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1.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235298

RESUMO

Girardinia diversifolia, also known as Himalayan nettle, is a perennial herb used in Nepal to make fiber as well as in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. To date, phytochemical studies and biological assays on this plant are scarce. Thus, in the present work, the G. diversifolia extracts have been evaluated for their potential pharmaceutical, cosmetic and nutraceutical uses. For this purpose, detailed phytochemical analyses were performed, evidencing the presence of phytosterols, fatty acids, carotenoids, polyphenols and saponins. The most abundant secondary metabolites were ß- and γ-sitosterol (11 and 9% dw, respectively), and trans syringin (0.5 mg/g) was the most abundant phenolic. Fatty acids with an abundant portion of unsaturated derivatives (linoleic and linolenic acid at 22.0 and 9.7 mg/g respectively), vitamin C (2.9 mg/g) and vitamin B2 (0.12 mg/g) were also present. The antioxidant activity was moderate while a significant ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrilcholinesterase (BuChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase was observed. A cytotoxic effect was observed on human ovarian, pancreatic and hepatic cancer cell lines. The effect in hepatocarcinoma cells was associated to a downregulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), a pivotal regulator of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. These data show the potential usefulness of this species for possible applications in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmetics.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 298: 27-35, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic stenosis. Herein, we investigated the effects of l-Arginine, the main precursor of NO, on the osteogenic differentiation of aortic interstitial valve cells (VICs). METHODS: We isolated a clonal population of bovine VICs that expresses osteogenic markers and induces calcification of collagen matrix after stimulation with endotoxin (LPS 500 ng/mL). VICs were treated in vitro with different combinations of LPS ± l-Arginine (50 or 100 mM) and cell extracts were collected to perform proteomic (iTRAQ) and gene expression (RT-PCR) analysis. RESULTS: l-Arginine prevents the over-expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, p < 0.001) and reduces matrix calcification (p < 0.05) in VICs treated with LPS. l-Arginine also reduces the over-expression of inflammatory molecules induced by LPS (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta, p < 0.001). The proteomic analysis allowed to identify 49 proteins with an altered expression profile after stimulation with LPS and significantly modified by l-Arginine. These include proteins involved in the redox homeostasis of the cells (i.e. Xanthine Oxidase, Catalase, Aldehyde Oxidase), remodeling of the extracellular matrix (i.e. ADAMTSL4, Basigin, COL3A1) and cellular signaling (i.e. Fibrillin-1, Legumain, S100A13). The RT-PCR analysis confirmed the modifications of Fibrillin-1, ADAMTSL4, Basigin and Xanthine Oxidase, whose expression levels increase after stimulation with LPS and are reduced by l-Arginine (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: l-Arginine prevents osteogenic differentiation of VICs and reduces matrix calcification. This effect is achieved through the modulation of proteins involved in the cellular redox system, remodeling of extracellular matrix and inflammatory activation of VICs.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050453

RESUMO

Appropriate nutraceutical combinations may represent a valid approach to prevent vascular calcification associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study, we tested the effect of a new nutraceutical combination named RenaTris®, containing MK-7, magnesium carbonate, and Sucrosomial® Iron, on vascular calcification in uremic rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. control (high-phosphate diet), uremic (high-phosphate diet containing 0.5% adenine), and supplemented uremic diet (0.5% adenine, MK-7, magnesium carbonate, and Sucrosomial® Iron). After six weeks, sera and vascular calcification were examined. The uremic diet increased creatinine and phosphate levels and induced extensive vascular calcification. The uremic condition also induced a mild hypercholesterolemic condition (+52% of total cholesterol; p < 0.05). The supplemented uremic diet did not reduce creatinine, phosphate levels, or vascular calcification, however, we observed a significant hypocholesterolemic effect (-18.9% in supplemental uremic vs. uremic diet; p < 0.05). Similar to simvastatin, incubation of cultured human hepatoma cells (Huh7) with MK-7 significantly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis (-38%) and induced 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at both mRNA and protein levels. The effect of MK-7 on LDLR was counteracted by the co-incubation with squalene. Unlike simvastatin, MK-7 reduced PCSK9 in Huh7. These results indicated that the new nutraceutical combination significantly impacts cholesterol metabolism and its supplementation may help to control mild hypercholesterolemic conditions in CKD patients.

4.
Pharmacol Res ; 153: 104653, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931117

RESUMO

Among the determinants of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), genetic and experimental evidence has provided data on a major role of angiopoietin-like proteins 3 and 4 (ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4) in regulating the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), antagonizing the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG). Indeed, beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), ASCVD risk is also dependent on a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by elevated fasting and post-prandial levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and their remnants. In a head-to-head comparison between murine models for ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4, the former was found to be a better pharmacological target for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. In humans, loss-of-function mutations of ANGPTL3 are associated with a marked reduction of plasma levels of VLDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Carriers of loss-of-function mutations of ANGPTL4 show instead lower TG-rich lipoproteins and a modest but significant increase of HDL. The relevance of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 as new therapeutic targets is proven by the development of monoclonal antibodies or antisense oligonucleotides. Studies in animal models, including non-human primates, have demonstrated that short-term treatment with monoclonal antibodies against ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 induces activation of LPL and a marked reduction of plasma TG-rich-lipoproteins, apparently without any major side effects. Inhibition of both targets also partially reduces LDL-C, independent of the LDL receptor. Similar evidence has been observed with the antisense oligonucleotide ANGPTL3-LRX. The genetic studies have paved the way for the development of new ANGPTL3 and 4 antagonists for the treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemias. Conclusive data of phase 2 and 3 clinical trials are still needed in order to define their safety and efficacy profile.

5.
Mar Drugs ; 18(1)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963560

RESUMO

The Asian coastal communities have used the brown seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum since ancient times. Recently, some in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated their abilities in reducing risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Here, we analyzed the protective effect of a phytocomplex extracted from these seaweeds on the deposition of fat in the liver after the administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) to rats for five weeks. The administration of F. vesiculosus and A. nodosum led to significant reductions in microvescicular steatosis and plasma biochemical and lipid parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total and conjugated bilirubin, and triglycerides. Furthermore, the postprandial glycemic peak was delayed and significantly reduced (p < 0.01) by the algal extract administration. In conclusion, this extract is effective in reducing microvescicular steatosis and improving glycemic control, thereby lowering the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and diabetes, diseases related to the consumption of fat and sugar-enriched diets.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0212652, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584954

RESUMO

The shelter environment may have a severe impact on the dogs' quality of life, and there is thus a need to develop valid tools to assess their welfare. These tools should be sensitive not only to the animals' physical health but also to their mental health, including the assessment of positive and negative emotions. Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA) is a 'whole animal' measure that captures the expressive quality of an animal's demeanour, using descriptive terms such as 'relaxed', 'anxious', and 'playful'. In this study, for the first time, we developed and tested a fixed-list of qualitative QBA terms for application to kennelled dogs. A list of 20 QBA terms was developed based on literature search and an expert opinion survey. Inter-observer reliability was investigated by asking 11 observers to use these terms to score 13 video clips of kennelled dogs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to extract four main dimensions explaining 70.9% of the total variation between clips. PC1 characterised curious/playful/excitable/sociable demeanour, PC2 ranged from comfortable/relaxed to anxious/nervous/stressed expression, PC3 described fearful demeanour, and PC4 characterised bored/depressed demeanour. Observers' agreement on the ranking of video clips on these four expressive dimensions was good (Kendall's W: 0.60-0.80). ANOVA showed a significant effect of observer on mean clip score on all PCs (p<0.05), due to few observers scoring differently from the rest of the group. Results indicate the potential of the proposed list of QBA terms for sheltered dogs to serve, in alignment with other measures, as a non-invasive assessment tool. However, the observer effect on mean PC scores points towards the need for adequate observer training, particularly in live scoring conditions. The QBA scoring tool can be integrated with existing welfare assessment protocols for shelter dogs and strengthen the power of those protocols to evaluate the animals' experience in shelters.

8.
Mol Ecol ; 28(19): 4486-4499, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482594

RESUMO

Mass mortalities due to disease outbreaks have recently affected a number of major taxa in marine ecosystems. Climate- and pollution-induced stress may compromise host immune defenses, increasing the risk of opportunistic diseases. Despite growing evidence that mass mortality events affecting marine species worldwide are strongly influenced by the interplay of numerous environmental factors, the reductionist approaches most frequently used to investigate these factors hindered the interpretation of these multifactorial pathologies. In this study, we propose a broader approach based on the combination of RNA-sequencing and 16S microbiota analyses to decipher the factors underlying mass mortality in the striped venus clam, Chamelea gallina, along the Adriatic coast. On one hand, gene expression profiling and functional analyses of microbial communities showed the over-expression of several genes and molecular pathways involved in xenobiotic metabolism, suggesting potential chemical contamination in mortality sites. On the other hand, the down-regulation of several genes involved in immune and stress response, and the over-representation of opportunistic pathogens such as Vibrio and Photobacterium spp. indicates that these microbial species may take advantage of compromised host immune pathways and defense mechanisms that are potentially affected by chemical exposure, resulting in periodic mortality events. We propose the application of our approach to interpret and anticipate the risks inherent in the combined effects of pollutants and microbes on marine animals in today's rapidly changing environment.

9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(11): 1245-1253, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The novel nutraceutical combination containing red yeast rice (monacolin K 3.3 mg), Berberis aristata cortex extract (Berberine 531.25 mg) and Morus alba leaves extract (1-deoxynojirimycin 4 mg) is effective in the management of elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the three components on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a key regulator of LDL receptor (LDLR) expression, in hepatocyte cell lines and to compare their effects on LDL cellular uptake. METHODS AND RESULTS: HepG2 and Huh7 cells were incubated with B. aristata cortex extract (BCE), red yeast rice (RYR) and M. alba leaves extract (MLE) alone or in combination for 24 h. RYR (50 µg/mL) increased PCSK9 protein expression (Western blot analysis and ELISA), PCSK9 mRNA (qPCR) and its promoter activity (luciferase reporter assay). BCE (40 µg/mL) reduced instead PCSK9 expression, mRNA levels and promoter activity. MLE determined a concentration-dependent reduction of PCSK9 at the mRNA and protein levels, with a maximal reduction at 1 mg/mL, without significant changes of PCSK9 promoter activity. MLE also downregulated the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and fatty acid synthase mRNA levels. The combination of RYR, BCE and MLE reduced the PCSK9 mRNA and protein levels, as well as the promoter activity. Finally, the single components and their combination induced LDL receptor and LDL uptake by the hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: The positive effect of MLE on PCSK9 supports the rationale of using the nutraceutical combination of RYR, BCE and MLE to control hyperlipidemic conditions.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Berberis/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lovastatina/farmacologia , Morus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Anticolesterolemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7025-7039, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240933

RESUMO

As a functional food, the unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu have been widely used in China for thousands of years. Twenty-five major ellagitannins (ETs) were identified from the unripe fruits, and a novel ellagitannin, chingiitannin A (1), together with four other known ETs (2-5) were isolated and identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and 2D-NMR. Chingiitannin A showed the highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities (IC50 2.89 and 4.52 µM, respectively), which occurred in a reversible and noncompetitive manner. Static quenching was indicated in a fluorescence quenching assay. Molecular docking results revealed that chingiitannin A interacted with the enzymes mainly by hydrogen bonding and was bound in the allosteric site. Chingiitannin A was nontoxic, and it increased the glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results suggested that the unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu are rich sources of ETs, and chingiitannin A might be a good candidate for functional foods or antidiabetic drugs.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rubus/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Glucosidases/química
11.
Nat Mater ; 18(8): 853-859, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182779

RESUMO

Because materials consist of positive nuclei and negative electrons, electric potentials are omnipresent at the atomic scale. However, due to the long range of the Coulomb interaction, large-scale structures completely outshine small ones. This makes the isolation and quantification of the electric potentials that originate from nanoscale objects such as atoms or molecules very challenging. Here we report a non-contact scanning probe technique that addresses this challenge. It exploits a quantum dot sensor and the joint electrostatic screening by tip and surface, thus enabling quantitative surface potential imaging across all relevant length scales down to single atoms. We apply the technique to the characterization of a nanostructured surface, thereby extracting workfunction changes and dipole moments for important reference systems. This authenticates the method as a versatile tool to study the building blocks of materials and devices down to the atomic scale.

12.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178716

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with dysregulation of brain cholesterol homeostasis. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), beyond the known role in the regulation of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, was first identified in the brain with a potential involvement in brain development and apoptosis. However, its role in the central nervous system (CNS) and in AD pathogenesis is still far from being understood. While in vitro and in vivo evidence led to controversial results, genetic studies apparently did not find an association between PCSK9 loss of function mutations and AD risk or prevalence. In addition, a potential impairment of cognitive performances by the treatment with the PCSK9 inhibitors, alirocumab and evolocumab, have been excluded, although ongoing studies with longer follow-up will provide further insights. PCSK9 is able to affect the expression of neuronal receptors involved in cholesterol homeostasis and neuroinflammation, and higher PCSK9 concentrations have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients. In this review article, we critically examined the science of PCSK9 with respect to its modulatory role of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, based on literature data, we made the hypothesis to consider brain PCSK9 as a negative modulator of brain cholesterol homeostasis and neuroinflammation and a potential pharmacological target for treatment.

13.
Drugs ; 79(7): 751-766, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989634

RESUMO

AIM: Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of mipomersen through a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of the available clinical studies. METHODS: A systematic literature search in SCOPUS, PubMed Medline, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar databases was conducted up to January 20, 2019, in order to identify clinical trials assessing the effect of mipomersen on lipoproteins, and the safety profile of mipomersen. Effect sizes for lipid changes were expressed as weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For safety analysis, odd ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Data were pooled from 13 clinical studies comprising 49 arms, which included 1053 subjects overall, with 729 in the active-treated arm and 324 in the control arm. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of data suggested that mipomersen significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD - 1.52, 95% CI - 1.85 to - 1.19; p < 0.001), total cholesterol (WMD - 1.55, 95% CI - 1.97 to - 1.13; p < 0.001), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (WMD - 1.66, 95% CI - 2.06 to - 1.27; p < 0.001), lipoprotein(a) (WMD - 0.99, 95% CI - 1.37 to - 0.62; p < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (WMD - 1.66, 95% CI - 2.04 to - 1.27; p < 0.001), triglycerides (WMD -0.61, 95% CI - 0.76 to - 0.46, p < 0.001), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD - 0.58, 95% CI - 0.73 to - 0.43; p < 0.001) and apolipoprotein A-I (WMD - 0.25, 95% CI - 0.51 to - 0.001; p = 0.049) without affecting HDL-C levels (WMD 0.11, 95% CI - 0.03 to 0.26; p = 0.124). However, treatment with mipomersen was positively associated with an increased risk of discontinuation of treatment (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.96-4.65; p < 0.001), injection-site reaction (OR 11.41, 95% CI 7.88-16.52; p < 0.001), hepatic steatosis (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.99-12.39; p = 0.001), hepatic enzymes elevation (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.09-6.24; p < 0.001) and flu-like symptoms (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.45-2.81; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Despite favourable effects on the lipid profile, some concerns are reinforced from the safety profile. As a matter of fact, mipomersen therapy is more likely discontinued and associated with increased risk of injection-site reactions, hepatic steatosis, hepatic enzyme elevation, and flu-like symptoms.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Oligonucleotídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Lipoproteína(a)/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
14.
Medchemcomm ; 10(2): 310-314, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931091

RESUMO

A phospine free hydroarylation reaction applied to norbornene derivatives is described for the first time and was exploited for the regioselective gram scale synthesis of AR-148, a known Rac1-Tiam1 PPI inhibitor. Umpolung conversion of the nitro group into free amine allowed the regiocontrol of the key arylation step via a long range effect. The effect of AR-148 in comparison with its enantiomers on Rac1 activation of has been evaluated and (-)AR-148 has been identified as the first enantiomerically pure inhibitor of Rac1-Tiam1 PPI.

15.
J Lipid Res ; 60(6): 1144-1153, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918065

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia and altered iron metabolism are typical features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7 (PCSK7) gene variation has been associated with circulating lipids and liver damage during iron overload. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the PCSK7 rs236918 variant on NAFLD-related traits in 1,801 individuals from the Liver Biopsy Cohort (LBC), 500,000 from the UK Biobank Cohort (UKBBC), and 4,580 from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS). The minor PCSK7 rs236918 C allele was associated with higher triglycerides, aminotransferases, and hepatic inflammation in the LBC (P < 0.05) and with hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in the UKBBC. In the DHS, PCSK7 missense variants were associated with circulating lipids. PCSK7 was expressed in hepatocytes and its hepatic expression correlated with that of lipogenic genes (P < 0.05). The rs236918 C allele was associated with upregulation of a new "intra-PCSK7" long noncoding RNA predicted to interact with the protein, higher hepatic and circulating PCSK7 protein (P < 0.01), which correlated with triglycerides (P = 0.04). In HepG2 cells, PCSK7 deletion reduced lipogenesis, fat accumulation, inflammation, transforming growth factor ß pathway activation, and fibrogenesis. In conclusion, PCSK7 gene variation is associated with dyslipidemia and more severe liver disease in high risk individuals, likely by modulating PCSK7 expression/activity.

17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(6): 578-588, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477320

RESUMO

AIMS: Exposure to airborne particulate matter has been consistently associated with early death and increased morbidity, particularly raising the risk of cardiovascular disease. Obesity, one of the leading cardiovascular disease risk factors, increases susceptibility to the adverse effects of particulate matter exposure. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 has been related to a large number of cardiovascular risk factors, e.g. atherogenic lipoproteins, arterial stiffness and platelet activation. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating, in a series of obese individuals, the effects of particulate matter less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 circulating levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 500 obese subjects, participating in the cross-sectional Susceptibility to Particle Health Effects, miRNAs and Exosomes (SPHERE) study, we evaluated the effects of long- and short-term PM10 exposure on circulating proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 levels. In the studied individuals (body mass index: 33.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2) with an annual average PM10 exposure of 40.12 ± 4.71 µg/m3, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 levels were 248.7 ± 78.6 ng/mL. In univariate analysis, PM10 exposure (annual average) was associated with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 levels (ß=1.83, standard error = 0.75, p = 0.014). Interestingly, in a multivariable linear regression model, this association was observed only for carriers of lower concentrations of interferon-γ, whereas it was lost in the presence of higher interferon-γ levels. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 levels were positively associated with the Framingham Risk Score, which was raised by 15.8% for each 100 ng/ml rise of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. CONCLUSIONS: In obese individuals, more sensitive to the damaging effects of environmental air pollution, PM10 exposure positively associates with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 plasma levels especially in those with low levels of interferon-γ.

19.
Animals (Basel) ; 8(9)2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134557

RESUMO

No data have been published on the use of infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate sheep emotions. We assessed whether this technique can be used as a non-invasive measure of negative emotions. Two voluntary animal approach (VAA) tests were conducted (and filmed) on five ewes before and after being restrained. The restraining process was performed by a handler for five minutes. IRT was used during restraint and the VAA tests. The lacrimal caruncle temperature was significantly higher during restraint and in the VAA test after the restraint compared with the VAA test before the restraint (Wilcoxon's test; p = 0.04). The latency period until first contact was longer in the second VAA test (132 s) than in the first one (60 s). Our preliminary results suggest that IRT, combined with behavioral data, is a non-invasive technique that can be useful to assess stress and infer about negative emotions in sheep.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11577, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068967

RESUMO

Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are rare in the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, in 2014 a pod of 7 specimens stranded alive along the Italian coast of the Central Adriatic Sea: 3 individuals died on the beach after a few hours due to internal damages induced by prolonged recumbency; the remaining 4 whales were refloated after great efforts. All the dead animals were genetically related females; one was pregnant. All the animals were infected by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and the pregnant whale was also affected by a severe nephropathy due to a large kidney stone. Other analyses ruled out other possible relevant factors related to weather conditions or human activities. The results of multidisciplinary post-mortem analyses revealed that the 7 sperm whales entered the Adriatic Sea encountering adverse weather conditions and then kept heading northward following the pregnant but sick leader of the pod, thereby reaching the stranding site. DMV infection most likely played a crucial role in impairing the health condition and orientation abilities of the whales. They did not steer back towards deeper waters, but eventually stranded along the Central Adriatic Sea coastline, a real trap for sperm whales.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Cachalote , Animais , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia
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