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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(2): 251-261, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patterns of elevations of isotypes of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) pre-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) diagnosis and post-RA diagnosis. METHODS: Using the Department of Defense Serum Repository we identified 214 RA cases and 210 matched controls. Up to 3 pre-RA diagnosis and 1 post-RA diagnosis serum samples per subject were tested for RF and for IgA, IgG, and IgM ACPAs. The timing and trajectories of elevations of autoantibodies were evaluated. RESULTS: Autoantibody levels were elevated in cases versus controls a mean of 17.9 years before RA diagnosis for IgG ACPA, 14.2 years for IgA-RF, 7.2 years for IgM-RF, 6.2 years for IgA ACPA, and 5.0 years for both IgM ACPA and IgG-RF (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). There were similar relationships for positive or negative autoantibody status, with cases first showing positivity for IgG ACPA 1.9 years pre-RA and for IgA-RF 1.7 years pre-RA, followed by the other isotypes. Only IgA ACPA positivity was significantly increased in post-RA diagnosis samples (19% 0-2 years pre-RA versus 39% >2 years post-RA diagnosis; P = 0.04). All autoantibody levels demonstrated an early initial elevation, a period of stability, then an increase immediately before RA diagnosis. A pre-RA endotype of early elevation of autoantibodies was associated with increased use of biologic therapy, and a higher prevalence of sicca symptoms and lung disease post-RA diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Differences in patterns of elevations of autoantibody isotypes have implications for understanding the pathophysiology of RA development. These include understanding what factors drive initial autoantibody elevations compared to what factors (including mucosal) drive later increases in autoantibody levels and a transition to clinically apparent RA, and how pre-RA endotypes may influence post-RA diagnosis phenotypes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association of perceived stress with incident inflammatory arthritis (IA) defined as having at least 1 joint consistent with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-like synovitis based on exam. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in the Studies of the Etiologies of Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA). Participants without IA were recruited if they were a first degree relative of a RA proband or screened positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibody (ACPA). Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS) in which scores can range from 0 to 56 and a higher score indicates greater perceived stress. The total PSS score as well as two sub-scores indicative of perceived distress and self-efficacy were averaged across all study visits until development of IA or last follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of IA associated with average PSS scores were obtained using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The mean total PSS score was 20.4. We found that a one-point increase in the perceived distress score was significantly associated with a 10 percent increase in the risk of IA (adjusted HR: 1.10; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Total PSS and self-efficacy were not associated with IA risk (adjusted HR: 1.05 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.10) and 1.04 (95%CI: 0.91, 1.18), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: An association between perceived distress and incident IA was observed in this at-risk cohort. Replication of this finding in other preclinical and at-risk RA populations is needed.

3.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 256-265, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207549

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease with an etiology that is not yet well understood, disproportionally affects women and also varies in incidence and prevalence by population. The presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) is a highly specific biomarker for the diagnosis of clinically apparent RA. ACPA are also present in the serum for an average of 3-5 years prior to the onset of RA during an asymptomatic period characterized by mucosal inflammation and local ACPA production at these sites. We hypothesized that systemic complement activation products might be generated during the pre-clinical initiation of RA and/or provide a second hit that promotes subsequent arthritis development in the joints. In addition, we evaluated which demographic and genetic features and environmental exposures could influence the complement activation process. We analyzed plasma from healthy subjects, subjects at-risk for the development of RA based on serum ACPA positivity in absence of inflammatory arthritis (IA), and ACPA positive RA subjects by Multiplex Assay and ELISA for eighteen complement system components, factors and activation products belonging to the classical, lectin and alternative pathways. By using regression models, associations between complement proteins and various demographic, genetic, and environmental factors previously found to be associated with RA, including sex, smoking, shared epitope, and oral contraceptive use, were examined. We found no evidence of systemic complement activation in ACPA positive subjects without IA, but in contrast found evidence of systemic involvement of the both classical and alternative pathways during the stage of the disease where classified RA is present, (i.e. during joint inflammation and damage). With regard to the demographic, genetic, and environmental variables, females who reported current or past oral contraceptive use and subjects with current tobacco exposure demonstrated alterations of the alternative pathway of complement. Furthermore, RA subjects with established disease who have a body mass index categorized as obese demonstrated higher levels of C2 compared to RA subjects who are not considered obese. In sum, the complement system may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA, with only localized mucosal effects during the preclinical period in those at-risk for RA but in the joint as well as systemically in those who have developed clinically apparent arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/imunologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/imunologia , Tabaco/imunologia
4.
EBioMedicine ; 42: 76-85, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune disease prevention requires tools to assess an individual's risk of developing a specific disease. One tool is disease-associated autoantibodies, which accumulate in an asymptomatic preclinical period. However, patients sometimes exhibit autoantibodies associated with a different disease classification. When and how these alternative autoantibodies first appear remain unknown. This cross-sectional study characterizes alternative autoimmunity, and associated genetic and environmental factors, in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients, who exhibit increased future risk for the same disease. METHODS: Samples (n = 1321) from disease-specific autoantibody-positive (aAb+) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients; and unaffected aAb+ and autoantibody-negative (aAb-) SLE and RA FDRs were tested for SLE, RA, and T1D aAbs, as well as anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-cardiolipin and anti-thyroperoxidase. FDR SLE and RA genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated. FINDINGS: Alternative autoimmunity occurred in SLE patients (56%) and FDRs (57·4%), RA patients (32·6%) and FDRs (34·8%), and T1D patients (43%). Expanded autoimmunity, defined as autoantibodies spanning at least two other diseases, occurred in 18·5% of SLE patients, 16·4% of SLE FDRs, 7·8% of RA patients, 5·3% of RA FDRs, and 10·8% of T1D patients. SLE FDRs were more likely to have alternative (odds ratio [OR] 2·44) and expanded (OR 3·27) autoimmunity than RA FDRs. Alternative and expanded autoimmunity were associated with several environmental exposures. Alternative autoimmunity was associated with a higher RA GRS in RA FDRs (OR 1·41), and a higher SLE GRS in aAb+ RA FDRs (OR 1·87), but not in SLE FDRs. INTERPRETATION: Autoimmunity commonly crosses disease-specific boundaries in systemic (RA, SLE) and organ-specific (T1D) autoimmune diseases. Alternative autoimmunity is more common in SLE FDRs than RA FDRs, and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. These findings have substantial implications for preclinical disease pathogenesis and autoimmune disease prevention studies. FUND: NIH U01AI101981, R01AR051394, U19AI082714, P30AR053483, P30GM103510, U54GM104938, U01AI101934, R01AI024717, U01AI130830, I01BX001834, & U01HG008666.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Núcleo Familiar , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 56(12): 2229-2236, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029330

RESUMO

Objectives: Higher circulating omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) are associated with a lower prevalence of anti-CCP antibodies and RF in subjects without RA. We examined whether, in anti-CCP+ subjects, n-3 FAs also play a role in development of inflammatory arthritis (IA). Methods: At Colorado-based health fairs from 2008 to 2014, participants without a previous diagnosis of RA who were anti-CCP3+ (n = 47) were recruited into a follow-up study; symptom assessments and joint examinations were conducted every 6 months for the determination of IA. We measured n-3 FAs as a percentage of total lipids in red blood cell membranes (n-3 FA%) at each visit. Results: We detected IA in 10 anti-CCP3+ subjects (21%) at the baseline visit. Increased total n-3 FA% in red blood cell membranes [odds ratio (OR) = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.76], specifically docosapentaenoic acid (OR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.83) and docosahexaenoic acid (OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.86), was associated with a lower odds of IA at the baseline visit, adjusting for n-3 FA supplement use, current smoking, RF+, elevated CRP+ and shared epitope. We followed 35 of the anti-CCP3+ subjects who were IA negative at baseline and detected 14 incident IA cases over an average of 2.56 years of follow-up. In a time-varying survival analysis, increasing docosapentaenoic acid significantly decreased risk of incident IA (hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.98), adjusting for age at baseline, n-3 FA supplement use, RF+, CRP+ and shared epitope. Conclusion: n-3 FAs may potentially lower the risk of transition from anti-CCP positivity to IA, an observation that warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colorado , Epitopos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fator Reumatoide/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(6): 1165-1175, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28182854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related autoimmunity is initiated at a mucosal site. However, the factors associated with the mucosal generation of this autoimmunity are unknown, especially in individuals who are at risk of future RA. Therefore, we tested anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies in the sputum of RA-free first-degree relatives (FDRs) of RA patients and patients with classifiable RA. METHODS: We evaluated induced sputum and serum samples from 67 FDRs and 20 RA patients for IgA anti-CCP and IgG anti-CCP, with cutoff levels for positivity determined in a control population. Sputum was also evaluated for cell counts, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for protein/nucleic acid complexes, and total citrulline. RESULTS: Sputum was positive for IgA and/or IgG anti-CCP in 14 of 20 RA patients (70%) and 17 of 67 FDRs (25%), including a portion of FDRs who were serum anti-CCP negative. In the FDRs, elevations of sputum IgA and IgG anti-CCP were associated with elevated sputum cell counts and NET levels. IgA anti-CCP was associated with ever smoking and with elevated sputum citrulline levels. CONCLUSION: Anti-CCP is elevated in the sputum of FDRs, including seronegative FDRs, suggesting that the lung may be a site of anti-CCP generation in this population. The association of anti-CCP with elevated cell counts and NET levels in FDRs supports a hypothesis that local airway inflammation and NET formation may drive anti-CCP production in the lung and may promote the early stages of RA development. Longitudinal studies are needed to follow the evolution of these processes relative to the development of systemic autoimmunity and articular RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/análise , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Linhagem , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Escarro/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 68(8): 1828-38, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26866831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether genetic, environmental, and serologic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk factors are associated with inflammatory joint signs in a cohort of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of RA patients. METHODS: We evaluated RA risk factors and inflammatory joint signs in a prospective cohort of FDRs without RA in the Studies of the Etiology of RA. Genetic factors included 5 HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles and 45 RA-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms; loci were combined using genetic risk scores weighted by RA risk. Environmental factors (smoking, body mass index, education, and parity) and RA-related autoantibodies were assessed at baseline. Physical examination was performed at baseline and 2-year follow-up, by observers who were blinded with regard to autoantibody status, to assess inflammatory joint signs as tender or swollen joints at sites typical for RA. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations of genetic, environmental, and serologic factors with inflammatory joint signs. RESULTS: We analyzed 966 non-Hispanic white FDRs at baseline and 262 at 2-year follow-up after excluding those with inflammatory joint signs at baseline. The mean ± SD age was 47.2 ± 15.5 years, 71% were female, and 55% were shared epitope positive. Smoking >10 pack-years was associated with inflammatory joint signs at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 1.89 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26-2.82]) and at 2 years (OR 2.66 [95% CI 1.01-7.03]), compared to never smokers. There was a significant interaction between smoking and age with regard to risk of inflammatory joint signs (P = 0.02). FDRs younger than 50 years with >10 pack-years had the highest risk of inflammatory joint signs (OR 4.39 [95% CI 2.22-8.66], compared to never smokers younger than 50 years). CONCLUSION: In a high-risk cohort of FDRs, smoking and age were associated with both prevalent and incident inflammatory joint signs at sites typical for RA. Further prospective investigations of the factors affecting the transitions between preclinical RA phases are warranted.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Artrite/etiologia , Família , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas
8.
Arthritis Rheum ; 61(12): 1642-9, 2009 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19950306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify individuals with undiagnosed inflammatory arthritis (IA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a community health fair screen, and to establish in a health fair setting the diagnostic accuracy of combinations of the Connective Tissue Disease Screening Questionnaire (CSQ) and autoantibody testing for IA. METHODS: Screening for IA/RA was performed at health fair sites using a combination of the CSQ, joint examination, rheumatoid factor, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing. IA was defined as > or =1 swollen joint suggestive of synovitis on joint examination by a trained clinician. RESULTS: Six hundred one subjects were screened; 51.0% participated because of joint symptoms (pain, stiffness, or swelling). Eighty-four subjects (14.0%) had > or =1 swollen joint, designated as IA on joint examination. Of the 601 subjects screened, 9 (1.5%) had IA and met > or =4 of 7 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA but had no prior diagnosis of RA, and 15 (2.5%) had IA and RF and/or anti-CCP positivity, suggesting early RA. The diagnostic accuracy of combinations of the CSQ and autoantibody testing for the identification of IA yielded maximal sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 95.3%, 99.2%, 71.4%, and 97.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Health fair screening may be an effective approach for the identification of individuals with undiagnosed IA/RA. A combination of the CSQ and autoantibody testing alone has clinically useful diagnostic accuracy for the detection of IA. Decisions regarding which methodology to use for future health fair IA/RA screening will depend on goals of screening and funding.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Exposições Educativas , Programas de Rastreamento , Sinovite/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colorado/epidemiologia , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Articulações/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos Cíclicos/sangue , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fator Reumatoide/sangue , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sinovite/epidemiologia , Sinovite/etiologia
9.
J Rheumatol ; 36(5): 943-6, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19286844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related autoantibodies and plasma 25,OH vitamin D in subjects at risk for RA. METHODS: In 1210 subjects without RA, 76 were positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies or for at least 2 rheumatoid factors (RF; by nephelometry: RF-IgM, RF-IgG, RF-IgA). 25,OH vitamin D was measured in these cases and 154 autoantibody-negative controls from this cohort. RESULTS: 25,OH vitamin D levels did not differ between cases and controls (adjusted OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.93-1.63). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D concentrations are not associated with RA-related autoimmunity in unaffected subjects at increased risk for RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Fator Reumatoide/imunologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
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