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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360514

RESUMO

The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate violent thinking through two subscales examining macho attitudes and the acceptance of violence. This study analyzed the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Spanish version of the MVQ questionnaire in a large sample of 1933 Spanish adolescents. An online questionnaire was used to collect variables, such as sociodemographic and sexism data. The factor structure showed good fit indices in Spanish adolescents, which were similar to the original scale. The exploratory analysis yielded a first factor that explained 11.3% of the total variance and a second factor that explained 10.8% of the total variance. The Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) (0.902), Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) (0.90), Normed Fit Index (NNFI) (0.85), and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (0.86) suggested that the model fit the data adequately (with values ≥ 0.90) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) (≤0.10) values indicative of an adequate fit. This study contributes a Spanish-language validated tool to measure machismo and the acceptance of violence among adolescents.


Assuntos
Idioma , Estudantes , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208967

RESUMO

Evidence accumulated to date suggests that excess weight in the adult population is associated with a wide range of impairments in executive function. However, most studies have only examined the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the cognitive function of individuals with overweight and obesity. This study examined the potential associations of markers of adiposity (BMI, body fat, and visceral fat) with five domains of executive function including cognitive flexibility, inhibition, monitoring, planning, and working memory in a sample of 87 adult with overweight (n = 34) and obesity (n = 53). The results show that obese people had poorer working memory than those with overweight. After controlling for educational levels and physical activity, the results suggest that neither the waist-hip index not visceral fat were associated with cognitive function. In overweight, body fat was negatively associated with executive components of inhibition (p = 0.05) and monitoring (p = 0.02). In the obesity subgroup, body fat was negatively associated with inhibition (0.02) and working memory (0.04). The results provide evidence of the importance of adiposity for cognitive function. The implications for understanding the influence of markers of adiposity in adults with overweight and obesity are discussed.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201258

RESUMO

Anthropometrics are a set of direct quantitative measurements of the human body's external dimensions, which can be used as indirect measures of body composition. Due to a number of limitations of conventional manual techniques for the collection of body measurements, advanced systems using three-dimensional (3D) scanners are currently being employed, despite being a relatively new technique. A systematic review was carried out using Pubmed, Medline and the Cochrane Library to assess whether 3D scanners offer reproducible, reliable and accurate data with respect to anthropometrics. Although significant differences were found, 3D measurements correlated strongly with measurements made by conventional anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP), among others. In most studies (61.1%), 3D scanners were more accurate than these other techniques; in fact, these scanners presented excellent accuracy or reliability. 3D scanners allow automated, quick and easy measurements of different body tissues. Moreover, they seem to provide reproducible, reliable and accurate data that correlate well with the other techniques used.


Assuntos
Pletismografia , Somatotipos , Absorciometria de Fóton , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(5): 922-929, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the potential association between social support, experiences of violence, and sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents and the likelihood of acceptance of violence and machismo in different European countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants ages 13-16 from secondary schools in Alicante (Spain), Rome (Italy), Iasi (Romania), Matosinhos (Portugal), Poznan (Poland), and Cardiff (UK). We used linear regression models to identify how social support from teachers and parents, experiences of violence-dating violence, bullying, cyberbullying, abuse in childhood-and sociodemographic characteristics were associated with violent thinking, specifically: machismo and acceptance of violence. The analysis was stratified by sex. RESULTS: Acceptance of violence was higher for those who had lower perceived social support from parents (ßgirls = -154, p < .001; ßboys = -.114, p = .019) for both sexes. Perpetration of bullying and/or cyberbullying was associated with higher scores for machismo and acceptance of violence for both sexes (ßgirls = .067, p = .035; ßboys = .225, p < .001; (ßgirls = .118, p < .001; ßboys = .210, p < .001). Being the victim of dating violence, having suffered physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood, and lower perceived social support from teachers were associated with higher scores for both machismo and acceptance of violence. These associations differed between girls and boys. CONCLUSIONS: Machismo and acceptance of violence are widely present amongst adolescents in different European countries. Our results suggest the importance of providing educational/psycho-educational interventions with boys and girls to prevent these attitudes and, in turn, prevent interpersonal violence, including bullying and dating violence.

5.
Assessment ; 28(1): 264-276, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903778

RESUMO

This study is part of a larger project to generate norms for letter verbal fluency test (VFT) in 3,284 children from nine Latin American countries. The letter VFT (letters M, R, and P) was administered and multiple linear regressions, including age, age2, MPE (mean parental education), MPE2, sex, and interactions were used as predictors. Results showed significant differences across countries for all scores. Age affected scores linearly except for Ecuador (P-letter), in which a quadratic effect was found. Scores increased linearly as a function of MPE, with the exception of Mexico (R-letter), in which a quadratic effect was found. Age by MPE (M- and P-letters), and age by MPE2 (R-letter) interactions were found in Mexico. Sex had an impact on letter R in Cuba, and letter P in Ecuador and Paraguay. Age2 by sex interaction was found in Ecuador (P-letter). These norms will be useful for clinical neuropsychologists in these countries to evaluate their patients' verbal fluency.

6.
Assessment ; 28(3): 955-963, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364385

RESUMO

Obtaining one or more low scores, or scores indicative of impairment, is common in neuropsychological batteries that include several measures even among cognitively normal individuals. However, the expected number of low scores in batteries with differing number of tests is unknown. Using 10 neuropsychological measures from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database, 1,023 permutations were calculated from a sample of 5,046 cognitively normal individuals. The number of low scores (i.e., z score ≤-1.5) varied for the same number of measures and among different number of measures and did not increase linearly as the number of measures increased. According to the number of low scores shown by fewer than 10% of the sample, cognitive impairment should be suspected for 1 or more, 2 or more, and 3 or more in batteries with up to 2 measures, 3 to 9 measures, and 10 measures, respectively. These results may increase the identification of mild cognitive impairment.

7.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 34(3): 712-723, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of intellectual disability in children can produce complex grief-related feelings in their parents. Previous studies have focused on the moment of the diagnosis or the early life of the children, and little research has been conducted on their feelings of grief in adulthood. The objective was to analyse the process of grief/loss in parents of adult offspring with intellectual disability. METHOD: The intentional sampling included sixteen parents who responded to semi-structured interviews. A qualitative study was conducted based on grounded theory. RESULTS: Five categories were identified: "Reception of the diagnosis", "Emotional bonds with the child", "Experience of loss and feelings in response to intellectual disability diagnosis", "Recurrent grief" and "Coping strategies". CONCLUSIONS: Recurring feelings of loss experienced by parents in relation to their child's diagnosis persist over time. Specialized emotional interventions are needed to help parents to reduce the intensity of their feelings of grief.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255982

RESUMO

Introduction: Obesity is one of the most important health problems worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in the last decades and is now recognized as a global epidemic. Given the dramatic consequences of obesity, new intervention approaches based on the potential of technologies have been developed. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, and MedLine databases to assess how different types of technologies may play an important role on weight loss in obese patients. Results: Forty-seven studies using different types of technologies including smartphones, app, websites, virtual reality and personal digital assistant were included in the review. About half of interventions (47%) found a significant effect of the technology-based interventions for weight lost in obese patients. The provision of feedback could also be effective as a complement to interventions carried out using technology to promote weight loss. Conclusions: The use of technologies can be effective to increase weight loss in patients with obesity improving treatment adherence through self-monitoring.


Assuntos
Computadores de Mão , Internet , Aplicativos Móveis , Sobrepeso/terapia , Realidade Virtual , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Smartphone
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238511

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have confirmed that parenting a child diagnosed with an intellectual disability (ID) can negatively affect the parents' quality of life in several dimensions. However, fewer have assessed its impact years after the initial diagnosis. The objective of this work was to carry out an in-depth analysis of the current quality of life and concerns of both mothers and fathers of adults diagnosed with ID, having as a reference the moment of the diagnosis. Methods: 16 parents of adult children with ID were evaluated using a semi-structured interview format. A thematic qualitative analysis was carried out by employing ATLAS.ti software. Results: The results suggested that both the emotional and physical well-being of parents, as well as their interpersonal relationships, had declined. In addition, the multiple life changes that had occurred over the time considered in this study, as well as day-to-day worries, had prevented improvements in their quality of life. Conclusions: Several dimensions of the parents' quality of life were affected years after a child is diagnosed with ID. These included poor physical and psychological health, economic difficulties, lack of social and family support, and lack of time for self-care.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Deficiência Intelectual , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Crianças Adultas , Idoso , Cuidadores/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/enfermagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poder Familiar
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187170

RESUMO

The increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission cases poses a serious public health concern. Although several previous studies have been conducted with the aim of identifying the risk factors for HIV transmission, the number of cases has been increasing, especially in youth. The present study is aimed at the identification of personal and lifestyle determinants of HIV transmission risk in a sample of 335 Spanish university students selected by convenience sampling from a public university located in Alicante (Spain). Sociodemographic factors, lifestyles, and variables of HIV risk of transmission were evaluated. Group differences on risk of HIV transmission were evaluated between participants depending on their sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, relationship status, employment status, economic status, and sexual orientation) and lifestyle (diet, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption, and stress). Linear regression models were conducted in order to identify those personal and lifestyle variables related to HIV transmission risk. The obtained results indicate that, generally, being older, in a relationship, and employed were factors related to a high risk of HIV transmission. Regarding lifestyle, poor diet, lower intensity of physical exercise, higher alcohol intake, and smoking were fundamentally associated with a higher risk of HIV transmission, through lower use of condoms and higher frequency of risky sexual behaviors. Hence, participants who develop an unhealthy lifestyle exhibit twice the probability of being at a high risk of HIV transmission, especially regarding these previously indicated behaviors. The present study points out the relevance of sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyles of university students in their proneness to developing risky behaviors for HIV infection. Future studies should be developed with larger, randomized, and more representative samples, in order to obtain significant information for the development of effective preventive strategies oriented toward the increase in the adherence to healthy lifestyles and HIV prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Adolescente , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programmes is to promote awareness of the present moment without judging, evaluating or reacting to the different thoughts or emotions that may arise. Development of these abilities appears especially important for healthcare professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and medium- and long-term effects of a MBSR programme for primary care (PC) health professionals on their health-related quality of life and quality of work life. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trial using an intervention and control group with follow-up of the experimental group. SETTING: Primary Care centres in the Alicante Public Health Service (Spain). PARTICIPANTS: Participants were PC health professionals (N = 58) divided between an intervention group receiving the 8-week MBSR programme and a control group receiving a theoretical training session alone. METHOD: Both groups were evaluated at baseline and at 8 weeks, and the intervention group was additionally evaluated at 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month postprogramme. RESULTS: In comparison to the control group, the intervention group obtained higher scores postintervention for mindfulness, health-related quality of life, mood and compassion satisfaction and a lower score for burnout. Improvements in mindfulness, mood and burnout syndrome persisted at 12 months after the programme. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, MBSR is an effective intervention to enhance the health-related quality of life and quality of work life of Primary Care Health professionals.

12.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751759

RESUMO

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed mental health conditions (UMHC) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) on antiretroviral treatment and with long-term suppressed HIV viremia, and its association with neurocognitive impairment (NCI). A cross-sectional observational study on HIV subjects, ≥18 years old, on stable antiretroviral treatment and with HIV viral load <50 copies/mL was carried out. Patients with known comorbidities, substances abuse, anxiety or depression were excluded. UMHC were evaluated by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III and NCI by Frascati criteria. The association between NCI and sociodemographic, clinical HIV variables and mental health conditions was analyzed. Further, the relationship between mental health conditions scores and NCI diagnosis was evaluated. Eighty patients were included, 37.5% had at least one undiagnosed mental health condition, and 26.3% had NCI. The most frequent mental health conditions were: anxiety (21.3%); bipolar disorder (11.3%); and substance dependence (8.8%). Only longer time since HIV diagnosis (p = 0.030) and at least one mental health condition diagnosis (p = 0.002) showed an association with NCI. Participants with NCI presented higher scores in anxiety, alcohol dependence and post-traumatic stress. Undiagnosed mental health conditions are frequent in PLWHIV. These disorders cannot be identified by HIV clinicians or basic screening questionnaires, and they are not usually self-reported by patients. UMHC could act as confounders in the evaluation of NCI.

13.
Res Nurs Health ; 43(6): 610-620, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856343

RESUMO

The Medical Outcome Study-HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) is one of the most used questionnaires for the evaluation of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in both medical settings and research studies. This study aimed to estimate the average reliability of the MOS-HIV scores and to evaluate the characteristics of the studies that could explain the variability between reliability estimates. Furthermore, the study aimed to estimate the induction rate of the reliability of the MOS-HIV. A systematic review of the previous literature, including studies that reported α and/or test-retest coefficients with the data at hand for the total score of the MOS-HIV and the subscales, was conducted. Fifty studies (52 samples; N = 14,132) were included in the reliability generalization meta-analysis. The average α coefficient for the total score of MOS-HIV was .91 and above .80 for all of the subscales, except for role functioning, which had an average coefficient of .76. Different study dimensions were related to the heterogeneity of reliability between studies. Reliability induction was found to be 76.1%. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the MOS-HIV is a reliable instrument for HRQoL evaluation in PLWHIV, for clinical and research purposes. In the clinical practice of health services, nurses could employ this gold standard for reliable evaluations of HRQoL in PLWHIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349359

RESUMO

Significant progress has been made in developing intervention programmes for adolescents at high risk of delinquency, school failure and emotional problems. The most effective programmes incorporate behavioural and skills training aimed at changing attitudes and promoting psychosocial and emotional skills in adolescents. This study examined the effectiveness of a school-based intervention programme based on the Reasoning and Rehabilitation V2 (R&R2). R&R2 is a cognitive behavioural programme developed using psychological theories about the aetiology of delinquency, as well as the cognitive, behavioural and socioemotional deficits in high-risk youth populations. A sample of 142 students (aged 13-17 years old) who were attending alternative education provision in Spain were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (68 experimental group, 74 control group). The results showed that the R&R2 improved participants' self-esteem, social skills, empathy and rational problem-solving with a medium-large effect size (η2 = 0.08 to 0.26). The effects of the programme were significant after controlling for age and the pre-test scores in baseline. These findings confirm the effectiveness of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation V2 programme in Spanish adolescent students and offer additional evidence regarding the implementation of the R&R2 programme in both alternative educational and mainstream school settings.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Estudantes
15.
Res Nurs Health ; 43(3): 284-293, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173878

RESUMO

The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has significantly increased in recent years. No specific instruments are available in Spanish for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with MCI. The aim of this study was to adapt transculturally and validate the mild cognitive impairment questionnaire (MCQ) in Spanish people with MCI. A standardized transcultural adaptation process was carried out, and the structural equivalence of the Spanish version of the scale was examined. In addition, we studied the reliability and construct validity of the instrument. The sample comprised 100 people with MCI, with a mean age of 79.5 years. In a confirmatory factor analysis, we found the instrument had a one-factor structure and adequate internal consistency. Related to the construct validity, we found meaningful relationships with measures of HRQoL and depression. Our results indicate that the Spanish version of the MCQ is a reliable and valid tool for measuring HRQoL in Spanish patients with MCI. The availability of specific tools, such as the MCQ allows nurses to evaluate new intervention strategies to improve the HRQoL of these patients. Furthermore, this scale can be used by researchers and clinicians to improve the standards of care provided to this population.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Psicometria/instrumentação , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha/epidemiologia , Traduções
16.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053923

RESUMO

Background: Older people have different nutritional requirements from those of the general population; in particular, they need a lower energy intake, higher protein content to preserve muscle mass, and a greater supply of vitamins and minerals to maintain good bone health. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of compliance with nutritional recommendations, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics, clinical conditions, and lifestyles in older people residing in the Spanish Mediterranean. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 341 people over 60 years old. Participants were selected using a snowball strategy. A validated food intake frequency questionnaire for older populations was used to determine the daily food intake. This evaluation was carried out at two time points from which the average nutrient intake was obtained. Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle variables were obtained from an ad hoc elaborated questionnaire. RESULTS: Compliance with dietary intakes was low, by deficiency, such as in vitamin D, where none of the participating subjects met the requirements, and iodine, where the compliance rate did not exceed 20%, or by excess, such as with monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber, iron, B vitamins, vitamin E, and vitamin C. People with better blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels observed a higher degree of compliance with the recommended intakes. Living in rural areas, being divorced, or being illiterate negatively influence meeting the recommended intakes of certain nutrients. Increased physical activity was associated with an increased compliance with Kcal recommendations, cholesterol, and vitamin B2 intake. CONCLUSION: this study highlights the importance of accurately knowing the dietary intakes in the older population, and what factors, such as lifestyles or sociodemographic characteristics, may predispose to better or worse compliance with the recommendations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Cooperação do Paciente , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais , Espanha , Vitaminas
17.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 45(4): 189-199, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874568

RESUMO

To determine the prevalence of low scores on two neuropsychological tests commonly used to evaluate learning and memory in children. 6,030 healthy children from 10 countries in Latin America and Spain were administered Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Test de Aprendizaje y Memoria Verbal-Infantil (TAMV-I). Results showed that low scores are common when multiple neuropsychological outcomes (tests and/or scores) are evaluated in healthy individuals. Clinicians should consider the higher probability of low scores in a given individual when evaluating learning and memory using various sets of scores to reduce false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits in pediatric populations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/etnologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Memória
18.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 45(4): 200-210, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887073

RESUMO

Pediatric neuropsychologists and researchers commonly interpret a low score as a cognitive weakness. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of low scores for three neuropsychological tests used to evaluate executive function in 4,595 healthy children from Latin-America and Spain. Results showed that low scores are common when multiple neuropsychological outcomes are evaluated in healthy individuals. Clinicians should consider the higher probability of low scores in a given individual when evaluating executive functions using various sets of scores to reduce false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits in a child.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
19.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(5): 1683-1691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650325

RESUMO

This study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Spanish version of the Homophobic Content Agent Target (HCAT) scale in a sample of 1848 high school students. Participants completed an online survey including measures of homophobic bullying, depression, and anxiety. The factor structure showed adequate fit indices in Spanish adolescents similar to the original scale. An exploratory factor analysis showed a simple factor solution of two related factors strongly correlated describing the extent to which students use homophobic language (agent) and the extent to which students are called homophobic epithets (target) due to sexual orientation. The Spanish HCAT scale showed high Cronbach's alpha coefficient at the subscale score levels, as well as good convergent validity. This study contributes a Spanish-language validated measure of homophobic victimization to be used among adolescents. Implications for understanding homophobic bullying in adolescents are discussed.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Homofobia/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
20.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771287

RESUMO

Suicide is the highest external cause of death in the majority of developed countries. In adolescents, the prevalence of suicide has increased significantly in recent years, becoming a serious public health concern. The main aim of the present study is to characterize suicidal behavior, and to evaluate the relationship between family and school contexts and suicidal behavior through the possible mediating effects of depression and anxiety. The design of the study is cross-sectional. The sample was composed of 1386 Spanish adolescents from 14 high-schools. Suicidal behavior, anxiety, depression, family function, and school climate were evaluated through self-reported questionnaires. The results obtained show a significant association between adaptive family function and a positive school climate with low levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior. Mediation analyses revealed a significant full mediating effect of depression on family function and school climate with suicidal behavior. No significant mediating effects were found for anxiety. The results obtained underline the importance of family and school as protective factors for the prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents, through the main mediating role of depression. Future studies should evaluate the mechanisms underlying the effects of family function and school climate on depression, and therefore, on suicidal behavior in adolescents.

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