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1.
Head Neck ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We ascertain the role of a low cervical paraspinal skeletal muscle index (CPSMI) as a biomarker for poor treatment tolerance in patients with operable mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients with operable HNSCC requiring microvascular reconstruction was evaluated. Low CPSMI was calculated using preoperative CT neck imaging. Poor treatment tolerance, a composite measure of incomplete therapy or severe morbidity/mortality during treatment, was the primary outcome. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-seven patients underwent extirpative surgery with a mean age was 60.5. Poor treatment tolerance occurred in 71 (56%) patients with 21 not completing recommended adjuvant therapy and 66 having severe treatment-related morbidity. A low CPSMI was independently associated with poor treatment tolerance (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.10-5.93) and delay to adjuvant therapy (OR 4.48, 95%CI 1.07-27.6) after adjusting for multiple confounders. CONCLUSION: Low CPSMI was independently associated with poor treatment tolerance in patients with operable HNSCC.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7338, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921143

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterized by complex relations between stromal, epithelial, and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). To enable the development of more efficacious therapies, we aim to study the heterogeneity, signatures of unique cell populations, and cell-cell interactions of non-immune and immune cell populations in 6 human papillomavirus (HPV)+ and 12 HPV- HNSCC patient tumor and matched peripheral blood specimens using single-cell RNA sequencing. Using this dataset of 134,606 cells, we show cell type-specific signatures associated with inflammation and HPV status, describe the negative prognostic value of fibroblasts with elastic differentiation specifically in the HPV+ TME, predict therapeutically targetable checkpoint receptor-ligand interactions, and show that tumor-associated macrophages are dominant contributors of PD-L1 and other immune checkpoint ligands in the TME. We present a comprehensive single-cell view of cell-intrinsic mechanisms and cell-cell communication shaping the HNSCC microenvironment.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Ligantes , Macrófagos/patologia , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Pericitos/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
JID Innov ; 1(4): 100045, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909742

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common skin cancer in the United States. Currently, there is no standardized management approach for patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma who develop metastatic or locally advanced disease and are not candidates for curative surgery or curative radiation. To address this issue, the Expert Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Leadership program convened an expert steering committee to develop evidence-based consensus recommendations on the basis of a large, structured literature review. Consensus was achieved through modified Delphi methodology. The steering committee included five dermatologists, three medical oncologists, two head and neck surgeons, one radiation oncologist, and a patient advocacy group representative. The steering committee aligned on the following clinical topics: diagnosis and identification of patients considered not candidates for surgery; staging systems and risk stratification in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma; the role of radiation therapy, surgery, and systemic therapy in the management of advanced disease, with a focus on immunotherapy; referral patterns; survivorship care; and inclusion of the patient's perspective. Consensus was achieved on 34 recommendations addressing 12 key clinical questions. The Expert Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Leadership steering committee's evidence-based consensus recommendations may provide healthcare professionals with practically oriented guidance to help optimize outcomes for patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

5.
Oral Oncol ; 125: 105675, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity is a favorable prognostic factor in the general population of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. However, its impact on the survival of metastatic HNSCC of pharynx (mHNSC-P) patients is unclear. This study aims to investigate the associations between HPV status and survival in mHNSC-P patients. METHODS: 735 mHNSC-P patients diagnosed at first presentation from 2010 to 2016 were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result database (SEER). Chi-Squared test, univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards model, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and log-rank test were applied to compare HPV-positive and -negative mHNSC-P patients. RESULT: Using univariate cox proportional hazards analysis, HPV status, primary site, T stage, treatment and distant metastatic site correlate with the overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in mHNSC-P patients. Multivariate cox regression analysis shows that HPV-positive mHNSC-P patients experienced significantly better OS (HR: 0.62 CI: 0.51-0.76, p < 0.001) and DSS (HR: 0.73 CI: 0.58-0.91, p < 0.01) as compared to HPV-negative mHNSC-P patients. Subgroup analysis indicates that HPV-associated OS and DSS benefits exist in patients with metastatic HNSCC of oropharynx (mHNSC-OP) but not in patients with metastatic HNSCC of non-oropharynx (mHNSC-non-OP). Among mHNSC-OP patients, HPV positivity confers disease-specific survival benefit in patients with oligometastatic rather than polymetastatic patients. Furthermore, HPV associated OS and DSS advantages in mHNSC-OP with lung metastasis was observed. CONCLUSION: HPV-positive mHNSC-OP patients with lung metastasis show better survival than HPV-negative mHNSC-OP patients, providing key information to guide patient treatment approaches.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6340, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732714

RESUMO

Despite radiation forming the curative backbone of over 50% of malignancies, there are no genomically-driven radiosensitizers for clinical use. Herein we perform in vivo shRNA screening to identify targets generally associated with radiation response as well as those exhibiting a genomic dependency. This identifies the histone acetyltransferases CREBBP/EP300 as a target for radiosensitization in combination with radiation in cognate mutant tumors. Further in vitro and in vivo studies confirm this phenomenon to be due to repression of homologous recombination following DNA damage and reproducible using chemical inhibition of histone acetyltransferase (HAT), but not bromodomain function. Selected mutations in CREBBP lead to a hyperacetylated state that increases CBP and BRCA1 acetylation, representing a gain of function targeted by HAT inhibition. Additionally, mutations in CREBBP/EP300 are associated with recurrence following radiation in squamous cell carcinoma cohorts. These findings provide both a mechanism of resistance and the potential for genomically-driven treatment.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101752, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Definitive or postoperative chemoradiation (CRT) is curative for human papillomavirus-associated (HPV+) oropharynx cancer (OPC) but induces significant toxicity. As a deintensification strategy, we studied primary transoral surgery (TOS) and reduced postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate-risk HPV+ OPC. METHODS: E3311 is a phase II randomized trial of reduced- or standard-dose postoperative RT for resected stage III-IVa (American Joint Committee on Cancer-seventh edition) HPV+ OPC, determined by pathologic parameters. Primary goals were feasibility of prospective multi-institutional study of TOS for HPV+ OPC, and oncologic efficacy (2-year progression-free survival) of TOS and adjuvant therapy in intermediate-risk patients after resection. TOS plus 50 Gy was considered promising if the lower limit of the exact 90% binomial confidence intervals exceeded 85%. Quality of life and swallowing were measured by functional assessment of cancer therapy-head and neck and MD Anderson Dysphagia Index. RESULTS: Credentialed surgeons performed TOS for 495 patients. Eligible and treated patients were assigned as follows: arm A (low risk, n = 38) enrolled 11%, intermediate risk arms B (50 Gy, n = 100) or C (60 Gy, n = 108) randomly allocated 58%, and arm D (high risk, n = 113) enrolled 31%. With a median 35.2-month follow-up for 359 evaluable (eligible and treated) patients, 2-year progression-free survival Kaplan-Meier estimate is 96.9% (90% CI, 91.9 to 100) for arm A (observation), 94.9% (90% CI, 91.3 to 98.6]) for arm B (50 Gy), 96.0% (90% CI, 92.8 to 99.3) for arm C (60 Gy), and 90.7% (90% CI, 86.2 to 95.4) for arm D (66 Gy plus weekly cisplatin). Treatment arm distribution and oncologic outcome for ineligible or step 2 untreated patients (n = 136) mirrored the 359 evaluable patients. Exploratory comparison of functional assessment of cancer therapy-head and neck total scores between arms B and C is presented. CONCLUSION: Primary TOS and reduced postoperative RT result in outstanding oncologic outcome and favorable functional outcomes in intermediate-risk HPV+ OPC.

8.
Oral Oncol ; 123: 105574, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine which surgical factors are associated with quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in oral cavity cancer survivors after free flap reconstruction of the oral cavity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from a multidisciplinary head and neck cancer (HNC) survivorship clinic. Oral cavity cancer survivors with at least 6-months of postoperative follow-up from ablation and free flap reconstruction were included. Primary outcome measures were validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) including the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10) measure of swallowing-specific QOL, University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) physical and social-emotional subscale scores and feeding tube dependence. RESULTS: Extent of tongue resection was associated with EAT-10 and the UW-QOL Physical subscale scores. Patients with oral tongue defects reported worse scores than with composite defects in the EAT-10 and UW-QOL physical domain (p = 0.0004, 0.0025, respectively). This association no longer applies when controlling for differences in extent of tongue resection. Patients with anterior composite resections reported worse EAT-10 scores than lateral resections (p = 0.024). This association no longer applies when controlling for extent of tongue resection (p = 0.46). Gastric tube dependence demonstrates similar trends to PROMs. CONCLUSION: Extent of tongue resection was strongly associated with poor QOL outcomes after free tissue reconstruction of the oral cavity and mediates the associations between other defect characteristics and QOL. These findings demonstrate the need for emphasis on expected oral tongue defects when counseling patients and highlight the need to address QOL in a multidisciplinary fashion post-operatively.

9.
Cell Rep ; 36(11): 109699, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525351

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are critical mediators of self-tolerance, but they can also limit effective anti-tumor immunity. Although under homeostasis a small fraction of Treg cells in lymphoid organs express the putative checkpoint molecule Tim-3, this protein is expressed by a much larger proportion of tumor-infiltrating Treg cells. Using a mouse model that drives cell-type-specific inducible Tim-3 expression, we show that expression of Tim-3 by Treg cells is sufficient to drive Treg cells to a more effector-like phenotype, resulting in increases in suppressive activity, effector T cell exhaustion, and tumor growth. We also show that T-reg-cell-specific inducible deletion of Tim-3 enhances anti-tumor immunity. Enhancement of Treg cell function by Tim-3 is strongly correlated with increased expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and a shift to a more glycolytic metabolic phenotype. Our data demonstrate that Tim-3+ Treg cells may be a relevant therapeutic target cell type for the treatment of cancer.

10.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452530

RESUMO

APOBEC is a mutagenic source in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated malignancies, including HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV + OPSCC), and in HPV genomes. It is unknown why APOBEC mutations predominate in HPV + OPSCC, or if the APOBEC-induced mutations observed in both human cancers and HPV genomes are directly linked. We performed sequencing of host somatic exomes, transcriptomes, and HPV16 genomes from 79 HPV + OPSCC samples, quantifying APOBEC mutational burden and activity in both host and virus. APOBEC was the dominant mutational signature in somatic exomes. In viral genomes, there was a mean of five (range 0-29) mutations per genome. The mean of APOBEC mutations in viral genomes was one (range 0-5). Viral APOBEC mutations, compared to non-APOBEC mutations, were more likely to be low-variant allele fraction mutations, suggesting that APOBEC mutagenesis actively occurrs in viral genomes during infection. HPV16 APOBEC-induced mutation patterns in OPSCC were similar to those previously observed in cervical samples. Paired host and viral analyses revealed that APOBEC-enriched tumor samples had higher viral APOBEC mutation rates (p = 0.028), and APOBEC-associated RNA editing (p = 0.008), supporting the concept that APOBEC mutagenesis in host and viral genomes is directly linked and occurrs during infection. Using paired sequencing of host somatic exomes, transcriptomes, and viral genomes, we demonstrated for the first-time definitive evidence of concordance between tumor and viral APOBEC mutagenesis. This finding provides a missing link connecting APOBEC mutagenesis in host and virus and supports a common mechanism driving APOBEC dysregulation.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207599

RESUMO

The anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab improves survival in recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients with locoregional, pathologically high-risk HNSCC recur frequently despite adjuvant cisplatin-radiation therapy (CRT). Targeting PD1 may reverse immunosuppression induced by HNSCC and CRT. We conducted a phase I trial with an expansion cohort (n = 20) to determine the recommended phase II schedule (RP2S) for adding fixed-dose pembrolizumab to standard adjuvant CRT. Eligible patients had resected HPV-negative, stage III-IV oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx HNSCC with extracapsular nodal extension or positive margin. RP2S was declared if three or fewer dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) occurred in a cohort of 12. DLT was defined as grade 3 or higher non-hematologic adverse event (AE) related to pembrolizumab, immune-related AE requiring over 2 weeks of systemic steroids, or unacceptable RT delay. A total of 34 patients enrolled at 23 NRG institutions. During the first cohort, only one DLT was observed (fever), thus RP2S was declared as pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for eight doses, starting one week before CRT. During expansion, three additional DLTs were observed (wound infection, diverticulitis, nausea). Of the 34 patients, 28 (82%) received five or more doses of pembrolizumab. This regimen was safe and feasible in a cooperative group setting. Further development is warranted.

13.
Head Neck ; 43(10): 3062-3075, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is documented regarding objective financial metrics and their impact on subjective financial toxicity in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, 71 survivors with available claims data for HNC-specific out-of-pocket expenses (OOPE) completed a survey including patient-reported, subjective financial toxicity outcome tools: the Comprehensive Score for financial Toxicity (COST) and the Financial Distress Questionnaire (FDQ). RESULTS: Worse COST scores were significantly associated with lower earnings at survey administration (coefficient = 3.79; 95% CI 2.63-4.95; p < 0.001); loss of earnings after diagnosis (coefficient = 6.03; 95% CI 0.53-11.52; p = 0.032); and greater annual OOPE as a proportion of earnings [log10(Annual OOPE:Earnings at survey): coefficient = -5.66; 95% CI -10.28 to -1.04; p = 0.017]. Similar results were found with FDQ. CONCLUSION: Financial toxicity is associated with particular socioeconomic characteristics which, if understood, would assist the development of pre-treatment screening tools to detect at-risk individuals and intervene early in the HNC cancer survivorship trajectory.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Sobreviventes
14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are common malignancies caused by carcinogens, including tobacco and alcohol, or infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway are effective against unresectable recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. Here, we explored the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy in at-risk resectable HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC in the neoadjuvant setting. METHODS: The phase I/II CheckMate 358 trial in virus-associated cancers assessed neoadjuvant nivolumab in patients with previously untreated, resectable HPV-positive or HPV-negative HNSCC. Patients received nivolumab 240 mg intravenously on days 1 and 15, with surgery planned by day 29. Safety/tolerability (primary endpoint) was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs) and surgical delays. Radiographic response was measured before surgery using RECIST v1.1, adapted for a single post-nivolumab evaluation. Pathologic specimens were examined for treatment response using immune-based criteria. RESULTS: From November 2015 to December 2017, 52 patients with AJCC (seventh edition) stage III-IV resectable HNSCC received neoadjuvant nivolumab (26 HPV-positive, 26 HPV-negative). Any-grade treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) occurred in 19 patients (73.1%) and 14 patients (53.8%) in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative cohorts, respectively; grade 3-4 TRAEs occurred in five (19.2%) and three patients (11.5%), respectively. No patient had a protocol-defined TRAE-related surgical delay (>4 weeks). Thirty-eight patients were reported as undergoing complete surgical resection, 10 had a planned post-nivolumab biopsy instead of definitive surgery due to a protocol misinterpretation, and four did not undergo surgery or biopsy, including two with tumor progression. Radiographic response rates in 49 evaluable patients were 12.0% and 8.3% in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative cohorts, respectively. There were no complete pathologic responses by site or central review in operated patients. Among 17 centrally evaluable HPV-positive tumors, one (5.9%) achieved major pathological response and three (17.6%) achieved partial pathologic response (pPR); among 17 centrally evaluable HPV-negative tumors, one (5.9%) achieved pPR. CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant nivolumab was generally safe and induced pathologic regressions in HPV-positive (23.5%) and HPV-negative (5.9%) tumors. Combinatorial neoadjuvant treatment regimens, and continued postoperative therapy for high-risk tumors, are warranted in future trials to enhance the efficacy of this approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02488759; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02488759.

15.
Otolaryngol Clin North Am ; 54(4): 743-749, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116847

RESUMO

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). EGFR-targeted agents including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown mixed results in clinical trials. To date, only cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, is approved for use in local/regional advanced and recurrent or metastatic HNSCC. This article reviews the mechanism of action of cetuximab and its antitumor immune effects and the data to support its use in HNSCC. It additionally provides an overview of other EGFR monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that have been studied.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Receptores ErbB , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
16.
Laryngoscope ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To study use of the nasoseptal flap (NSF) to reconstruct lateral transoral robotic surgery (TORS) oropharyngectomy defects. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: A clinical series of six patients undergoing NSF reconstruction of lateral TORS oropharyngectomy defects was retrospectively studied. All patients underwent TORS for the treatment of intermediate-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral pharyngeal wall between January and June 2017. All patients underwent NSF reconstruction of lateral TORS defects with retrospective analysis of outcomes and complications. RESULTS: Six patients underwent NSF reconstruction of lateral TORS defects. Operative times decreased from 180 minutes to 90 minutes over the study period. There were two cases of partial flap dehiscence and partial necrosis. There were no major donor site complications. All patients had temporary nasal obstruction and crusting. Two experienced temporary aural fullness. In all patients, the lateral wall was mucosalized in 1-3 weeks. Cephalometric analysis of preoperative imaging revealed that patients with high-arched palates (>3 cm) and defect lengths that are longer than NSF flap lengths are poor candidates for this technique. CONCLUSIONS: This NSF is a vascularized, locoregional rotational flap that can reconstruct lateral TORS defects in salvages cases or those where the parapharyngeal carotid or mandibular bone are exposed. Postoperative morbidity is limited to temporary nasal dyspnea, aural fullness, and crusting. Preoperative imaging can determine which patient will have successful defect coverage. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2021.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3349, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099645

RESUMO

Current immunotherapy paradigms aim to reinvigorate CD8+ T cells, but the contribution of humoral immunity to antitumor immunity remains understudied. Here, we demonstrate that in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) caused by human papillomavirus infection (HPV+), patients have transcriptional signatures of germinal center (GC) tumor infiltrating B cells (TIL-Bs) and spatial organization of immune cells consistent with tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) with GCs, both of which correlate with favorable outcome. GC TIL-Bs in HPV+ HNSCC are characterized by distinct waves of gene expression consistent with dark zone, light zone and a transitional state of GC B cells. Semaphorin 4a expression is enhanced on GC TIL-Bs present in TLS of HPV+ HNSCC and during the differentiation of TIL-Bs. Our study suggests that therapeutics to enhance TIL-B responses in HNSCC should be prioritized in future studies to determine if they can complement current T cell mediated immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Semaforinas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T
18.
Head Neck ; 43(9): 2844-2858, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117666

RESUMO

Hemorrhage in recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) may be attributed to chemotherapy and local tumor irradiation. Evidence of the relationship between hemorrhage in R/M HNSCC and targeted therapies, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, or immune checkpoint inhibitors, is limited. We aimed to identify epidemiological and clinical data related to the occurrence of hemorrhage in R/M HNSCC and to explore its relationship with various therapies. We describe information obtained from literature searches as well as data extracted from a commercial database and a database from the author's institution (Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan). Evidence suggests that most bleeding events in R/M HNSCC are minor. Clinical trial safety data do not identify a causal association between hemorrhage and anti-EGFR agents or immune checkpoint inhibitors. In contrast, anti-VEGF agents are associated with increased, and often severe/fatal, hemorrhagic complications.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986123

RESUMO

The majority of patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) (R/M) do not benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy. Hypoxia induced immunosuppression may be a barrier to immunotherapy. Therefore, we examined the metabolic effect of anti-PD-1 therapy in a murine MEER HNSCC model as well as intratumoral hypoxia in R/M patients. In order to characterize the tumor microenvironment in PD-1 resistance, a MEER cell line was created from the parental line that are completely resistant to anti-PD-1. These cell lines were then metabolically profiled using seahorse technology and injected into C57/BL6 mice. After tumor growth, mice were pulsed with pimonidazole and immunofluorescent imaging was performed to analyze hypoxia and T cell infiltration. To validate the preclinical results, we analyzed tissues from R/M patients (n=36) treated with anti-PD-1 mAb, via immunofluorescent imaging for number of CD8+ T cells (CD8), Tregs and the percent area (CAIX) and mean intensity (I) of carbonic anhydrase IX in tumor. We analyzed disease control rate (DCR), progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) using proportional odds and proportional hazards (Cox) regression. We found that anti-PD-1 resistant MEER has significantly higher oxidative metabolism, while there was no difference in glycolytic metabolism. Intratumoral hypoxia was significantly increased and CD8+ T cells decreased in anti-PD-1 resistant tumors compared with parental tumors in the same mouse. In R/M patients, lower tumor hypoxia by CAIX/I was significantly associated with DCR (p=0.007), PFS, and OS, and independently associated with response (p=0.028) and PFS (p=0.04) in a multivariate model including other significant immune factors. During PD-1 resistance, tumor cells developed increased oxidative metabolism leading to increased intratumoral hypoxia and a decrease in CD8+ T cells. Lower tumor hypoxia was independently associated with increased efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with R/M HNSCC. To our knowledge this is the first analysis of the effect of hypoxia in this patient population and highlights its importance not only as a predictive biomarker but also as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

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