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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our study examines the association between the favorability of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and/or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and the presence of conflicts of interest (COIs) among authors. METHODS: We used the "Citing Articles" tool on the New England Journal of Medicine website to identify editorials on the use of PCI/CABG for stable ischemic heart disease. Authors were rated as "supportive," "neutral," or "critical" of these interventions based on the content of their editorials. COIs for each author were identified using past publications found on Scopus, PubMed, or a general internet search. RESULTS: A total of 606 articles were identified, and data were extracted from 56 of them. Among the 149 authors, 64 (43.0%) had a COI. Of these 64 authors, 19 (29.7%) disclosed their COI, while 45 (70.3%) did not. Overall, among authors with a COI, there was no association between disclosed and undisclosed COIs and the authors' view of PCI/CABG [χ2 (2, N = 64) = 1.63, p = .44]. If an author was associated with Medtronic, Abbott, or Boston Scientific, they were more likely to favor PCI/CABG if they had an undisclosed COI relative to authors who disclosed COIs [χ2 (1, N = 31) = 5.04, p = .025]. Authors publishing in a cardiology journal were more likely to view PCI/CABG favorably relative to those publishing in a general medicine journal [χ2 (2, N = 62) = 7.17, p = .028]. CONCLUSION: Editors should adopt policies to counteract the unbalancing effects that COIs have on medical opinions and evidence.

2.
Eur J Emerg Med ; : 118-125, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess for spin - a form of reporting that overemphasizes benefits or downplay harms - within abstracts of systematic reviews and meta-analyses related to the clinical practice of emergency medicine (EM). METHODS: PubMed was searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses published since 2015 in either EM or general medical journals that examined an aspect of emergency medical care. In a duplicate, masked fashion, article titles and abstracts were screened to determine eligibility based on predetermined inclusion criteria. The included full-text studies were read and evaluated for spin using a previously determined search strategy. Two authors further evaluated study quality using the AMSTAR-2 tool. RESULTS: Our PubMed search identified 478 systematic reviews and meta-analyses, of which a random sample of 200 was selected for data extraction. Spin within the abstract of the manuscript was identified in 34.5% (69/200) of the included reviews. We identified seven of the nine spin types, with two types being most common: (1) conclusion claiming a benefit despite high risk of bias among studies reviewed (19.5% of abstracts), and (2) conclusion claiming a benefit despite reporting bias (14.5%). No significant associations were found between the presence of spin and any of the evaluated study characteristics, the AMSTAR-2 appraisal, or the journal of publication. CONCLUSION: Spin is commonly present in abstracts of EM systematic reviews. The reporting quality for EM systematic reviews requires improvement. Measures should be taken to improve the overall review process and way information is conveyed through abstracts.

3.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 130(11): 1276-1284, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Scholastic activity through research involvement is a fundamental aspect of a physician's training and may have a significant influence on future academic success. Here, we explore publication rates before, during, and after otolaryngology residency training and whether publication efforts correlate with future academic achievement. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included a random sample of 50 otolaryngology residency programs. From these programs, we assembled a list of residents graduating from the years in 2013, 2014, and 2015. Using SCOPUS, PubMed, and Google Scholar, we compiled the publications for each graduate, and data were extracted in an independent, double-blinded fashion. RESULTS: We included 32 otolaryngology residency programs representing 249 residents in this analysis. Graduates published a mean of 1.3 (SD = 2.7) articles before residency, 3.5 (SD = 4.3) during residency, and 5.3 (SD = 9.3) after residency. Residents who pursued a fellowship had more total publications (t247 = -6.1, P < .001) and more first author publications (t247 = -5.4, P < .001) than residents without fellowship training. Graduates who chose a career in academic medicine had a higher number of mean total publications (t247 = -8.2, P < .001) and first author publications (t247 = -7.9, P < .001) than those who were not in academic medicine. There was a high positive correlation between residency program size and publications during residency (r = 0.76). CONCLUSION: Research productivity correlated with a number of characteristics such as future fellowship training, the pursuit of an academic career, and overall h-index in this study.


Assuntos
Educação , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Otolaringologia/educação , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Comunicação Acadêmica/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Educação/métodos , Educação/normas , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 49: 102736, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Superlatives are exaggerative terms that may not accurately portray a treatment's effectiveness, safety, or availability. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of superlatives in news articles describing multiple sclerosis treatments. METHODS: We searched Google News for 11 prespecified superlative terms describing multiple sclerosis therapies in online news articles. RESULTS: We found that news articles commonly describe non-FDA approved multiple sclerosis therapies with superlative terms without providing clinical evidence or attribution. Additionally, no articles were published on a HONcode certified webpage. CONCLUSION: It is important that healthcare professionals are aware of medical misinformation presented to the public.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Exp Physiol ; 103(12): 1645-1655, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267546

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does a common genetic variant in the ß2 -adrenergic receptor (ß2 -AR) have effects on skeletal muscle function in young, healthy men? What is the main finding and its importance? This study provides preliminary evidence that ß2 -AR Arg16Gly genotype has a significant effect on fat-free mass, muscle strength and motor unit behaviour in recreationally trained men. These data might have important clinical and exercise-related implications. For example, ß2 -AR (rs1042713) genotype might influence the responsiveness of skeletal muscle to clinical or exercise-based interventions or ß-AR agonist treatment. ABSTRACT: This study explored whether the ß2 -adrenergic receptor (ß2 -AR) single nucleotide polymorphism at amino acid 16 (Arg16Gly) has functional effects on skeletal muscle mass, torque production and motor unit behaviour in young, healthy men. Twenty-eight recreationally active men (mean ± SD 23.1 ± 1.3 years of age) were genotyped for Arg16Gly polymorphisms of ß2 -AR as arginine homozygous (ArgArg; n = 5), glycine homozygous (GlyGly; n = 11) or arginine-glycine heterozygous (ArgGly; n = 12). The participants then completed body composition testing, assessments of leg extensor size and echo intensity, and evoked and voluntary isometric leg-extension muscle actions. During the evoked muscle actions, peak twitch torque, peak rate of torque development and peak relaxation rate were assessed. During the voluntary muscle actions, maximal voluntary isometric (MVIC) strength was assessed, and surface EMG signals were obtained during submaximal isometric muscle actions and later decomposed to examine motor unit firing behaviour. Fat-free mass and MVIC strength were greater (P = 0.004, d = 1.74 and P = 0.026, d = 1.10, respectively) in those expressing the GlyGly versus ArgArg allele. The slope of the mean firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationship was more negative in the GlyGly than the ArgArg allele carriers (P = 0.012, d = 1.68) at 50% MVIC, but was less negative in GlyGly and ArgGly versus ArgArg allele carriers (P = 0.013 and 0.016, respectively; d = 1.34 and 1.20, respectively) at 70% MVIC. These data provide preliminary evidence that ß2 -AR Arg16Gly genotype has a significant effect on fat-free mass, muscle strength and motor unit behaviour in humans.


Assuntos
Arginina/genética , Glicina/genética , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Força Muscular/genética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Torque , Adulto Jovem
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