) 30 days after surgery to 1 year; II) 1 to 3 years; III) 3 to 5 years; IV) 5 to 10 years; and V) 10 to 15 years. For the adjustment of mortality for comorbidity and pre-, intra- and postoperative variables, Cox proportional hazard regression models were conducted within each period. The overall incidence of AKI was 36.1%. AKI was an independent predictor of death only during the first five years after surgery (30 days to 1 year: HR 1.834, 95% CI 1.459 to 2.306; 1 to 3 years: HR 1.285, 95% CI 1.023 to 1.610; and 3 to five years: HR 1.330, 95% CI 1.123 to 1.750). Only age, diabetes mellitus and CHF were associated with increased risk of death over the entire follow-up period. Our study demonstrates a transient association of AKI with long-term mortality that progressively decreases and vanishes five years after surgery. The knowledge of this dynamic is crucial to understanding this complex association, planning health care and allocating resources.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Shock ; 48(4): 411-417, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). We aimed to assess the risk factors for AKI with particular emphasis on those potentially preventable. STUDY DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analysis of a large, multinational database of MV patients with >24 h of MV and normal renal function at admission. AKI was defined according to creatinine-based KDIGO criteria. Risk factors were analyzed according to the time point at which AKI occurred: early (≤48 h after ICU admission, AKIE) and late (day 3 to day 7 of ICU stay, AKIL). A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify variables independently associated with AKI. RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred six patients were included. Seven hundred patients had AKI (22%), the majority of them AKIE (547/704). The risk factor profile was highly dependent upon the timing of AKI onset. In AKIE risk factors were older age; SAPS II score; postoperative and cardiac arrest as the reasons for MV; worse cardiovascular SOFA, pH, serum creatinine, and platelet count; higher level of peak pressure and Vt/kg; and fluid overload at admission. In contrast, AKIL was linked mostly to events that occurred after admission (lower platelet count and pH; ICU-acquired sepsis; and fluid overload). None ventilation-associated parameters were identify as risk factors for AKIL. CONCLUSIONS: In the first 48 h, risk factors are associated with the primary disease and the patient's condition at admission. Subsequently, emergent events like sepsis and organ dysfunction appear to be predictive factors making prevention a challenge.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Bases de Dados Factuais , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca Induzida/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 40(5), nov. 2016
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-31369

RESUMO

Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts


En los 20 últimos años, en muchos informes se ha descrito un número inusual de casos de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) en la costa del Pacífico de Centroamérica, que afecta principalmente a trabajadores agrícolas varones y señala un grave problema de salud pública. La mayoría de estos casos no se asocia con los factores de riesgo tradicionales de ERC, como envejecimiento, diabetes mellitus e hipertensión. Esta ERC de causas no tradicionales (ERCnT) podría estar vinculada con la exposición laboral o ambiental o las condiciones de trabajo, el escaso acceso a los servicios de salud y la pobreza. En respuesta a una resolución aprobada por el Consejo Directivo de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) en el 2013, la OPS, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades de los Estados Unidos y la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertensión (SLANH) organizaron un proceso de consulta para ampliar los conocimientos sobre la epidemia de ERCnT y elaborar instrumentos apropiados para la vigilancia. El Grupo Clínico de Trabajo de la SLANH tuvo la responsabilidad de consensuar una definición de caso clínico confirmado de ERCnT. En la definición resultante se establecen criterios obligatorios y criterios de exclusión necesarios para clasificar un caso como de ERCnT. La definición incluye una combinación de definiciones de ERC universalmente aceptadas y las principales manifestaciones clínicas de ERCnT. Sobre la base de los mejores datos científicos disponibles, el Grupo Clínico de Trabajo también formuló recomendaciones generales acerca del manejo clínico, que se aplican a cualquier paciente con ERCnT. Se espera que la adopción de la definición de caso confirmado de ERCnT y su aplicación adecuada sean una herramienta poderosa para conocer la prevalencia de la epidemia, evaluar los resultados de las intervenciones y promover acciones apropiadas de sensibilización y planificación.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas , Epidemiologia , Conferência de Consenso , América Central , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas , Epidemiologia , Conferência de Consenso , América Central
9.
J Bras Nefrol ; 38(3): 302-312, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737388

RESUMO

Introduction: The mineral bone disorder, particularly secondary hyperparathyroidism, in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a systemic impact affecting not only bone metabolism. Therefore its correction is important to prevent cardiovascular, inflammatory and immune diseases. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous paricalcitol administered over a 6 month period for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis, with close follow-up of treatment response. Methods: A phase 4 clinical trial was performed comparing clinical and laboratory data before and after 6 months of treatment. SHPT patients undergoing hemodialysis who were naïve to vitamin D metabolites or had failed to current therapy were included. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were analyzed. Efficacy analyses were based on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and were performed using data from patients who completed 6 months of treatment. Results: Nineteen of the 26 patients enrolled completed 6 months of treatment. All patients exhibited reduced baseline iPTH levels (mean reduction, 371.8 pg/mL; 95% CI, 273.3-470.2 pg/mL]; 17 patients (89.5%) had reductions exceeding 30%. Twelve patients (63%) achieved therapeutic success (defined as iPTH serum levels 150-300 pg/mL), with a median time of 2 months from the beginning of treatment. All reported episodes of hypercalcemia (n = 2) and hyperphosphatemia (n = 34) were asymptomatic. No major therapy-related serious AEs were reported. Conclusion: Paricalcitol was safely administered and was associated with significant decreases in iPTH levels over the study period.


Assuntos
Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/tratamento farmacológico , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Ergocalciferóis/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 38(3): 302-312, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-796188

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The mineral bone disorder, particularly secondary hyperparathyroidism, in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a systemic impact affecting not only bone metabolism. Therefore its correction is important to prevent cardiovascular, inflammatory and immune diseases. Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous paricalcitol administered over a 6 month period for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis, with close follow-up of treatment response. Methods: A phase 4 clinical trial was performed comparing clinical and laboratory data before and after 6 months of treatment. SHPT patients undergoing hemodialysis who were naïve to vitamin D metabolites or had failed to current therapy were included. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were analyzed. Efficacy analyses were based on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and were performed using data from patients who completed 6 months of treatment. Results: Nineteen of the 26 patients enrolled completed 6 months of treatment. All patients exhibited reduced baseline iPTH levels (mean reduction, 371.8 pg/mL; 95% CI, 273.3-470.2 pg/mL]; 17 patients (89.5%) had reductions exceeding 30%. Twelve patients (63%) achieved therapeutic success (defined as iPTH serum levels 150-300 pg/mL), with a median time of 2 months from the beginning of treatment. All reported episodes of hypercalcemia (n = 2) and hyperphosphatemia (n = 34) were asymptomatic. No major therapy-related serious AEs were reported. Conclusion: Paricalcitol was safely administered and was associated with significant decreases in iPTH levels over the study period.


Resumo Introdução: A doença metabólica óssea, em particular o hiperparatireoidismo secundário, na doença renal crônica (DRC) tem um impacto sistêmico que afeta nem só o metabolismo ósseo. Por tanto, sua correção é importante para prevenir as doenças do sistema imunitário, inflamatório e cardiovascular. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do paricalcitol intravenoso administrado durante um período de 6 meses no tratamento do hiperparatireoidismo secundário (SHPT) em pacientes submetidos a hemodiálise convencional, com acompanhamento de perto da resposta do tratamento. Métodos: Realizou-se um ensaio clínico de fase 4 que comparava os dados clínicos com os dados do laboratório antes e depois dos 6 meses de tratamento. Incluíram-se os pacientes SHPT em hemodiálise sem experiência com os metabólitos da vitamina D ou que fracassaram com a terapia em uso. Analisaram-se as características clínicas e de laboratório. As análises de eficácia se basearam nos níveis do hormônio da paratireóide intacto (iPTH) e foram realizadas usando dados dos pacientes que completaram os 6 meses de tratamento. Resultados: Dezenove dos 26 pacientes registrados completaram os 6 meses de tratamento. Todos os pacientes mostraram níveis de referência iPTH reduzidos (redução média, 371,8 pg/mL; 95% CI, 273,3-470.2 pg/mL]; 17 pacientes (89,5%) tiveram reduções superiores a 30%. Doze pacientes (63%) conseguiram o sucesso terapêutico (definido como níveis de soros iPTH de 150-300 pg/mL), com um tempo médio de 2 meses a partir do início do tratamento. Todos os episódios de hipercalcemia (n = 2) e de hiperfosfatemia (n = 34) reportados foram assintomáticos. Não se informaram AEs graves importantes relacionados à terapia. Conclusão: O paricalcitol foi administrado de forma segura e se associou às reduções significativas nos níveis de iPTH durante o período do estudo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Diálise Renal , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo , Ergocalciferóis/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Injeções Intravenosas
11.
Clin Nephrol ; 86 (2016)(13): 29-33, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27509582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) represents a major challenge for Latin America (LA). Epidemiological information needed to assist in the development of ESRD care in the region. The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR), has published several reports and its continuity has implied a sustained effort of the entire LA Nephrology community. This paper summarizes the results corresponding to year 2012. METHODS: Our methods have been reported previously. Participant countries complete an annual survey collecting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities. RESULTS: 20 countries participated in the surveys, more than 90% of the Latin America. The prevalence of ESRD under RRT in LA increased from 119 patients Per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 661 pmp in 2012. HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (82%). A wide rate variation in incidence is observed: from 472.7 in Jalisco (Mexico) to 14 pmp in Guatemala. Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent cause of death was cardiovascular. There is a wide rate variation of nephrologist by country, from 1.8 pmp in Honduras to 45.2 pmp in Cuba. DISCUSSION: The heterogeneity or even absence of registries in some LA countries is congruent with the inequities in access to RRT in such countries, as well as the availability of qualified personnel. The SLANH is currently running training programs as well as cooperation programs between LA countries to help the least developed start ESRD programs. In this spirit, RLADTR is training personnel to carry out dialysis and transplant registries in LA.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Transplante de Rim , América Latina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Diálise Renal
13.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 40(5): 301-308, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28076578

RESUMO

Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , América Central , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 38(3),sept. 2015
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-10083

RESUMO

El Plan Estratégico de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, 2014-2019, En pro de la salud: Desarrollo sostenible y equidad, reconoce que “La enfermedad renal crónica causada principalmente por las complicaciones de la diabetes y la hipertensión ha aumentado en la Región”. En él se define por primera vez una meta concreta sobre la enfermedad renal crónica: alcanzar una prevalencia del tratamiento de sustitución de la función renal de por lo menos 700 pacientes por millón de habitantes en 2019. Los Registros de Diálisis y Trasplante (RDT) nacionales constituyen una herramienta útil para la investigación epidemiológica, la planificación de la atención de salud y la mejora de su calidad. Su éxito depende de la calidad de sus datos y los procedimientos de control de calidad. En este artículo se describen la situación actual de los RDT nacionales de la Región, sus contenidos informativos e indicadores de calidad, y ofrecen recomendaciones para crearlos y mantenerlos. Se destaca su heterogeneidad o ausencia en algunos países en consonancia con las inequidades de acceso a los tratamientos de reemplazo renal que afrontan los pacientes. La carencia total de información en países del Caribe impide incluirlos en esta comunicación, lo que requiere inmediata atención.


Assuntos
Sistema de Registros , Diálise Renal , Diálise Peritoneal , Transplante de Rim , América Latina
15.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(3): 254-260, Sep. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-766437

RESUMO

El Plan Estratégico de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, 2014-2019, En pro de la salud: Desarrollo sostenible y equidad, reconoce que "La enfermedad renal crónica causada principalmente por las complicaciones de la diabetes y la hipertensión ha aumentado en la Región". En él se define por primera vez una meta concreta sobre la enfermedad renal crónica: alcanzar una prevalencia del tratamiento de sustitución de la función renal de por lo menos 700 pacientes por millón de habitantes en 2019. Los Registros de Diálisis y Trasplante (RDT) nacionales constituyen una herramienta útil para la investigación epidemiológica, la planificación de la atención de salud y la mejora de su calidad. Su éxito depende de la calidad de sus datos y los procedimientos de control de calidad. En este artículo se describen la situación actual de los RDT nacionales de la Región, sus contenidos informativos e indicadores de calidad, y ofrecen recomendaciones para crearlos y mantenerlos. Se destaca su heterogeneidad o ausencia en algunos países en consonancia con las inequidades de acceso a los tratamientos de reemplazo renal que afrontan los pacientes. La carencia total de información en países del Caribe impide incluirlos en esta comunicación, lo que requiere inmediata atención.


The Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, 2014-2019, Championing Health: Sustainable Development and Equityrecognizes that "Chronic kidney disease, caused mainly by complications of diabetes and hypertension, has increased in the Region." This Plan includes the first concrete goal on chronic kidney disease: to achieve a prevalence rate for renal replacement therapy of at least 700 patients per million population by 2019. National dialysis and transplant registries (DTR) are a useful tool for epidemiological research, health care planning, and quality improvement. Their success depends on the quality of their data and quality control procedures. This article describes the current situation of national DTRs in the Region and the content of their information and health indicators, and it offers recommendations for creating and maintaining them. It points to their heterogeneity or absence in some countries, in line with the inequities that patients face in access to renal replacement therapy. The complete lack of information in Caribbean countries prevents their inclusion in this communication, which requires immediate attention.


Assuntos
Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , América Latina
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 190: 389-92, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) has ignited much debate and no definite conclusions have been drawn on the outcome of these patients. Therefore, additional large studies with long-term follow-up are required to help the cardiologist and surgeon outline the best therapeutic strategy for patients with high risk for PPM. METHODS: Patients who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) from 2000 to 2013 were identified. Baseline and operative data was extracted and indexed effective orifice area calculated for each patient. The presence of PPM was defined in those patients with an iEOA ≤ 0.85 cm(2)/m(2). Regression analyses were performed to determine the association of PPM with operative mortality, post-operative complications and survival. Predictors for PPM were evaluated based on clinical and operative data. RESULTS: From 2023 patients who underwent AVR, PPM was present in 64.6%. These patients had increased age, more coronary artery bypass procedures, increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, higher creatinine values and higher Euroscore. Age, body surface area, prosthesis type and size were found to be predictors of mismatch. Operative mortality (8.1% vs 5.7%, p = 0.05), stroke (3.9% vs 2.4, p = 0.02) and acute kidney injury (47.6% vs 35.1%, p =< 0 .001) were more frequent in patients with PPM and mean 10-year survival was reduced (6.6 years, 95% CI: 6.3-6.8 vs 7.3, 95% CI: 6.9-7.2, p < 0.001). After adjusting for confounders, PPM was not found to be associated to either adverse outcome or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PPM have worse operative mortality, post-operative complications and survival mainly due to the fact that they represent a higher risk population based on age and co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ajuste de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Falha de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Nephrol ; 83(7 Suppl 1): 3-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25725232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a major challenge for Latin America (LA), due to its epidemic proportions and high burden to the population affected and to public health systems. METHODS: Our methods have been reported previously: This paper shows the data for the last 10 years until 2010, from the Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Registry (RLADTR). RESULTS: 20 countries participated in the surveys, covering 99% of Latin America (LA). The prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under renal replacement therapy (RRT) in LA increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (hemodialysis (HD) 413 pmp, peritoneal dialysis (PD) 135 pmp, and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD and transplant and continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney transplant rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of transplants in 2010 was 10,397, with 58% being deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with gross national income (GNI) (r = 0.86; p < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r = 0.58; p < 0.05). The global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r = 0.56; p < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. CONCLUSION: The prevalence and incidence of RRT continues to increase. In countries with 100% public health or insurance coverage for RRT the rates are comparable to those displayed by developed countries with better GNI. PD is still an underutilized strategy for RRT in the region. Diagnostic and prevention programs for hypertension and diabetes, appropriate policies promoting the expansion of PD and organ procurement as well as transplantation as cost effective forms of RRT are needed in the region.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Previsões , Falência Renal Crônica/economia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 38(3): 254-60, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758005

RESUMO

The Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, 2014-2019, Championing Health: Sustainable Development and Equityrecognizes that "Chronic kidney disease, caused mainly by complications of diabetes and hypertension, has increased in the Region." This Plan includes the first concrete goal on chronic kidney disease: to achieve a prevalence rate for renal replacement therapy of at least 700 patients per million population by 2019. National dialysis and transplant registries (DTR) are a useful tool for epidemiological research, health care planning, and quality improvement. Their success depends on the quality of their data and quality control procedures. This article describes the current situation of national DTRs in the Region and the content of their information and health indicators, and it offers recommendations for creating and maintaining them. It points to their heterogeneity or absence in some countries, in line with the inequities that patients face in access to renal replacement therapy. The complete lack of information in Caribbean countries prevents their inclusion in this communication, which requires immediate attention.


Assuntos
Sistema de Registros , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim , América Latina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Diálise Renal
20.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 29(2): 181-186, ago. 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-754302

RESUMO

Antecedentes: la estenosis aórtica (EA) es la enfermedad valvular cardíaca más común en adultos mayores. Contamos con escasa evidencia sobre el impacto que tiene la clase funcional preoperatoria en el pronóstico a corto y largo plazo de los pacientes a quienes se les realiza una sustitución valvular por EA. Objetivo: analizar la asociación entre la clase funcional (CF) preoperatoria y el pronóstico vital a corto y largo plazo de los pacientes a quienes se les realizó sustitución valvular aórtica (SVA) por estenosis, ajustado a comorbilidad. Material y método: estudio analítico de cohorte. De los 8.340 pacientes operados de cirugía cardíaca en la institución desde el 1º de enero de 2000 al 31 de diciembre de 2010 incorporados en forma prospectiva a la base de datos del servicio, se incluyeron únicamente a aquellos pacientes a quienes se les realizó una SVA por estenosis como único procedimiento y que tuvieran al menos un año de seguimiento activo hasta el 31de diciembre de 2011. En estos pacientes se registró comorbilidad, la clase funcional preoperatoria clasificada según la NYHA, la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) y se calculó el índice EuroSCORE (EC) y EuroSCORE Logístico (ECL) como indicadores globales de la carga de comorbilidad. Resultados: 570 pacientes cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. La edad promedio fue: 69,3 ± 9,8 años, 50,9% eran mujeres. La FEVI promedio fue: 56,4 ± 10,9%. NYHA: CF I 51,3%; CF II 40,1%; CF III 8,1%; CF IV 0,5%. Según la CF, la FEVI fue: CF I: 59,4 ± 8,9%; CF II: 55,5 ± 12,3; CF III: 51,1 ± 12,4; CF IV: 50,6 ± 9,2 (p<0,05). La mortalidad operatoria (30 días) fue de 3,9%. La supervivencia global a diez años fue de 64%. Los pacientes en CF NYHA ³ II tuvieron una supervivencia a diez años menor que aquellos en CF I: 0,53 vs 0,79 (p<0,05), con un cambio de la pendiente hacia mayor mortalidad luego del quinto año del posoperatorio (p<0,05). En el análisis multivariado, la CF de la NYHA igual o mayor a II (OR: 1,59) y el puntaje de EC (OR: 1,18) se asociaron de manera independiente a mortalidad alejada luego de la cirugía valvular (p<0,05). Conclusiones: los pacientes que llegan a la cirugía en clase funcional mayor o igual a II de la NYHA presentan una supervivencia significativamente menor en el seguimiento posoperatorio a largo plazo, luego de ajustar a variables de confusión como la comorbilidad y la edad. Estos resultados sugieren que este grupo de pacientes podría beneficiarse de la cirugía antes de presentar síntomas de insuficiencia cardíaca.


Background: aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. There is not much evidence concerning the impact of preoperative NYHA functional class on short-term and long-term prognosis in patients undergoing valve replacement for aortic stenosis. Objective: to analyze the association between preoperative NYHA functional class (NYHA) and the short and long-term prognosis in patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for stenosis, adjusted for co-morbidity. Methods: analytical study cohort. Out of 8340 patients undergoing cardiac surgery at our institution from 1/01/2000 to 31/12/2010 that were prospectively incorporated into the Department´s database, only those who had an aortic valve replacement performed as a single procedure and also had at least 1 year of active follow-up until 31/12/2011 were included. Comorbidities, preoperative functional class according to the NYHA classification, LVEF and calculated EuroSCORE index (EC) and logistic EuroSCORE (ECL) as global indicators of the burden of co -morbidity were recorded in all patients. Results: 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 69.3 ± 9.8 years, 50.9 % were women. The mean LVEF was 56.4 ± 10.9%. NYHA I: 51.3%, NYHA II: 40.1%, NYHA III: 8.1%, NYHA IV: 0.5%. According to the NYHA, LVEF was: NYHA I: 59.4 ±8.9 %, NYHA II: 55. ± 12.3, NYHA III: 51.1 ±12.4, NYHA IV: 50.6 ± 9.2 (p<0.05). Operative mortality (30 days) was 3.9 %. Overall survival at 10 years was 64 %. Patients in NYHA ³ II had a lower 10-year survival than those in NYHA I: 0.53 vs. 0.79 (p<0.05), with a change in slope towards higher mortality after the fifth year after surgery (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, NYHA II or above (OR: 1.59) and EC score (OR: 1.18) were independently associated with late mortality after valve surgery (p<0.05). Conclusions: patients who underwent aortic valve replacement in NYHA class II or above have a significantly lower long-term survival, after adjusting for confounding variables such as co -morbidity and age. These results suggest that this group of patients may benefit from surgery before symptoms of heart failure start.

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