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1.
Nat Mater ; 19(1): 34-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477905

RESUMO

Room-temperature skyrmions in ferromagnetic films and multilayers show promise for encoding information bits in new computing technologies. Despite recent progress, ferromagnetic order generates dipolar fields that prevent ultrasmall skyrmion sizes, and allows a transverse deflection of moving skyrmions that hinders their efficient manipulation. Antiferromagnetic skyrmions shall lift these limitations. Here we demonstrate that room-temperature antiferromagnetic skyrmions can be stabilized in synthetic antiferromagnets (SAFs), in which perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, antiferromagnetic coupling and chiral order can be adjusted concurrently. Utilizing interlayer electronic coupling to an adjacent bias layer, we demonstrate that spin-spiral states obtained in a SAF with vanishing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy can be turned into isolated antiferromagnetic skyrmions. We also provide model-based estimates of skyrmion size and stability, showing that room-temperature antiferromagnetic skyrmions below 10 nm in radius can be anticipated in further optimized SAFs. Antiferromagnetic skyrmions in SAFs may thus solve major issues associated with ferromagnetic skyrmions for low-power spintronic devices.

2.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 395-401, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859513

RESUMO

Spintronics entails the generation, transport, manipulation and detection of spin currents, usually in hybrid architectures comprising interfaces whose impact on performance is detrimental. In addition, how spins are generated and detected is generally material specific and determined by the electronic structure. Here, we demonstrate spin current generation, transport and electrical detection, all within a single non-magnetic material system: a SrTiO3 two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We show that the spin current is generated from a charge current by the 2D spin Hall effect, transported through a channel and reconverted into a charge current by the inverse 2D spin Hall effect. Furthermore, by adjusting the Fermi energy with a gate voltage we tune the generated and detected spin polarization and relate it to the complex multiorbital band structure of the 2DEG. We discuss the leading mechanisms of the spin-charge interconversion processes and argue for the potential of quantum oxide materials for future all-electrical low-power spin-based logic.

3.
Nat Mater ; 18(11): 1187-1193, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501554

RESUMO

While spintronics has traditionally relied on ferromagnetic metals as spin generators and detectors, spin-orbitronics exploits the efficient spin-charge interconversion enabled by spin-orbit coupling in non-magnetic systems. Although the Rashba picture of split parabolic bands is often used to interpret such experiments, it fails to explain the largest conversion effects and their relationship with the electronic structure. Here, we demonstrate a very large spin-to-charge conversion effect in an interface-engineered, high-carrier-density SrTiO3 two-dimensional electron gas and map its gate dependence on the band structure. We show that the conversion process is amplified by enhanced Rashba-like splitting due to orbital mixing and in the vicinity of avoided band crossings with topologically non-trivial order. Our results indicate that oxide two-dimensional electron gases are strong candidates for spin-based information readout in new memory and transistor designs. Our results also emphasize the promise of topology as a new ingredient to expand the scope of complex oxides for spintronics.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12356, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120368

RESUMO

Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate several approaches to control Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (DMI) in ultrathin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. First, we find that DMI is significantly enhanced when the ferromagnetic (FM) layer is sandwiched between nonmagnetic (NM) layers inducing additive DMI in NM1/FM/NM2 structures. For instance, when two NM layers are chosen to induce DMI of opposite chirality in Co, e.g. NM1 representing Au, Ir, Al or Pb, and NM2 being Pt, the resulting DMI in NM1/Co/Pt trilayers is enhanced compared to Co/Pt bilayers. Moreover, DMI can be significantly enhanced further in case of using FM layer comprising Fe and Co layers. Namely, it is found that the DMI in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt structure can be enhanced by 80% compared to that of Co/Pt bilayers reaching a very large DMI amplitude of 5.59 meV/atom. Our second approach for enhancing DMI is to use oxide capping layer. We show that DMI is enhanced by 60% in Oxide/Co/Pt structures compared to Co/Pt bilayers. Moreover, we unveiled the DMI mechanism at Oxide/Co interface due to Rashba effect, which is different to Fert-Levy DMI at FM/NM interfaces. Finally, we demonstrate that DMI amplitude can be modulated using an electric field with an efficiency factor comparable to that of the electric field control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in transition metal/oxide interfaces. These approaches of DMI controlling pave the way for skyrmion and domain wall motion-based spintronic applications.

5.
Sci Adv ; 4(7): eaat0415, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035224

RESUMO

Noncollinear spin textures in ferromagnetic ultrathin films are currently the subject of renewed interest since the discovery of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). This antisymmetric exchange interaction selects a given chirality for the spin textures and allows stabilizing configurations with nontrivial topology including chiral domain walls (DWs) and magnetic skyrmions. Moreover, it has many crucial consequences on the dynamical properties of these topological structures. In recent years, the study of noncollinear spin textures has been extended from single ultrathin layers to magnetic multilayers with broken inversion symmetry. This extension of the structures in the vertical dimension allows room temperature stability and very efficient current-induced motion for both Néel DWs and skyrmions. We show how, in these multilayered systems, the interlayer interactions can actually lead to hybrid chiral magnetization arrangements. The described thickness-dependent reorientation of DWs is experimentally confirmed by studying demagnetized multilayers through circular dichroism in x-ray resonant magnetic scattering. We also demonstrate a simple yet reliable method for determining the magnitude of the DMI from static domain measurements even in the presence of these hybrid chiral structures by taking into account the actual profile of the DWs. The existence of these novel hybrid chiral textures has far-reaching implications on how to stabilize and manipulate DWs, as well as skymionic structures in magnetic multilayers.

6.
Nat Mater ; 17(7): 605-609, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807987

RESUMO

The possibility of utilizing the rich spin-dependent properties of graphene has attracted much attention in the pursuit of spintronics advances. The promise of high-speed and low-energy-consumption devices motivates the search for layered structures that stabilize chiral spin textures such as topologically protected skyrmions. Here we demonstrate that chiral spin textures are induced at graphene/ferromagnetic metal interfaces. Graphene is a weak spin-orbit coupling material and is generally not expected to induce a sufficient Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction to affect magnetic chirality. We demonstrate that indeed graphene does induce a type of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction due to the Rashba effect. First-principles calculations and experiments using spin-polarized electron microscopy show that this graphene-induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can have a similar magnitude to that at interfaces with heavy metals. This work paves a path towards two-dimensional-material-based spin-orbitronics.

7.
ACS Nano ; 12(5): 4712-4718, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697954

RESUMO

We report on the integration of atomically thin 2D insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) tunnel barriers into magnetic tunnel junctions (2D-MTJs) by fabricating two illustrative systems (Co/h-BN/Co and Co/h-BN/Fe) and by discussing h-BN potential for metallic spin filtering. The h-BN is directly grown by chemical vapor deposition on prepatterned Co and Fe stripes. Spin-transport measurements reveal tunnel magneto-resistances in these h-BN-based MTJs as high as 12% for Co/h-BN/h-BN/Co and 50% for Co/h-BN/Fe. We analyze the spin polarizations of h-BN/Co and h-BN/Fe interfaces extracted from experimental spin signals in light of spin filtering at hybrid chemisorbed/physisorbed h-BN, with support of ab initio calculations. These experiments illustrate the strong potential of h-BN for MTJs and are expected to ignite further investigations of 2D materials for large signal spin devices.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 671, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445186

RESUMO

Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions based on MgO/CoFeB structures are of particular interest for magnetic random-access memories because of their excellent thermal stability, scaling potential, and power dissipation. However, the major challenge of current-induced switching in the nanopillars with both a large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio and a low junction resistance is still to be met. Here, we report spin transfer torque switching in nano-scale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with a magnetoresistance ratio up to 249% and a resistance area product as low as 7.0 Ω µm2, which consists of atom-thick W layers and double MgO/CoFeB interfaces. The efficient resonant tunnelling transmission induced by the atom-thick W layers could contribute to the larger magnetoresistance ratio than conventional structures with Ta layers, in addition to the robustness of W layers against high-temperature diffusion during annealing. The critical switching current density could be lower than 3.0 MA cm-2 for devices with a 45-nm radius.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(3): 037202, 2018 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29400492

RESUMO

Chirality in condensed matter has recently become a topic of the utmost importance because of its significant role in the understanding and mastering of a large variety of new fundamental physical mechanisms. Versatile experimental approaches, capable to reveal easily the exact winding of order parameters, are therefore essential. Here we report x-ray resonant magnetic scattering as a straightforward tool to reveal directly the properties of chiral magnetic systems. We show that it can straightforwardly and unambiguously determine the main characteristics of chiral magnetic distributions: i.e., its chiral nature, the quantitative winding sense (clockwise or counterclockwise), and its type, i.e., Néel [cycloidal] or Bloch [helical]. This method is model independent, does not require a priori knowledge of the magnetic parameters, and can be applied to any system with magnetic domains ranging from a few nanometers (wavelength limited) to several microns. By using prototypical multilayers with tailored magnetic chiralities driven by spin-orbit-related effects at Co|Pt interfaces, we illustrate the strength of this method.

10.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(3): 233-237, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379203

RESUMO

Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected whirling spin textures that can be stabilized in magnetic materials by an asymmetric exchange interaction between neighbouring spins that imposes a fixed chirality. Their small size, together with the robustness against external perturbations, make magnetic skyrmions potential storage bits in a novel generation of memory and logic devices. To this aim, their contribution to the electrical transport properties of a device must be characterized-however, the existing demonstrations are limited to low temperatures and mainly in magnetic materials with a B20 crystal structure. Here we combine concomitant magnetic force microscopy and Hall resistivity measurements to demonstrate the electrical detection of sub-100 nm skyrmions in a multilayered thin film at room temperature. Furthermore, we detect and analyse the Hall signal of a single skyrmion, which indicates that it arises from the anomalous Hall effect with a negligible contribution from the topological Hall effect.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(21): 219901, 2017 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598656

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.267210.

12.
Nano Lett ; 17(4): 2703-2712, 2017 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358984

RESUMO

Magnetic skyrmions are nanoscale windings of the spin configuration that hold great promise for technology due to their topology-related properties and extremely reduced sizes. After the recent observation at room temperature of sub-100 nm skyrmions stabilized by interfacial chiral interaction in magnetic multilayers, several pending questions remain to be solved, notably about the means to nucleate individual compact skyrmions or the exact nature of their motion. In this study, a method leading to the formation of magnetic skyrmions in a micrometer-sized track using homogeneous current injection is evidenced. Spin-transfer-induced motion of these small electrical-current-generated skyrmions is then demonstrated and the role of the out-of-plane magnetic field in the stabilization of the moving skyrmions is also analyzed. The results of these experimental observations of spin torque induced motion are compared to micromagnetic simulations reproducing a granular type, nonuniform magnetic multilayer in order to address the particularly important role of the magnetic inhomogeneities on the current-induced motion of sub-100 nm skyrmions for which the material grains size is comparable to the skyrmion diameter.

13.
Nature ; 539(7630): 509-517, 2016 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27882972

RESUMO

Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) describes the relativistic interaction between the spin and momentum degrees of freedom of electrons, and is central to the rich phenomena observed in condensed matter systems. In recent years, new phases of matter have emerged from the interplay between SOC and low dimensionality, such as chiral spin textures and spin-polarized surface and interface states. These low-dimensional SOC-based realizations are typically robust and can be exploited at room temperature. Here we discuss SOC as a means of producing such fundamentally new physical phenomena in thin films and heterostructures. We put into context the technological promise of these material classes for developing spin-based device applications at room temperature.

14.
Sci Rep ; 5: 14905, 2015 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26449410

RESUMO

All-spin logic device (ASLD) has attracted increasing interests as one of the most promising post-CMOS device candidates, thanks to its low power, non-volatility and logic-in-memory structure. Here we investigate the key current-limiting factors and develop a physics-based model of ASLD through nano-magnet switching, the spin transport properties and the breakdown characteristic of channel. First, ASLD with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) nano-magnet is proposed to reduce the critical current (Ic0). Most important, the spin transport efficiency can be enhanced by analyzing the device structure, dimension, contact resistance as well as material parameters. Furthermore, breakdown current density (JBR) of spin channel is studied for the upper current limitation. As a result, we can deduce current-limiting conditions and estimate energy dissipation. Based on the model, we demonstrate ASLD with different structures and channel materials (graphene and copper). Asymmetric structure is found to be the optimal option for current limitations. Copper channel outperforms graphene in term of energy but seriously suffers from breakdown current limit. By exploring the current limit and performance tradeoffs, the optimization of ASLD is also discussed. This benchmarking model of ASLD opens up new prospects for design and implementation of future spintronics applications.

15.
Nanoscale ; 7(11): 4598-810, 2015 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25707682

RESUMO

We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphene Flagship and outlines the main targets and research areas as best understood at the start of this ambitious project. We provide an overview of the key aspects of graphene and related materials (GRMs), ranging from fundamental research challenges to a variety of applications in a large number of sectors, highlighting the steps necessary to take GRMs from a state of raw potential to a point where they might revolutionize multiple industries. We also define an extensive list of acronyms in an effort to standardize the nomenclature in this emerging field.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(26): 267210, 2015 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26765026

RESUMO

The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) has been recently recognized to play a crucial role in allowing fast domain wall dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques and the generation of magnetic Skyrmions. Here, we unveil the main features and microscopic mechanisms of DMI in Co/Pt bilayers via first principles calculations. We find that the large DMI of the bilayers has a dominant contribution from the spins of the interfacial Co layer. This DMI between the interfacical Co spins extends very weakly away from the interface and is associated with a spin-orbit coupling in the adjacent atomic layer of Pt. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between DMI and proximity induced magnetism in Pt. These results clarify the underlying mechanisms of DMI at interfaces between ferromagnetic and heavy metals and should help optimizing material combinations for domain wall and Skyrmion-based devices.

17.
ACS Nano ; 8(8): 7890-5, 2014 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24988469

RESUMO

We report on the successful integration of low-cost, conformal, and versatile atomic layer deposited (ALD) dielectric in Ni­Al2O3­Co magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) where the Ni is coated with a spin-filtering graphene membrane. The ALD tunnel barriers, as thin as 0.6 nm, are grown layer-by-layer in a simple, low-vacuum, ozone-based process, which yields high-quality electron-transport barriers as revealed by tunneling characterization. Even under these relaxed conditions, including air exposure of the interfaces, a significant tunnel magnetoresistance is measured highlighting the robustness of the process. The spin-filtering effect of graphene is enhanced, leading to an almost fully inversed spin polarization for the Ni electrode of −42%. This unlocks the potential of ALD for spintronics with conformal, layer-by-layer control of tunnel barriers in magnetic tunnel junctions toward low-cost fabrication and down-scaling of tunnel resistances.

18.
Sci Rep ; 3: 1829, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23670402

RESUMO

Domain walls, nanoscale transition regions separating oppositely oriented ferromagnetic domains, have significant promise for use in spintronic devices for data storage and memristive applications. The state of these devices is related to the wall position and thus rapid operation will require a controllable onset of domain wall motion and high speed wall displacement. These processes are traditionally driven by spin transfer torque due to lateral injection of spin polarized current through a ferromagnetic nanostrip. However, this geometry is often hampered by low maximum wall velocities and/or a need for prohibitively high current densities. Here, using time-resolved magnetotransport measurements, we show that vertical injection of spin currents through a magnetic tunnel junction can drive domain walls over hundreds of nanometers at ~500 m/s using current densities on the order of 6 MA/cm(2). Moreover, these measurements provide information about the stochastic and deterministic aspects of current driven domain wall mediated switching.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Imãs/química , Nanotecnologia , Torque , Simulação por Computador , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Marcadores de Spin
20.
ACS Nano ; 6(12): 10930-4, 2012 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23145543

RESUMO

We report on graphene-passivated ferromagnetic electrodes (GPFE) for spin devices. GPFE are shown to act as spin-polarized oxidation-resistant electrodes. The direct coating of nickel with few layer graphene through a readily scalable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process allows the preservation of an unoxidized nickel surface upon air exposure. Fabrication and measurement of complete reference tunneling spin valve structures demonstrate that the GPFE is maintained as a spin polarizer and also that the presence of the graphene coating leads to a specific sign reversal of the magneto-resistance. Hence, this work highlights a novel oxidation-resistant spin source which further unlocks low cost wet chemistry processes for spintronics devices.

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